· starting point ( high, mid, low) of the pitch change.
Sentence-stress and word-stress: differences and likeness.
As a rule, it is the stressed syllable of a word that carries the sentence stress. But there may be a lot of exceptions:
ü Not all the syllables that are stressed when the word is pronounced in isolation take the stress in connected speech;
ü Short notional words can be unstressed in an utterance
ü unstressed syllables of polysyllabic words may receive utterance stress
ü functional words can take utterance stress
The distribution of stress in an utterance is determined by the interaction of two factors:
1) semantic and 2) rhythmic.
The speech rhythm is the recurrence of stressed syllables at certain intervals of time. A stressed syllable pronounced together with the unstressed syllables forms a rhythmic group.
Types of unstressed syllables:
Precede the stressed syllable
Follow the stressed syllable
Faster speed of speaking
Lower speed of speaking
Peculiarities of the rhythm of English speech:
ü The stressed syllables have a strong tendency to follow each other at approximately equal intervals of time. When the number of syllables in adjacent stress-groups is not equal, the tempo will be highest in the group having the greatest number of syllables.
ü The alternation of stressed and unstressed syllables results in the influence of rhythm upon sentence-stress.
All Falling tones in English sound definite, final and complete. Falling tones are typically used in special questions, statements, imperatives. The most frequently used varieties of the falling tones are Mid Wide Fall (MWF) and High Wide Fall (HWF).
The other varieties of the falling tones are High Narrow Fall (HNF) and Low Narrow Fall (LNF).
The falling tones have two structural variants:
1. the fall of the voice is realized 2. the fall of the voice is realized
on one monosyllabic word. on the stressed syllable, while
e.g. ̖ No the syllables of the tail form a
________________ level series on the pitch to which
the nucleus has fallen.
ö e.g. ̖ Beautiful
ö . .___________
Meanings and Usage
The fall of the voice starts from about the mid-low pitch level and ends at the bottom of the voice range
The fall of the voice starts from high-mid level pitch and ends at the bottom, covering the mid and low pitch tones of the speaker’s voice range
1. without a Head in monosyllable utterances or with the Low Head
2. with the High or Stepping Head
3. with the Ascending Head
4. with the Low Scandent Head