Currently in Ukraine, school in its prime meaning is designated for children and teenagers who attend it between ages 6 through 17. There are several types of institutions of General Education. Some schools may be boarding schools and named school-internat or lyceum-internat.
· Middle School of General Education (ZOSh) or Middle School
· Lyceum (Tekhnikum in the Soviet times)
The institution is called Middle School of General Education (ZOSh) or simply Middle School and usually combines primary and secondary levels of education. The system was first introduced in 1958 and included an 11-grade system, while in 1965 it was shortened to a 10-grade system. Most of the middle schools have all three level of accreditation for the General Education. Some remote schools may be of two levels which is a minimum requirement for all the middle school.
Primary and secondary education is divided into three levels of accreditation of general education: I - "younger", II - "middle", and III - "senior". I level of accreditation comprises grades 1 to 4. Grades 5-9 are usually considered a II level of accreditation or a base secondary education, while 10-11 are a III level. Despite the names, students usually study in the same school institution throughout their primary and secondary education. Primary schooling lasts 4 years and middle school 5. There are then 2 profile years.
The objective of general schooling is to give younger students knowledge of the arts and sciences, and teach them how to use it practically. The middle school curriculum includes classes in the Ukrainian language, Ukrainian Literature, a foreign language, world literature, Ukrainian History, world history, geography, algebra, geometry, biology,chemistry, physics, physical education, music and art. At some schools, students also take environment and civics classes. Students attend each class only once or twice a week, however. Part of the school day is also spent in activities such as chess, karate, putting on plays, learning folktales and folk songs, choir and band. After school, students might also have music lessons, soccer, hockey, or tennis.
In 2001, a 12-year education system replaced an older 11-year one, but in 2010 the 11-year one was restored, so that no pupil studied 12 years in secondary school.
During grades 9 and 11, which is usually around the age of 15 and 17, students take various exams. The current examination system is undergoing change. At grades 9 and 11 students take IGTs (Independent Government Tests), which allow eleventh graders to enter university without taking separate entrance exams. In 2008 entrance exams were abolished and the IGTs became the standard for determining entrance eligibility.[ But in 2010 the system was changed again.
In school year 2009-2010 potential graduates are scheduled to undergo external independent testing after the final state examination, in the following subjects: Ukrainian language and literature, history of Ukraine, mathematics, biology, physics, chemistry, geography, and one foreign language (of the pupil's choice) in either English, German,French, or Spanish. The results of the testing will have the same status as entrance examinations to institutions of higher education. But some universities can convert points in the external independent test certificate according to their own rating system.
· Kyiv National Linguistic University
· Crimea State Medical University
· Chernivtsi University (Yuriy Fedkovych Chernivtsi National University)
· Dnipropetrovsk National University
· East Ukraine Volodymyr Dahl National University
· Donetsk National University
· Kharkiv Polytechnic Institute
· Kharkiv University (Karazin Kharkiv National University)
· Kyiv Polytechnic Institute
· Lugansk State Medical University
· Lviv Polytechnic
· Lviv University (Ivan Franko National University of Lviv)
· National Mining University
· National University of Kyiv-Mohyla Academy
· Nizhyn Gogol State University
· Odessa University (I.I. Mechnikov Odessa National University)
· Odessa National Economics University
· Ostroh Academy
· State University of Telecommunications (http://www.duikt.edu.ua/index.php?lang=en)
· Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv
· Tavrida National V.I. Vernadsky University
· Ternopil National Economic University
· Zaporizhzhya National University
· Kharkiv National University of Municipal Economy
· Postgraduate level
· Upon obtaining a Master's Degree or Specialist, a student may enter a university or a scientific institute to pursue postgraduate education. The first level of postgraduate education is aspirantura that usually results in the Kandydat Nauk degree (Candidate of Sciences). Candidates must pass three qualifying exams (in the field of specialty, in a foreign language of their choice and in philosophy), publish at least three scientific articles, write a dissertation and defend it. This degree is roughly equivalent to the Ph.D. in the United States. After graduation a student may continue postgraduate education. This takes from two to four years of study in doctorantura. Significant scientific results must be obtained and published, and a new thesis written. This produces a Doctor Nauk degree (Doctor of Sciences), but the more typical way is working in a university or scientific institute with parallel preparation of a thesis. The average time between obtaining Kandidat and Doctor degrees is roughly 10 years, and most of new Doctors are 40 and more years old. Only one of four Kandidats reaches this grade. Kandidat Nauk may keep the position Associate Professor in universities, or Researcher/Senior Researcher in scientific institutes. Doctor Nauk can hold position of full Professor, Head of Laboratory or an equal/higher positions. The Ukrainian Ministry of Education and Science is considering changing the Soviet style Kandidat Nauk and Doctor Nauk degrees to Doctor of Philosophy and Doctor Habilitation, as has happened in several other post-Soviet countries.
