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Answer the questions

Make up a report about any famous chemist you like

Antoine Lavoisier.

Antoine Laurent Lavoisier is a French chemist, was the founder of modern

chemistry.

Lavoisier carefully measured the weights of substances involved in chemical reactions.

In 1772 he began a series of experiments that demonstrated the nature of

combustion. He concluded that combustion results from the union of a flammable

material with a newly discovered gas, which he called oxygen. Lavoisier published

his findings in his Elementary Treatise on Chemistry (1789).

With French astronomer and mathematician Pierre Simon Laplace, Lavoisier

conducted experiments on respiration in animals. Their studies demonstrated a similarity

between common chemical reactions and the processes that occur in living organisms.

These experiments provided the foundation for the science now known as

biochemistry. Lavoisier also helped to develop a system for naming chemical substances

based on their composition. This system is still in use.

Lavoisier was born in Paris. He received an excellent education and developed

an interest in all branches of science, especially chemistry. He was elected to the

French Academy of Sciences in 1768.

Lavoisier was arrested in 1793 by the leaders of the French Revolution. Many

years earlier, he had become a partner in a firm that collected a number of taxes for

the government. In spite of his achievements, Lavoisier was found guilty of conspiracy

with the enemies of France because of his involvement in tax collection. He was

executed by guillotine.

Questions

1)What famous scientist did Lavoisier work with?

2)What experiments did they conduct?

3)The foundation of what science did their experiments provide?

4)Why was he arrested?

5)What series of experiments did Lavoisier begin in 1772?

Alfred Nobel.

Alfred Bernard Nobel, a Swedish chemist, invented dynamite and founded

the Nobel Prizes. As a young man, Nobel experimented with nitroglycerin in his fathers

factory. He hoped to make this dangerous substance into a safe and useful explosive.

He prepared a nitroglycerin explosive, but so many accidents occurred when

it was put on the market that for a number of years many people considered Nobel

almost a public enemy.

Finally in 1867 Nobel combined niter with an absorbent substance. This explosive

could be handled and shipped safely. Nobel named it dynamite. Within a few

years he became one of the worlds richest men. He set up factories throughout the

world and bought the large Bofors armament plant in Sweden. He worked on synthetic

rubber, artificial silk and many other products.

Nobel was never in good health. In later years he became increasingly ill and

nervous. He suffered from a feeling of guilt at having created a substance that caused

so much death and injury. He hated the thought that dynamite could be used in war

when he had invented it for peace. Nobel set up a fund of about 9 million U.S. dollars.



The interest from the fund was to be used to award annual prizes, one of which

was for the most effective work in promoting international peace.

Alfred Nobel was born on October, 21, 1833 in Stockholm. He was the son of

an inventor. He was educated in St. Petersburg, Russia, and later studied engineering

in the United States.

Questions

1) Who was Nobels father?

2) What was Nobels chief invention?

3) Why did people consider him a public enemy for a number of years?

4) What kind of Prizes did he set up?

5) What was the interest from these fund?

( 8 )


Date: 2015-12-17; view: 981


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