Materials No. 9 needle, No. 70 thread, and a strip of cotton cloth or table-linen.
1. Crease a narrow hem.
2. Holding the wrong side towards you, fold and crease the cloth, so as to make it even with the first fold of the hem.
3. Proceed as in overhanding.
SLIP OR BLIND-STITCH
A slip or blind-stitch is used to fasten a hem lightly.
Materials No. 9 needle, No. 70 thread, and a strip of cotton cloth.
Slip or blind-stitch
1. Fold and crease a hem half-an-inch wide.
2. Baste about a fourth of an inch from the edge.
3. Make a small knot in the thread.
4. Conceal the knot by drawing the needle through the under part of the fold, one-eighth of an inch from the end.
5. Take up one or two threads of the cloth, and before drawing the needle through, take up one-fourth of an inch of the edge of the fold.
6. Continue in this manner, being careful not to draw the thread tightly.
7. Fasten securely.
SuggestionsThis stitch is used for sewing hems on woolen cloth, where it is desired to conceal the stitches. Trimmings of silk and velvet are often put on with this stitch.
· For what is a slip or blind-stitch used?
· How are the stitches taken?
EDGINGS AND RUFFLES
An edging is a trimming on the border of a garment.
Lace edging is made of fine threads woven into a net.
Materials No. 9 needle, No. 70 thread, pins, half-a-yard of inch-wide lace, and a piece of cotton cloth six inches long and four inches wide, with a narrow hem at the ends and upper edge, and an inch hem at the lower edge.
1. Holding the scalloped edge towards you, make a narrow hem at the right-hand end of the lace.
2. Holding the right sides of the lace and cloth together, place the hemmed end of the lace at the top edge of the upper left-hand corner of the cloth.
3. Holding the lace loosely, lightly overhand the edges to within a fourth of an inch of the corner.
4. Run the needle in and out of the cloth, to keep it temporarily secure.
5. Pin the lace at the corner.
6. Measure the width of the lace, and leaving twice the width, pin again at the corner.
7. One-fourth of an inch beyond the corner, pin the lace to the cloth.
8. Run a gathering thread in the edge of the lace, from the overhanding to the last pin.
9. Overhand around the corner, bringing the fullness. as much as possible at the corner (Fig. 60).
10. Turn the other corner in the same manner, and finish by hemming the end of the lace.
Suggestions Lace can be sewed on full by dividing the lace and the edge to which it is to be sewed, into halves, quarters, etc.; and running a gathering thread through the edge of the lace, before basting it on. In turning corners, it is better to leave a little more than twice the width of the lace, as there must be enough on the outer edge, to prevent the lace from hooping. With wide lace, leave more than one-fourth of an inch on each side of the corner, for the fullness. of the lace.
When measuring for the quantity of edging needed, allow enough for the corners. When the ends of the lace meet, join by a fell.
Hamburg edging is an embroidered edge, made by machinery. It can be sewed on, when no fullness. is required, by a fell (page 75), a French seam (page 76), a facing (page 52), or by overhanding; when fullness. is required, by a facing (page 52), or by whipping (page 82).
When much wear will come on the edging, it is advisable to overhand it, as it can then be easily removed; the raw edge of the Hamburg should first be overcast with very fine thread. The corners should be turned, and the ends sewed, as with lace.
Ruffles are made of various materials, and are plaited, gathered, or whipped.
Materials No. 8 and No. 9 needles, No. 40, No. 70, and No. 80 thread, pins, scissors, and a piece of cotton cloth six inches long and three inches wide, hemmed at the ends and upper side; for the facing, a piece of cloth six inches long and one and a half inches wide; for the ruffle, a piece of cambric nine inches long and two inches wide, with a very narrow hem at the ends and lower edge.
A ruffle faced on
1. Mark the raw edges of the ruffle and the cloth, by notches, into halves and quarters. Also mark the middle of the facing by a notch.
