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La stratégie, les apports de Clausewitz et Sun Zi à l'art de la guerre

Drew, an attractive girl of eighteen, was driving home along a country road in her new, dark-blue convertible. She had just delivered some legal papers for her father.

“It was sweet of Dad to give me this car for my birthday,” she thought. “And it’s fun to help him in his work.”father, Carson Drew, a well-known lawyer in their home town of River Heights, frequently discussed puzzling aspects of cases with his blond, blue-eyed daughter., Nancy said to herself, “Dad depends on my intuition.”instant later she gasped in horror.

From ‘The Secret of the Old Clock’ by Carolyn Keene

glancing over my notes of the seventy odd cases in which I have during the last eight years studied the methods of my friend Sherlock Holmes, I find many tragic, some comic, a large number merely strange, but none commonplace; for, working as he did rather for the love of his art than for the acquirement of wealth, he refused to associate himself with any investigation which did not tend towards the unusual, and even the fantastic. Of all these varied cases, however, I cannot recall any which presented more singular features than that which was associated with the well-known Surrey family of the Roylotts of Stoke Moran. The events in question occurred in the early days of my association with Holmes, when we were sharing rooms as bachelors in Baker Street. It is possible that I might have placed them upon record before, but a promise of secrecy was made at the time, from which I have only been freed during the last month by the untimely death of the lady to whom the pledge was given. It is perhaps as well that the facts should now come to light, for I have reasons to know that there are widespread rumours as to the death of Dr. Grimesby Roylott which tend to make the matter even more terrible than the truth.

From ‘The Adventure of the Speckled Band’ by Arthur Conan Doyle1breading plan: Lesson 1intentionconsolidate inference and deduction.stimulate questioning as a strategy to increase engagement.support the students in making predictions.students that they are only working with the information given in Chapter 1 of The London Eye Mystery. They will be acting as literary detectives, inferring and deducing information, and drawing up a list of questions raised by the opening chapter.checkthat students understand the terms ‘infer’ and ‘deduce’.that students understand both parts of the task. First, they should write down five things they have deduced from the text. For example: Ted has ridden the London Eye before; Ted has researched information about the London Eye; Ted is precise about numbers; Salim’s disappearance is the mystery referred to in the title; Ted is the one who solves the mystery.second part of the task requires students to come up with three questions they have after reading the first chapter. For example: Who are Kat, Salim and Ted? How does someone vanish from a sealed pod? What does Ted mean when he says his mind ‘runs on a different operating system’? How does Ted figure out the mystery?that students know how to phrase effective questions. They could use ‘5Ws +1H’: who, where, when, why, what + how.readingstudents to silently read Chapter 1 of The London Eye Mystery.to the textwork in pairs to come up with their list of deductions and evidence as well as their questions. They should share these with the group when complete, and a master list of evidence and questions should be drawn up.the group how confident they feel about their role as literary detectives, making inferences and designing questions as they continue to read. Do they think this strategy will be useful? Ask them to make predictions about how they believe the rest of the plot will develop.2:Chapters 2–4viewpoint/Languageoutcomeswill be able to:the language used by the author to interest and entertain the readerthe text to retrieve informationthe first person narratorstudents into groups and hand out the card matching activity in WS 2a, where they will match up idioms with their meanings. Students should be able to complete these fairly quickly, and feed back to the class.students of the definitions of literal and figurative language, and introduce the term ‘idiom’ if they are not already familiar with it. Explain that figurative language adds richness and depth to a fiction text, while literal language is what is most often used in a non-fiction text. We all use both types of language regularly in our interactions with other people, and most of the time we are able to distinguish what kind of language is being used. Then go back to the expressions on WS 2aand ask students to imagine they were only able to understand these expressions literally. What would they believe each expression actually meant? They can create very amusing mental pictures!Chapters 2–4.students whether they noticed anything about figurative and literal language in these chapters (they should have picked up that Ted is unable to understand figurative language so finds common idioms puzzling). Ask students to work in pairs and go back through the text, identifying examples of figurative language. They should use these to complete WS 2b, which also asks them to provide the figurative meaning of each expression as well as what Ted thinks it means. Some of the examples have been started for them.everyone feed back to the class.students back to their role (from Lesson 1) as literary detectives. Explain that in these first chapters of the book, they have been given some clues as to Ted’s personality. He says that he ‘runs on a different operating system’. But what does this mean? In groups, ask students to find evidence in the first four chapters for the following statements:is unusually intelligent for his age.thinks clearly and notices small details.loves facts and knowledge.looks at things differently from other people.doesn’t like physical contact.finds it hard to read body language.and reflectgroups to feed back with the evidence they have found about Ted’s personality (they should keep this work for the next lesson). Then ask them to consider why Siobhan Dowd may have chosen to tell the story from Ted’s perspective. What does it add to the story to have him looking at things in such a logical way? Do they think it might help him solve the mystery of Salim’s disappearance? They should consider the humorous aspect to seeing things through Ted’s eyes, since his misunderstandings add richness to the story.ask the class to consider Ted’s unique way of describing things. On page 20, Ted describes Salim: ‘he looked like his thoughts were not in the same place as his body’. This may not be an idiom, but is a kind of simile, and adds colour to our understanding of Salim’s character.students to think about idioms and figurative language in their everyday lives, and to listen for idiomatic expressions in conversation. They should each try to find three examples of this speech outside the classroom before the next lesson.2acost an arm and a legwas very expensive’s in some hot water’s in trouble’s raining cats and dogs’s raining hard’s under the weather’s not feeling well’s buried her head in the sandrefuses to face the truthlet the cat out of the bagtold the secret’m over the moon’m very happy’s get the ball rolling’s get things started2blanguageLondon Eye Mystery, Ted has trouble understanding common idioms and figurative language. He takes everything literally, which can lead to some confusion. Look through Chapters 2–4 and write down all the examples you can find of figurative language, then complete the table with their meanings and what Ted thinks they might mean. Some of the examples have been started for you.of figurative languageit meansTed thinks it means

