A tourist attraction is a place of interest where tourists visit, typically for its inherent or exhibited cultural value, historical significance, natural or built beauty, or amusement opportunities.
Some examples include historical places, monuments, zoos, aquaria, museums and art galleries, botanical gardens, buildings and structures (e.g., castles, libraries, former prisons, skyscrapers, bridges), national parks and forests, theme parks and carnivals, ethnic enclave communities, historic trains and cultural events. Many tourist attractions are also landmarks. Tourist attractions are also created to capitalise on unexplained phenomena such as a supposed UFO crash site near Roswell, New Mexico and the alleged Loch Ness monster sightings in Scotland. Ghost sightings also make tourist attractions. Ethnic communities may become tourist attractions, such as Chinatowns in the United States and the black British neighborhood of Brixton in London. In the US, owners and marketers of attractions advertise tourist attractions on billboards along the side of highways and roadways, especially in remote areas. Tourist attractions often provide free promotional brochures and flyers in information centres, fast food restaurants, hotel and motel rooms or lobbies, and rest areas. While some tourist attractions provide visitors a memorable experience for a reasonable admission charge or even for free, others can have a tendency to be of low quality and to overprice their goods and services (such as admission, food, and souvenirs) in order to profit from tourists excessively. Such places are commonly known as tourist traps.
With centers receive tourists closely related tourist flows, depending on the number of natural (geographic location, climate, etc.) and human factors (history, social behavior, habits, etc.). The merger of tourist flows in certain geographical areas due to their attractiveness generates tourist centers that are economically and socially affect these flows. Tourist flows - a set of groups of tourists, who are sent to special centers for the purpose of leisure, recreation, travel commission.
My favourite holiday destination.
Each year thousands of people wish to spend their vacations holidaying abroad. There are many destinations with exquisite panoramas in the world. Out of those Switzerland is the most preferred destination. In my opinion, Switzerland is the best travel destination because of the natural beauties, diverse cultures and food. First of all, Switzerland is the best vacation spot because of its natural beauties. In other words travelling to Switzerland and not having a view of its natural beauties wouldn’t make your trip whole. Beyond that, Switzerland is the best travel destination because of its culture. German, French, Italian and Romantsch are the official languages of Switzerland. Folk arts are developed over centuries and are kept alive all over the country. The alpine folk culture is characterized by very expressive dances. Due to the diverse cultural there is a strong and diverse architectural tradition in Switzerland. The different types of architectural styles include The Romanesque style which is rich in expression and are found on many castles. Also major styles include gothic style and baroque style which are found on cathedrals and churches respectively. Lastly, Switzerland has many leisure sports. The leisure sports include gliding, ice hockey,...
3. Tour operatorsTour operators bring together transport, transfers, accommodation, meals, attractions, and other services to make a package holiday. This is the same as a package tour and the names reflect the fact that for a fixed price the customer buys all of the main components of their holiday. The main advantages of package holidays are:-They are cheaper than if you buy each component separately. - Customers know how much their holiday will cost before leaving home. -Customers do not have to spend time buying each component separately. -The standard of the transport, accommodation, and services has been checked by professionals. --There will a representative (rep) at the destination. Tour operators buy the components from the principals - the airlines, hotel companies, and so on. By buying in bulk, tour operators can negotiate much lower prices than those an individual member of the public would obtain. Companies that buy in large quantities and sell to make a profit are called wholesalers. Tour operators form part of the chain of distribution, and act as the link between the principals and the travel agents. However, tour operators can sell directly to tourists via the Internet. In addition, individual tourists can buy directly from the principals and get even better prices, low-cost airlines work like this There are four types of tour operator: -Mass market tour operators like TUI and Thomas Cook create package holidays for people travelling to the world's most popular and most economical destinations. -Domestic tour operators specialize m packages for people travelling inside their own country. -Inbound tour operators produce packages for tourists coming into a country from abroad. -Specialist tour operators offer packages to people with specific interests such as sailing or climbing. -Some of the world's bigger tour operators form part of companies that own their own aircraft, hotels, ancillary services, and travel agencies These companies participate in each step in the chain, and compete directly with travel agencies on the one hand, or with the principals on the other. The German group TUI AG. currently the world’s largest travel group, has over 250 hotels, five airlines, and tour operations in sixteen countries. Tour operation is a risky business. Fashions change, and political Instability, terrorism, or natural disasters can alter demand. Unlike a television, a holiday cannot be stored until the market is ready for It again. Tourism products are described as perishable. If they are not sold by a specific date, they are lost altogether 50 seats on a plane to the Seychelles for 2 May have no value at all on 3 May.
5.TRAVEL AGENCIES. Travel agents are retailers, they sell tourism products to the public in a shop that is called a travel agency. They are part of the chain of distribution and connect tour operators to customers. Travel agencies sell a range of products and services: Products can be thought of as items created by other companies which the travel agent sells for commission. Typical products are package holidays; air, train and coach tickets; insurance. Services involve guiding and advising customers as to the best product; giving advice on visa and passport applications; planning travel itineraries and working out costs; representing a client in a complaint procedure after an unsatisfactory holiday. Travel agency sales follow a clearly structured procedure known as the sales process. All models of sales contain four main stages:
• establishing rapport with the client
• investigating the client's needs;
• presenting the product;
• closing the sale.