2. Gather the ruffle.
3. Place the right sides of the cloth and ruffle together, and pin at the corresponding notches.
4. Draw up the gathering thread, and fasten around the pin.
5. Adjust the gathers, and run exactly on the gathering thread.
6. Pin the middle and ends of the facing to the ruffle, and baste.
7. Turn the other side towards you, and half-backstitch close below the running stitches.
8. Take out the basting threads.
9. Turn the facing over and crease it carefully at the seam.
10. Baste and hem the opposite edge of the facing.
Suggestions A heading on a ruffle can be made by folding the required width for the heading, and gathering it, making one or more rows as desired. The fullness. of the ruffle depends upon the material; a narrow cambric ruffle should be about one and a half times the length of the part to which it is to be sewed. In making a ruffle of more than one breadth, the ends should be joined neatly before hemming or gathering.
· What is an edging?
· Of what is lace edging made?
· How should the lace be held in overhanding?
· What allowance for fullness. should be made in turning a corner?
· How should lace be sewed on, when fullness. is required?
· What is Hamburg edging? In what ways can it be sewed on, when there is no fullness.?
· When fullness. is required?
· From what are ruffles made?
· What is first done to the ruffle, the cloth, and the facing?
Whipping is forming gathers by overcasting a rolled edge of fine material, and drawing up the thread.
Materials No. 6 and No. 8 needles, No. 40 and No. 60 thread, pins, scissors, a strip of paper, and a piece of cotton cloth six inches long and four inches wide, with a narrow hem on the ends and upper edge, and an inch hem on the lower edge; for the ruffle, a piece of plain cambric, twelve inches long and two inches wide, with a narrow hem on the ends and one side.
1. Practice rolling tightly the edge of the piece of paper. It must be rolled, not folded.
2. Divide the edge of the inch hem, and the raw edge of the cambric, into halves and quarters, and mark, one inch from the edge, by cross-stitches.
3. Trim the ravellings from the raw edge.
4. Hold the wrong side of the cambric towards you.
5. Beginning at the right-hand corner, roll the first half-inch of the cambric towards you, between the thumb and the forefinger of the left hand.
6. Take the coarse needle and thread, and make a small knot.
7. Inserting the needle at the corner, under the roll, take one or two stitches, to fasten the end.
8. Hold the end of the roll between the right thumb and forefinger, and, placing the cambric between the third and little finger of the left hand, drawtightly.
9. Pressing the left thumb against the forefinger, rub an inch of the edge upwards and downwards, until a small, firm roll is made.
10. Overcast, as far as the cloth is rolled tightly, inserting the needle under the roll (Fig. 61).
11. Draw up the thread, holding it on a line with the raw edge. If the roll is small, and the stitches are taken loosely and at regular intervals, the ruffle will draw easily on the thread.
12. Continue, rolling and whipping an inch or two at a time.
13. Placing the right sides of the ruffle and hem together, pin the divisions of the ruffle to the divisions of the hem.
14. Draw up the ruffle to the length of the hem, and wind the thread around the pin.
15. Holding the ruffle towards you, overhand, inserting the needle in each fold of the whipping, so that the thread will lie between the folds (Fig. 62).
16. Fasten both the whipping and the overhanding thread.
Suggestions The fingers should be perfectly clean, to prevent soiling the work. In whipping, some prefer to take hemming stitches instead of overcasting stitches. A ruffle, for whipping, should be twice the length of the part to which it is to be sewed; it is sometimes advisable to make it more than twice as full. A ruffle cut across the cloth whips easier than one cut lengthwise. A fine material whips more readily than a coarse one. Ruffles should be cut by a thread, which can be clone by tearing, and then trimming the edges.
It is best to use short lengths of thread, as a great strain comes, when the ruffle is drawn. In making a long ruffle, have a thread for each division, and measure as you draw the thread. The thread will draw easier, if a large needle is used. When corners are to be turned, allow extra fullness., so that the ruffle will lie flat (page 79). In over-handing a ruffle, the garment can be held towards you, but, if the whipping thread should prove too short, there is no way to lengthen it; while, if the ruffle is held towards you, the thread can be drawn up or lengthened.
· What is whipping?
· In whipping, which side of the ruffle should be held towards you?
· How do you begin?
· What kind of a needle and thread should be used?
· How is the roll held? How rolled? What is done next?
· How is the thread drawn? How continue?
· How is the ruffle sewed on to the hem?
Stockinet darning is used in filling in a hole with thread, so as to supply the part that has been destroyed; or in strengthening a place which shows signs of weakness.