‘she was just a handful’

‘larger than life’

‘the spit of’ (the spitting image of)like

‘going off the rails’3:Chapter 5characteroutcomeswill be able to:more about non-verbal communicationwith the main characterthe text to retrieve informationpredictions about the textstudents into pairs. Taking it in turns, they should try out a variety of basic facial expressions which their partner will need to identify. Allow them to do this for a few minutes before handing each student one of the cards from WS 3a. Students must now act out the expression on their card for their partners, without using any words or moving their lips.the exercise is complete, ask students to consider how easy they found it to communicate using only their body language. What non-verbal means did they use? Gestures? Posture? Facial expression?on from the work with body language by reminding the class that Ted has problems understanding it in The London Eye Mystery. Ask students to look again at the evidence they gathered about Ted’s character in Lesson 2. Students now know that Ted’s brain works differently to other people’s – do they have any ideas why this might be? Introduce Asperger’s Syndrome, using the fact file on WS 3b.Chapter 5, where Ted talks to Salim about how his brain works and how he feels about it. Then distribute the Reading Guide, and ask students to look at the list of advantages and disadvantages of Ted’s condition on page 8. Again in pairs, ask them to discuss Ted’s syndrome. Do they think the pros outweigh the cons or vice versa? They should add to the list of advantages and disadvantages if necessary, using the evidence in Chapter 5 (for example, one disadvantage is that Ted is teased at school). Remind students that people with Asperger’s may have above-average intelligence and be gifted in some way. How does Ted hope to use his special talents?will now gather the information they have about Ted’s character and his condition into a homepage for him on a social networking site. They could use the outline on page 9 of the Reading Guide to help them, or they could follow a different format if they prefer. They will need to include the following information:’s likes and dislikeshobbiesfriends.should be creative in completing the profile. They could draw or search for images Ted may have added to his photo albums, add websites or social networking pages Ted may have ‘liked’, messages on his wall from other characters, etc.could also consider what Ted might ‘tweet’ if he used a social networking facility like Twitter. They could write tweets (messages in 140 characters or fewer) from both before and during Gloria and Salim’s visit and keep their ‘feed’ updated as the novel progresses. This will allow them to further empathize with Ted, and attempt to write in the character’s ‘voice’.and reflectthey have completed their profiles, invite students to share them with the class. Consider what we as readers already know about Ted, and how this may help him solve Salim’s disappearance later in the novel.students to write a similar social networking profile for either Kat or Salim, using the evidence they have found in the novel so far. They can add to this information as the book progresses.3averbal languageam very cold.tooth hurts.is my book?need to go totoilet.you scratchback?time is it?’s a spider on your shoulder!am feelingtired.’ve cut my finger.need help lifting this chair.love you.you lend me some money?’m bored.’ve forgotten my glasses.I borrow your pencil?win!3bFile: Asperger’s Syndrome’s Syndrome is a condition which affects a person’s ability to interact with others.with Asperger’s:follow repetitive patterns of behaviour and interestsseem obsessed with one subject and gather a lot of information on that subjectstruggle to know how to start or end a conversationtalk at length about a subject that doesn’t appear to interest their listenerstruggle to make friendsto use language literallyto understand the feelings of