1. Listen to the tape and react to questions in the pauses provided
A. Grammar translation
2. Find the ways to translate the sentences in your native language
3. Prepare a group presentation and show it to the class
4. Listen to the conversation and dramatize it
Any method can be described as "result-oriented" or "process-oriented" with some teaching methods occupying an intermediate position. A result-oriented method advocates the idea of a final goal with the emphasis on its speediest achievement and the obligatory equal results achieved by all the learners. A process-oriented method focuses on the teaching/learning procedure with the individual pace of learning and the final results varying according to individual learner differences.
Form-focused methods concentrate teachers' and learners' attention on the grammar forms of the target language. Form-defocused methods focus on speech patterns rather than on grammar structures.
Exploratory task 1.4
Find the adequate place on the axes for the following method: grammar translation, oral approach, audio lingual and communicative (grammar-translation method has been done for you)
Result-oriented. x X Process-oriented
Communicative approach is used differently in different teaching cultures. “Teaching culture” is the collective teaching experience, beliefs and practices, which are typical of a certain community or society.
Communicative approach is not universally relevant for different teaching cultures. The learners can question the effectiveness of the lesson during which they practice communication but do not learn anything concrete. “What have we learned during this lesson of incessant talk?”, is a typical question asked by the learners in Asian communities.
In Japan languages are taught in the typically teacher-fronted and teacher-centered classrooms. A typical lesson consists of the teacher's checking the learner's sentence by sentence translations of a text. Chinese students can be unwilling to ask questions during a communicative lesson because students do not want to interrupt other students or the teacher, it is better to ask after the lesson etc. (Coleman H. 1996.Society and the Language Classroom. CUP).
A lesson of English in Russia often includes homework check up, presentation of the new material and reinforcement of the new material. The teacher, who signals when a particular learner is invited to speak, will regulate learners' participation in the lesson (Millrood, R. 1999. How Native English Speakers Can be Better English Teachers in Russia. The Internet TESL Journal. Vol..5 No 1 1999. Ellis, G. 1996. How culturally appropriate is the communicative approach? ELTJ. Volume 50/3. P. 213-218)