Answer the questions
Make up a report about any famous chemist you like
Antoine Laurent Lavoisier is a French chemist, was the founder of modern
Lavoisier carefully measured the weights of substances involved in chemical reactions.
In 1772 he began a series of experiments that demonstrated the nature of
combustion. He concluded that combustion results from the union of a flammable
material with a newly discovered gas, which he called oxygen. Lavoisier published
his findings in his Elementary Treatise on Chemistry (1789).
With French astronomer and mathematician Pierre Simon Laplace, Lavoisier
conducted experiments on respiration in animals. Their studies demonstrated a similarity
between common chemical reactions and the processes that occur in living organisms.
These experiments provided the foundation for the science now known as
biochemistry. Lavoisier also helped to develop a system for naming chemical substances
based on their composition. This system is still in use.
Lavoisier was born in Paris. He received an excellent education and developed
an interest in all branches of science, especially chemistry. He was elected to the
French Academy of Sciences in 1768.
Lavoisier was arrested in 1793 by the leaders of the French Revolution. Many
years earlier, he had become a partner in a firm that collected a number of taxes for
the government. In spite of his achievements, Lavoisier was found guilty of conspiracy
with the enemies of France because of his involvement in tax collection. He was
executed by guillotine.
1)What famous scientist did Lavoisier work with?
2)What experiments did they conduct?
3)The foundation of what science did their experiments provide?
4)Why was he arrested?
5)What series of experiments did Lavoisier begin in 1772?
Alfred Bernard Nobel, a Swedish chemist, invented dynamite and founded
the Nobel Prizes. As a young man, Nobel experimented with nitroglycerin in his father’s
factory. He hoped to make this dangerous substance into a safe and useful explosive.
He prepared a nitroglycerin explosive, but so many accidents occurred when
it was put on the market that for a number of years many people considered Nobel
almost a public enemy.
Finally in 1867 Nobel combined niter with an absorbent substance. This explosive
could be handled and shipped safely. Nobel named it dynamite. Within a few
years he became one of the world’s richest men. He set up factories throughout the
world and bought the large Bofors armament plant in Sweden. He worked on synthetic
rubber, artificial silk and many other products.
Nobel was never in good health. In later years he became increasingly ill and
nervous. He suffered from a feeling of guilt at having created a substance that caused
so much death and injury. He hated the thought that dynamite could be used in war
when he had invented it for peace. Nobel set up a fund of about 9 million U.S. dollars.
The interest from the fund was to be used to award annual prizes, one of which
was for the most effective work in promoting international peace.
Alfred Nobel was born on October, 21, 1833 in Stockholm. He was the son of
an inventor. He was educated in St. Petersburg, Russia, and later studied engineering
in the United States.
1) Who was Nobel’s father?
2) What was Nobel’s chief invention?
3) Why did people consider him a public enemy for a number of years?
4) What kind of Prizes did he set up?
5) What was the interest from these fund?
(Âîçâðàò Óðîê 8 )
Date: 2015-12-17; view: 981