others or to recognize their reactionshave difficulty with non-verbal communication like eye contact, facial expression, posture and gestureseem awkward in social situations.person with Asperger’s Syndrome may understand the emotions of others in a theoretical way, but may struggle to act on this understanding in real life. This can make them seem insensitive.4:Chapters 6–8structure/Building suspenseoutcomeswill be able to:and scan text to retrieve informationthe structure and organization of texthow the narrator develops character, creates suspense and moves the plot forwardwhether any of the students have been on the London Eye. If they have, invite them to share their experiences, and ask the class what they know about the Eye.the Reading Guide. On page 10, students will find a fun match-up activity on the London Eye. Working in pairs or small groups, they should try to match up each of the questions with the right answers (if possible, allow them Internet access to research their answers or print out information from the website, although answers can also be found through a process of deduction). Give them a time limit to do this.: 1d; 2e; 3j; 4h; 5f; 6c; 7b; 8i (this figure may have changed since publication); 9g; 10a.to students that the chapters they will be looking at today are those in which Salim’s disappearance takes place on the London Eye. This is a key moment in the novel. How do they think an author might write a scene such as this one? Remind them that authors use writing techniques to retain a reader’s interest, in particular by building up tension and suspense.a class, compile a list of the ways that a writer might build up tension and suspense in a scene. These could include:descriptive or emotive words and images to bring the image to life for the readervariation to create fast or slow pacethat helps speed up or slow down the readingback information from the reader.ask students to consider how having Ted as a narrator may have presented a problem for Siobhan Dowd in creating an atmosphere of suspense in these chapters. For example, Ted does not use much figurative language, so his descriptions are quite straightforward. He also says what he sees, and does not seem to hold back information from the reader.Chapters 6–8.students have read the chapters, ask them whether they felt that Siobhan Dowd was able to create a tense atmosphere in the scenes, despite having Ted as the narrator. What key device does she use? Elicit that the author has chosen to begin the novel in Chapter 1 at the moment of crisis. Before reading Chapters 6–8, we already know that Salim has disappeared without explanation, so we are already curious and eager for clues to the mystery as we read Ted’s description, and we know more than the characters do at this point. This means that the tension level is high before the chapters even begin.students to track tension in the three chapters on the graph on WS 4. As they do so, they should consider whether the writer uses any other devices to build and maintain tension (for example, the times the children almost turn back from boarding the Eye, the mysterious stranger, the bad feeling Ted gets).and reflectthe graph in WS 4as an OHT. Take feedback from the class and add moments of tension and tension levels to it as you go. Do students think the choices made by Siobhan Dowd work effectively to build suspense?could make their own attempt at writing a story which opens with the moment of crisis. For example, a short ghost story which opens:was thirteen years and thirteen days old when the haunting began.It started as a normal day…4trackerkeep a reader’s interest and create an atmosphere of suspense, a writer will use a range of techniques to build tension in their writing. Choose five (or more) key moments in Chapters 6–8 of The London Eye Mystery, and track the level of tension at each of these moments. Remember to track the tension level at the start of the chapter as well.

