When you are talking to people from Britain, it is safest to use 'Britain' when talking about where they live and 'British' as the adjective to describe their nationality. This way you will be less likely to offend anyone. It is, of course, not wrong to talk about 'people in England' if that is what you mean - people who live within the geographical boundaries of England. After all, most British people live there . But it should always be remembered that England does not make up the whole of the UK.
There has been a long history of migration from Scotland, Wales and Ireland to England.
As a result there are millions of people who live in England but who would never describe themselves as English. They may have lived in England all their lives, but as far as they are concerned they are Scottish or Welsh or Irish - even if, in the last case, they are citizens of Britain and not of Eire. These people support the country of their parents or grandparents rather than England in sporting contests. They would also, given the chance, play for that country rather than England. If, for example, you had heard the members of the Republic of Ireland World Cup football team talking in 1994, you would have heard several different kinds of English accent and some Scottish accents, but only a few Irish accents. Most of the players did not live in Ireland and were not brought up in Ireland. Nevertheless, most of them would never have considered playing for any country other than Ireland!
The same holds true for the further millions of British citizens whose family origins lie outside the British Isles altogether. People of Caribbean or south Asian do not mind being described as 'British' (many are proud of it), but many of them would not like to be called 'English'. And whenever the West Indian or Indian cricket team plays against England, it is certainly not England that they support!
There is, in fact, a complicated division of loyalties among many people in Britain, and especially in England. A black person whose family are from the Caribbean will passionately support the West Indies when they play cricket against England. But the same person is quite happy to support England just as passionately in a sport such as football, which the West Indies do not play. A person whose family are from Ireland but who has always lived in England would want Ireland to beat England at football but would want England to beat (for example) Italy just as much. This crossover of loyalties can work the other way as well. English people do not regard the Scottish, the Welsh or the Irish as 'foreigners' (or, at least, not as the same kind of foreigners as other foreigners!). An English commentator of a sporting event in which a Scottish, Irish or Welsh team is playing against a team from outside the British Isles tends to identify with that team as if it were English.
A wonderful example of double identity was heard on the ÂÂÑ during the Eurovision Song Contest in 1992. The commentator for the ÂÂÑ was Terry Wogan. Mr Wogan is an Irishman who had become Britain's most popular television talk-show host during the 90s. Towards the end of the programme, with the voting for the songs nearly complete, it became clear that the contest (in which European countries compete to present the best new popular song) was going to be won by either Ireland or the United Kingdom. Within a five-minute period, Mr Wogan could be heard using the pronouns 'we' and 'us' several times; sometimes he meant the UK and sometimes he meant Ireland!
Questions and tasks for the discussion:
1. Think of the most well-known symbols and tokens of nationality in your country. Are they the same type of real-life objects (e.g. plants, clothes) that are used in Britain?
2. In 1970 , the BBC showed a serious of programs about the history of British Empire. Before the serious started, they advertised it. The advertisement mentioned “England’s history”. Within a few hours, the BBC had received thousands of angry calls of protests and it was forced to make an apology. Who do you think the angry calls were? Why did the BBC apologize?
3. The dominance of England in Britain is reflected in the organization of government. There are ministers of Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, but there is no Ministry for England. Do you think it’ good for the people of the other British nations (they have special attention and recognition of their distinct identity) or it is bad (it gives them a kind of second-class colonial status)?
4. How do you understand the word “Loyalty”? What does it mean? Are there any distinct national loyalties, in your country ( or they are better described as national loyalties? If so, is the relationship between the nations in any way similar to that between the nations of Britain? If not, can you think of any other countries where such loyalties exist? Do these loyalties cause problems in those countries?
You can score '88' for the lesson.
1.1. What is a coursework?
A coursework is an individual study of a topic which has a scientific and practical importance. It assumes a deeper insight into a theoretical issue and a sort of exploration of the empirical evidence. It requires a lot of additional reading, gathering and analysing statistics, systematising facts, generalising and making conclusion. Gathering information is an obligation of students, not supervisors’. A corsework gives the opportunity to show the knowledge accumulated over the years of study and to demonstrate the analitical capability and creativity in applying the knowledge to business-related topics.
1.2. Coursework preparation schedule
Students are responsible for coming and asking for guidance according to the following schedule:
Work to be done and approved by the superviser
Choosing a topic, developing Contents (draft*), making a list of Bibliography (draft)
Draft paper is to be presented to the superviser
Final paper is to be presented to the superviser
Superviser assesses the final paper and points the date of oral defence
Presentation (oral defence) of the coursework
* “Draft” means that in the course of work the document can be corrected and improved.