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Look through the text again and answer the questions from ex.1.

Highlight the words and phrases from column A in the text and try to work out their meanings fro the context. Match their meanings to the synonyms in column B.


1. Fuming a. bright pupil
2. pernicious b. cultivate
3. nurture c. effectiveness
4. A-student d. evaluation through the course
5. utilitarian e. harmful
6. quantification f. hoping to be admitted
7. continuous assessment g. marks
8. grades h. measurement
9. aspirants i. over-praised
10. idiosyncrasy j. practical
11. fast stream k. top class
12. efficacy l. unconventional behaviour
13. much-vaunted m. very angry

(taken from Leo Jones New Cambridge Advanced English Coursebook, p. 105-106)

Text 3

14. Do you remember what the following abbreviations stand for?




After sixteen

Since 1988, most sixteen-year-olds have taken the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) or the Scottish Certificate of Education (SCE) in five, ten or even fifteen subjects.

Pupils going on to higher education or professional training usually take 'A' level examinations in two or three subjects. These require two more years of study after GCSE, either in the sixth form of a secondary school, or in a separate sixth-form college. Other pupils may choose vocational subjects such as catering, tourism, secretarial or building skills. Subsidised courses in these subjects are run at colleges of further education.

School-leavers with jobs sometimes take part-time vocational courses, on day-release from work. Colleges of further education and some schools offer vocational courses leading to national vocational qualifications (NVQs) as well as 'A' level courses.


Higher education

There are over 100 universities in Britain plus other institutions including teacher training colleges.

Undergraduate courses normally take three years of full-time study, although a number of subjects take longer, including medicine, architecture and foreign languages (where courses may include a year abroad). They lead in most cases to a Bachelor's degree in Arts or Science. There are various postgraduate degrees, including Master of Philosophy and Doctor of Philosophy, the last two being awarded for research in Arts or Sciences.

Degrees are usually awarded by the institution itself. Students of law, architecture and some other professions can take qualifications awarded by their own professional bodies instead of degrees.

In the 1980s the main sources of income for students in higher education were parental contributions and the maintenance grant (money paid by the local authority to cover living expenses, books and travel). By the 1990s this had changed and student loans gradually replaced the old system of grants. By 1999 loans formed 24 per cent of total income for students.

Universities accept students mainly on the basis of their 'A' level results, although they may interview them as well. The Open University was started in 1971 to cater for adults who did not have these formal qualifications. The emphasis has changed in all forms of higher education to include greater numbers of students and encourage people from different backgrounds to apply. In 1970 there were 620,000 students in higher education of whom 33 per cent were women. By 1999 these figures had increased to 2.1 million students of whom 53 per cent were women. Life-long learning skills have also become more important.

(adapted from http://rudocs.exdat.com/docs/index-148646.html?page=32)

Date: 2015-12-17; view: 3098

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