La stratégie, les apports de Clausewitz et Sun Zi à l'art de la guerre

Etymologiquement, « stratégie » viens du grec STRATOS et AGOS (armée, conduire). A l'origine, la stratégie militaire correspond donc à un état de guerre et correspond à l'art de conduire les forces armées à la Victoire : c'est donc l'art de réfléchir aux moyens qui seront nécessaires pour gagner. D& ce point de vue, l'approche de Clausewitz (contemporain de Napoléon) suppose que le but de la guerre est de gagner en dominant l'ennemi en cherchant à le détruire. Par un engagement total et de longue durée, il s'agit de d'affaiblir les troupes adverses et de les soumettre. L'approche de SUN ZI est quelque peu différente et consiste 'simplement' à faire abandonner l'ennemi, y compris sans combattre. Il s'agit alors de s'adapter à la stratégie de l'adversaire pour le décourager. Plus récemment, l'emploi d'ames nucléaires a amené une extension du concept de la stratégie à des situations de non-guerre : il s'agit plus de faire planer une menace que de s'engager dans un conflit. Pour CLAUSEWITZ, la stratégie est une phase qui a lieu avant le combat : elle choisit le terrain, le moment et les moyens à engager. Elle correspond" aux manœuvres que l'on entreprend sur le champ de bataille pour faire en sorte que le combat ne soit engagé qu'en position de supériorité. La stratégie établit le plan de guerre et fixe les principales actions à conduire. La tactique consiste, elle, une fois le combat engagé à combiner les moyens au mieux.

Le texte de Sun Zi « l'art de la guerre » (-5 siècles avant J.C.) repose sur 13 articles décrivant une philosophie originale qui s'attache davantage à déjouer les plans de l'ennemi et à assurer sa propre protection qu'à rechercher la destruction de l'adversaire. Il s'agit alors de remporter la victoire en s'adaptant aux dispositions et mouvements des troupes adverses.

Les fondements de l'art militaire

Il ne faut jamais perdre de vue 5 variables :

i) la doctrine (DAO) ou l'harmonie qui existe entre le peuple et les dirigeants et qui

fait que le peuple combattra jusqu'à donner sa vie. «elle fait naître l'unité de pensée ; elle nous inspire une même manière de vivre et de mourir et nous rend intrépides et inébranlable dans les malheurs et devant la mort »

ii) le ciel ou le jeu des forces naturelles qui produisent le froid, le chaud et les perturbations de l'atmosphère

iii) le terrain (c'est-à-dire les particularités topographiques) et la facilité ou la difficulté de le parcourir, les chances de vie ou de mort qu'il offre

iv) le général et sa compétence, ses qualités humaines, son courage et son sens de l'équité

v) la méthode, c'est-à-dire le « savoir ranger ses troupes, n'ignorer aucune règles de la subordination et les faire rigoureusement observer, connaître les attributions de chacun de nos subalternes, posséder tous les moyens par lesquels on peut atteindre un résultat »

La doctrine crée ou non la mobilisation des hommes vis-à-vis de la stratégie. La connaissance du ciel et du terrain permet de prévoir les moments les plus favorables pour ordonner le mouvement des troupes. Les qualités du général et de l'organisation évitent que des dissensions graves ne surviennent.

