Stylistics, sometimes called linguostylistics, is a branch of general linguistics.
Arnold defines stylistics as a branch of linguistics, investigating the principles and effect of choice and usage of phonetic, lexical, grammatical and other language means with the purpose of transmitting thoughts and emotions in different circumstances of communication.
The types of texts that are distinguished by the pragmatic aspect of the communication are called Functional styles of language (FS); the special media of language which secure the desirable effect of the utterance are called stylistic devices (SD) and expressive means (EM).
In dealing with the objectives of stylistics, certain pronouncements of adjacent disciplines such as theory of information, literature, psychology, logic and to some extent statistics must be touched upon. We have defined the object of linguostylistics as the study of the nature, functions and structure of SDs and EMs, on the one hand, and the study of the functional styles, on the other.
There are 2 basic objects of stylistics: - stylistic devices and figures of speech - functional styles
A functional style of language is a system of interrelated language means which serves a definite aim in communication. A functional style is thus to be regarded as the product of a certain concrete task set by the sender of the message. Functional styles appear mainly in the literary standard of a language.
The literary standard of the English language, like that of any other developed language, is not so homogeneous, as it may seem. In fact the standard English literary language in the course of its development has fallen into several subsystems each of which has acquired its own peculiarities which are typical of the given functional style.
Stylistics is a branch of linguistics which studies the principles of choice and the effect of choice of different language elements in rendering thought and emotion under different conditions of communication. (I.R.Galperin)
Stylistics is applied to:
1) A system of devices (SD) and expressive means in the language (EM);
2) Emotional colouring;
3) Synonymous ways of rendering one and the same idea;
4) Aesthetic function of the language:
5) Functional styles;
6) The individual style of the writer.
Branches of stylistics: - Lexical stylistics – studies functions of direct and figurative meanings
- Grammatical stylistics – is subdivided into morphological and syntactical Morphological s. views stylistic potential of grammatical categories of different parts of speech. Syntactical s. studies syntactic, expressive means, word order and word combinations, different types of sentences and types of syntactic connections.
- Phonostylistics – phonetical organization of prose and poetic texts. (rhythm, rhythmical structure, rhyme, alliteration, assonance and correlation of the sound form and meaning.)
- Functional S (s. of decoding) – deals with all subdivisions of the language and its possible use (newspaper, colloquial style
- Individual style study –studies the style of the author
- stylistics of encoding - The shape of the information (message) is coded and the addressee plays the part of decoder of the information which is contained in message.