Ukrainian universities use a traditional 5-point scale:
· "5" = "excellent"
· "4" = "good"
· "3" = "satisfactory"
· "2" = "unsatisfactory".
"5", "4", "3" can be described as "Passed", "2" - as "Fail". Students who get a failing grade of "2", have two more chances to pass an examination. Since 2006 (and even earlier in some universities), university students are graded on a rating scale of 0 to 100. These grades can be transformed to the 5-point scale approximately as follows (this system may vary a little from university to university and may change from time to time):
· from 90 to 100 means "5" A
· from 75 to 89 means "4" B,C
· from 60 to 74 means "3" D
· from 0 to 59 means "2" E
Both the rating scale and the 5-point scale are used in university registers. Some lecturers prefer to use A-F-point scale to rate students during their passing the exams.
As for secondary schools, they also used the above-mentioned 5-point scale till 2000. Since 2000 secondary schools use a 12-point scale, which could be transformed into the traditional 5-point scale as follows:
· "12" = "5+"
· "11" = "5"
· "10" = "5-"
· "9" = "4+"
· "8" = "4"
· "7" = "4-"
· "6" = "3+"
· "5" = "3"
· "4" = "3-"
· "3" = "2+"
· "2" = "2"
· "1" = "2-"
Here signs "+" and "-" denote respectively better and worse version of a mark, for example, "4-" means "somewhat worse than good".
Education in the United States
Education in the United States of America
National education budget (2007)
$1.1 trillion (public and private, all levels)
Federal, state, private
26.1 million (20062007)
17.5 million 2
1 Includes kindergarten 2 Includes graduate school
Formal education in the U.S. is divided into a number of distinct educational stages. Most children enter the public education system around ages five or six. They may begin inpreschool, kindergarten or first grade. They normally attend 12 grades of study over 12 calendar years of primary/elementary and secondary education before graduating, earning a diploma that makes them eligible for admission to higher education. Education is only mandatory until age 16, however. There are generally five years of primary (elementary) school, during which students customarily advance together from one grade to the next as a single cohort or "class", three years of middle school, which may have cohorts, and four years of high school. There is some variability in the arrangement of grades.
In the U.S., ordinal numbers (e.g., first grade) are used for identifying grades. Typical ages and grade groupings in contemporary, public and private schools may be found through the U.S. Department of Education. Generally there are elementary school (K-5th grade), middle school (6th-8th grades) and high school (9th-12th grades). Many different variations exist across the country.
Diagram of education in the United States
General level (or category)
Student age range
Junior high school
Senior high school
Ages vary, but often 1822 for a consecutive bachelor's degree (usually within a solitaryconcentration)
Graduate school (with various degrees and curricular partitions thereof)
Students completing high school may choose to attend a college or university, which offer undergraduate degrees such as Associate's degrees or Bachelor's degrees(baccalaureate).
Community college or junior college typically offer two-year associate's degrees, although some community colleges offer a limited number of bachelor's degrees. Some community college students choose to transfer to a four-year institution to pursue a Bachelor's degree. Community colleges are generally publicly funded (usually by local cities or counties)and offer career certifications and part-time programs.
Four-year institutions may be public or private colleges or universities.
Some counties and cities have established and fund four-year institutions; examples include the City University of New York, City Colleges of Chicago, and San Francisco City College.
Private institutions are privately funded and there is a wide variety in size, focus, and operation. Some private institutions are large research universities, while others are smallliberal arts colleges that concentrate on undergraduate education. Some private universities are nonsectarian and secular, while others are religiously-affiliated. While most private institutions are non-profit, a growing number in the past decade have been established For-profit education.
Curriculum varies widely depending on the institution. Typically, an undergraduate student will be able to select an academic "major" or concentration, which comprises the main or special subjects, and students may change their major one or more times.