Avant de s'engager dans la guerre, il faut l'étudier (c'est-à-dire faire des plans) afin de comprendre parfaitement la situation. Une évaluation rationnelle de son opportunité est donc à mener en se posant SEPT questions :

- lequel des deux souverains possède le DAO ?

- lequel des deux généraux est le plus capable ?

- qui aura le ciel et le terrain pour lui ?

- qui possède la meilleure méthode et la meilleure organisation ?

- quelle armée est la plus puissante ?

- quels sont les soldats les mieux entraînés ?

- qui distribue avec le plus de clairvoyance récompense et châtiment ?

Le principe de l'art de la guerre reste la duperie : « vous profiterez de la dissension qui surgit chez vos ennemis pour attirer les mécontents dans votre parti en ne leur ménageant ni les promesses, ni les dons, ni les récompenses. Vous cacherez à vos adversaires l'étant dans lequel sont vos troupes : parfois vous ferez répandre le bruit de votre faiblesse, ou vous feindrez la peur pour que l'ennemi, cédant à la présomption et à l'orgueil, ou bien vous attaque imprudemment, ou bien, se relâchant de sa surveillance, se laisse lui-même surprendre ».

La façon de conduire la guerre

Lorsque l'on a vérifié que toutes les chances sont de notre coté et que la logistique est assurée, Sun Zi propose de mener le combat rapidement, afin de préserver des vies humaines, d'éviter que l'ardeur des soldats ne se ramollisse et que l'argent et les provisions ne s'épuisent. Il recommande aussi de bien traiter les prisonniers et de chercher à les assimiler.

La stratégie employée : la neutralisation des plans de l'adversaire

L'auteur recommande de s'attaquer aux plans de l'adversaire avant toute chose. « Sans bataille, immobiliser l'armée ennemie, voilà qui est excellent ». On y parviendra « en évitant toutes les ruses de l'ennemi, en faisant avorter ses projets, en semant la discorde parmi ses partisans, en le tenant toujours en haleine, en le privant des secours étrangers qu 'il peut recevoir et en lui enlevant toute possibilité d'entreprendre rien qui puisse être avantageux pour lui ». La stratégie de Sun Zi s'intéresse donc à un moment de la guerre qui se situe dans l'entre-deux de la manœuvre menaçante et du combat, l'avantage étant obtenu en ayant une bonne connaissance de l'ennemi et de soi-même.

La préparation du combat

Le passage essentiel de l'article IV est celui qui dit qu'on n'est vaincu que par sa propre faute comme on n'est victorieux que pas la faute de l'ennemi. Le succès vient de l'attention à éviter la moindre faute : il faut avoir tout prévu, avoir paré à toues les éventualités, connaître les avantages et les inconvénients de sa situation et de celle de l'adversaire, savoir ce qu'il est exactement possible de faire, jusqu'où on peut aller et ne pas commettre de faute ou en commettre moins que l'ennemi.

L'habileté dans le commandement des troupes

Il s'agit d'organiser la hiérarchie des officiers, de répartir les hommes dans les unités et de définir un langage adéquat pour transmettre les ordres le long de l'organigramme. Si tout cela est en place, l'ordre d'assaut ne représente aucun effort énergétique : « les troupes se lanceront en avant comme des galets ronds qui descendent en roulant du haut de la montagne »

Le bon chef est celui qui a su acquérir auprès de ses troupes une autorité incontestée, qu'aucun événement ne peut abattre, qui garde dans les moments de surprise une absolue maîtrise de soi «pour qui la promptitude dans la décision n'est que le fruit de la méditation préalable jointe à une longue expérience ». Sa puissance est de faire ressortir le courage et l'intrépidité de la poltronnerie et de la pusillanimité et d'engendrer la force dans la faiblesse.

La manœuvre du plein et du vide

1.3. Transposition à la vie des affaires

Date: 2014-12-29; view: 730

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