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Methods of solid waste disposal

Integrated waste management Integrated waste management ______ LCA attempts to offer the most benign options for waste ________. A number of broad studies have indicated that waste administration, and then source ______ and collection followed by reuse and recycling of the non-organic fraction, energy and fertilizer production of the organic waste fraction via anaerobic digestion is the ______ method for mixed Municipal Solid Waste (MSW). Non-metallic waste resources not ______ as with incineration, and can be reused or recycled in a future resource depleted society. Plasma gasification A gasifier vessel _____ proprietary plasma torches in order ______ a gasification zone of up to 3,000 °F (1,650 °C) to convert solid or liquid wastes into a syngas. When municipal solid waste is subjected to this intense heat within the vessel, the waste’s molecular bonds break down into elemental components. The process results in elemental destruction of waste and ______ materials. Landfill _______ of waste in a landfill involves burying the waste, and this remains a common practice in most countries. Landfills were often established in abandoned or unused quarries, mining voids or borrow pits. A ______ designed and well-managed landfill can be a hygienic and relatively inexpensive method of disposing of waste materials. Older, poorly designed or poorly managed landfills can create a number of adverse _____ impacts such as wind-blown litter, attraction of vermin, and generation of liquid leachate. Another common by-product of landfills is gas (mostly composed of methane and carbon dioxide), which is produced as organic waste breaks down _____. This is a greenhouse gas, it also can create odour problems and kill surface vegetation. Many landfills also have landfill gas extraction systems _____ to extract the landfill gas. Gas is pumped out of the landfill using perforated pipes and burnt in a gas engine to generate electricity. Incineration Incineration and other high temperature waste treatment systems are sometimes described as "thermal treatment". ______ convert waste materials into heat, gas, steam, and ash. It is used to dispose solid, liquid and _____ waste. It is recognized as a practical method of disposing of certain hazardous waste materials. Incineration is common in countries such as Japan as these countries generally do not require any area for landfills. Waste-to-energy (WtE) or energy-from-waste (EfW) are terms for facilities that burn waste in a furnace or boiler to generate heat, steam or _______. Combustion in an incinerator is not always perfect and there have been concerns about micro-pollutants in gaseous _____ from incinerator. Recycling The popular _____ of ‘recycling’ in most developed countries refers to the widespread collection and reuse of everyday waste materials such as empty beverage containers. Material for recycling may ______ separately from general waste using dedicated bins and collection vehicles, or sorted ______ from mixed waste streams. The most common recycled products include steel food and aerosol cans, HDPE and PET bottles, glass bottles and jars, paperboard cartons, newspapers, magazines, and corrugated fibreboard boxes. PVC, LDPE and PP are also ______, although they are not commonly collected. These items usually _______ of a single type of material, making them relatively easy to recycle into new products.   use   manage   separate     favour     destroy     utilize create   hazard     dispose   proper     environment     anaerobic   install   incinerate   gas   electric     emit   mean   collect   direct   recycle   compose

Date: 2015-12-17; view: 791

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Exercise 4. Make up some questions which will embrace the content of the text. | B) Make up questions to ask your group mates using the following word combinations from the text.
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