Some students, typically those with a bachelor's degree, may choose to continue on to graduate or professional school. Graduate degrees may be either master's degrees (e.g.,M.A., M.S., M.B.A., M.S.W.) or a doctorates (e.g., Ph.D., J.D., ("Doctor of Law"), M.D., D.O.). Academia-focused graduate school typically includes some combination of coursework and research (often requiring a thesis or dissertation to be written), while professional graduate-level schools (e.g., medical, law, business) grants a first professional degree and aims to prepare students to enter a learned profession of a medical doctor, attorney at law (lawyer), advanced Business/Economics. Other graduate-level schools attached to many Universities train for a Pharmacist, dentist, veterinarian, or minister/priest. Normally it's 4 years college/university. Community and special colleges may offer 2 year degrees so that would be any range from age 18 to 20(normally).
In schools in the United States children are constantly assessed throughout the school year by their teachers, and report cards are issued to parents at varying intervals. Generally the scores for individual assignments and tests are recorded for each student in a grade book, along with the maximum number of points for each assignment. At any time, the total number of points for a student when divided by the total number of possible points produces a percent grade, which can be translated to a letter grade.
Letter grades are often but not always used on report cards at the end of a marking period, although the current grade may be available at other times (particularly when an electronic grade book connected to an online service is in use). Although grading scales usually differ from school to school, the most common grade scale is letter grades"A" through "F"derived from a scale of 0100 or a percentile. In some areas, Texas or Virginia for example, the "D" grade (or that between 7060) is considered a failing grade. In other jurisdictions, such as Hawaii, a "D" grade is considered passing in certain classes, and failing in others.
Example Grading Scale
F or E
Below 60 Percent
Study comparing college revenue per student by tuition and state funding in 2008 dollars.
Cost of US college education relative to the consumer price index(inflation).
A few charity institutions cover all of the students' tuition, although scholarships (both merit-based and need-based) are widely available. Generally, private universities charge much higher tuition than their public counterparts, which rely on state funds to make up the difference. Because each state supports its own university system with state taxes, most public universities charge much higher rates for out-of-state students.
Annual undergraduate tuition varies widely from state to state, and many additional fees apply. In 2009, average annual tuition at a public university (for residents of the state) was $7,020. Tuition for public school students from outside the state is generally comparable to private school prices, although students can often qualify for state residency after their first year. Private schools are typically much higher, although prices vary widely from "no-frills" private schools to highly specialized technical institutes. Depending upon the type of school and program, annual graduate program tuition can vary from $15,000 to as high as $50,000. Note that these prices do not include living expenses (rent, room/board, etc.) or additional fees that schools add on such as "activities fees" or health insurance. These fees, especially room and board, can range from $6,000 to $12,000 per academic year (assuming a single student without children).
The mean annual Total Cost (including all costs associated with a full-time post-secondary schooling, such as tuition and fees, books and supplies, room and board), as reported by collegeboard.com for 2010:
· Public University (4 years): $27,967 (per year)
· Private University (4 years): $40,476 (per year)
Total, four-year schooling:
· Public University: $111,868
· Private University: $161,904
College costs are rising at the same time that state appropriations for aid are shrinking. This has led to debate over funding at both the state and local levels. From 2002 to 2004 alone, tuition rates at public schools increased over 14 percent, largely due to dwindling state funding. An increase of 6 percent occurred over the same period for private schools. Between 1982 and 2007, college tuition and fees rose three times as fast as median family income, in constant dollars.
From the US Census Bureau, the median salary of an individual who has only a high school diploma is $27,967; The median salary of an individual who has a bachelor's degree is $47,345. Certain degrees, such as in engineering, typically result in salaries far exceeding high school graduates, whereas degrees in teaching and social work fall below.
The debt of the average college graduate for student loans in 2010 was $23,200.
A 2010 study indicates that the return on investment for graduating from the top 1000 colleges exceeds 4% over a high school degree.
According to Uni in the USA, "One of the reasons American universities have thrived is due to their remarkable management of financial resources." To combat costs colleges have hired adjunct professors to teach. In 2008 these teachers cost about $1,800 per 3-credit class as opposed to $8,000 per class for a tenured professor. Two-thirds of college instructors were adjuncts. There are differences of opinion whether these adjuncts teach better or worse than regular professors. There is a suspicion that student evaluation of adjuncts, along with their subsequent continued employment, can lead to grade inflation.