I. Reread the text and answer the following questions.
1) What are sociologists particularly interested in, while investigating a problem of human behavior? 2) What is a theory and what makes any theory especially effective? 3) Why is it very important to examine the relationships between bits of data gathered through research? 4) How are theories classified? 5) What levels of analysis in sociology do you know? 6) Is sociology really a new science? 7) Who are the two founders of sociology? 8) What other important theorists in sociology do you know?
II. Define the following key terms and memorize the definitions: 1) theory, 2) sociological theory, 3) macrosociology, 4) microsociology.
III. Speak on the sociological theory and its aspects in brief and illustrate your report with situations or examples of your own.
IV. Speak on the origins of sociology, famous theorists of the past and their contributions to the scientific study of society. Name some contemporary sociological scientists both foreign and in this country and discuss their impact on this academic discipline.
V. Comment on the increasing incidence of suicide in modern human society and factors that cause it viewing the problem from the sociological perspective and theory.
VI. Provide sociological explanations for the causes of criminal behavior in Ukraine employing macro-level and micro-level analyses.
Revision Exercises on Unit One
I. Revise the active vocabulary and the definitions of the key terms of unit one and translate the following into English.
II. Reread the texts of unit one again and discuss the problem-questions given in the learning objectives in the introduction to the unit.
III. Comment on the following quotation thinking like sociologists: «To attempt to understand human behavior is ... the most exciting intellectual challenge in the world» (Milton M. Gordon «The Scope of Sociology», 1988).
LEVELS AND AREAS OF MANAGEMENT
Each organization can be represented as a three-story structure or a pyramid. Each story corresponds to one of the three general levels of management: top managers, middle managers, and first-line managers. At the basic level of this pyramid there are operating employees.
A top manager is an upper-level executive who guides and controls the overall activities of the organization. Top managers constitute a small group. They are generally responsible for the organization's planning and developing its mission. They also determine the firm's strategy and its major policies. It takes years of hard work as well as talent and good luck, to reach the ranks of top managers. They are president, vice president, chief executive officer, and member of the Board.
A middle manager is a manager who implements the strategy and major policies handed down from the top level of the organization. Middle managers develop tactical plans, policies, and standard operating procedures, and they coordinate and supervise the activities of first-line managers. Titles at the middle-management level include division manager, department head, plant manager, and operations manager.
A first-line manager is a manager who coordinates and supervises the activities of operating employees. First-line managers spend most of their time working with employees, answering questions, and solving day-to-day problems. Most first-line managers are former operating employees who, owing to their hard work and potential, were promoted into management. Many of today's middle and top managers began their careers on this first management level. Common titles for first-line managers include office manager, supervisor, foreman and project manager.
Operating employees are not managers. They are qualified and non-qualified persons working for the organization. For their labour or services they get salaries or wages. They represent the work force of the organization.
An organizational structure can also be divided more or less horizontally into areas of management. The most common areas are finance, operations, marketing, human resources, and administration. Depending on its purpose and mission, an organization may include other areas as well — research and development, for example, or risk management.