in Belarus about 700 travel agencies. Among the popular travel agencies such capital, as EcoTravel, Pegas Touristik,TEZ TOUR,Top Travel and other
Òåìà 4. People travel for many different reasons. In the tourism industry we divide the reasons for travel into three main categories: leisure tourism, business tourism, and visiting friends and relatives (usually abbreviated to VFR). Leisure tourism can mean anything from excursions, day trips, and weekend breaks to package holidays, pleasure cruises, and longer independent trips such as hillwalking or treks in the mountains. It also includes cultural trips (for example, to music festivals), educational trips (for example, study tours), and religious trips (for example, pilgrims on a walking tour to a holy place). Business tourism includes any travel away from one's main place of residence, for such events as meetings, conferences, and trade fairs. It also includes special trips when workers are given a reward or a 'thank you' for good work (this is known as an incentive tour). Travel in order to visit friends or family relatives is also regarded as part of the tourism industry. This could be for a special family party, such as a reunion or a wedding, or a regular trip made every year. People travel for many different reasons. In the tourism industry we divide the reasons for travel into three main categories: leisure tourism, business tourism, and visiting friends and relatives (usually abbreviated to VFR). Leisure tourism can mean anything from excursions, day trips, and weekend breaks to package holidays, pleasure cruises, and longer independent trips such as hillwalking or treks in the mountains. It also includes cultural trips (for example, to music festivals), educational trips (for example, study tours), and religious trips (for example, pilgrims on a walking tour to a holy place). Business tourism includes any travel away from one's main place of residence, for such events as meetings, conferences, and trade fairs. It also includes special trips when workers are given a reward or a 'thank you' for good work (this is known as an incentive tour). Travel in order to visit friends or family relatives is also regarded as part of the tourism industry. This could be for a special family party, such as a reunion or a wedding, or a regular trip made every year.
7. Accommodation. Tourist accommodation diction is one of the six sub-sectors of the tourism industry. It can be classified as: - served accommodation. This refers to any sort accommodation where the guests receive a place to sleep, porter serves and so on. Typical examples of serviced accommodation are: *hotels *motels * guest houses * bed and breakfast. Self-catering accommodation. In this sort of accommodation the guests prepare their own meals and very few other servicer are provided except for reception types of self-catering accommodation include apartments, caravans, motor homes, villas. Hotels are the most popular type of accommodation in many countries. They can be small, family-owned hotels, hotels at popular resorts catering for holiday makers, business hotels and so on. All hotels offer a range of services and facilities. Services involve a member of the hotels staff doing something for you . Typical serves are reception services, transportation and transfers, tourist information and room service. Facilities make the guest` s stay more enjoyable, and include restraints and bas business centers, sports facilities, minibar, pug TV . Depending on the range of service and facilities on offer a hotels can be classified as 1-star. The star rating system is the classification that is used most around the world. Other systems exist, but all of them essentially classify hotels as superior mid-market . Reservations for hotels can be taker in different ways :*Face to face in the hotel*By phone *By fax, or in writing
8. Marketing and promotion Marketing is essential for the success o both private companies public organizations. It’s purpose is to ensure the right product is created and made available to the right people. Good marketing is beneficial both for the company or organization creating a product and for the people who buy it. The marketing process is central to all marketing and involves four steps: -Identification of the customers needs; -Development of suitable product and services; -Promotion of the product and services; -Monitoring and evaluation. The first of these involves market research. This tells companies their customers’ ages, income levels, interests, needs, satisfaction with current product, ets. The next step the development of products and services uses a SWOT analysis. -Strengths. This refers to the good points of the product you want to market; -Weaknesses. Poor roads and communication would be considers weakness for most types of tourism; -Opportunities are the ways a business can expand or improve it’s services; -Threats are product or policies that might affect your business negatively. Using a SWOT analysis tourism managers can create a product that is better than that of their competitors .The product however is only one of four aspects of four aspects of what is called the marketing mix. There are often referred to as the four Ps, and consist of product, price, place and promotion. Promotion in tourism users a range of promotional techniques, including. Advertising – adverts on TV, the radio, in magazine and newspapers on the internet, ets. Direct m-g – sending letters emails to people whose addresses a company has on it’s data base. Direct mailing means you only contract the people most likely to buy your product. Personal selling – is the sale through talking face-to-face with the customers . Public relations – paying travel journalists to use one of your product and then write about it making sure that all of the staff of a company that come into direct contact with the public project a good image of the company. Sales promotion – a range of activities(discounts, competitions, brochures, exhibitions, free gift, price cuts ets)all designed to stimulate short-term demand for a product.
10. Different type of tourism.
Many people associate tourism with line one a beach near a now sea. The reality is quite different and more and more tour operators, large or small, tray to sell the the products to the public divers taists. The classic three ceess holidays ( see, sand, sun) still dominates the industry. But many tourists today sick something different. This unit concentrates on for broad classes of alternative holiday. This are:
• Adventure and action. Hear the emposis is on the tourists active pacisipaition. Cvolifide instructors are present at all times in order guaranty the clines sefty.
• Ecotourism. All difenishios on ecotourism involve: a) responsible travel to a natural area.b) the consirveshoin of the environments visited.c) sustaining the well beeng of the local people.
• Escape and enlightenment. In this type of holidays tourists sackin relaxation. Escape came come through a stay in a spa, a health fam are same similar plase were it is possible tj get away from the urgense andantino of the life today. In lament can come through the practice to activates such as yoga and meditation.
• Cultural and heritage holidays. Now a days such holidays involve any sing in witch the the perpech on the visit is increased knowledge and understanding of other people ther culture.
9. The airline industry and air travel.The airline industry is a global transportation network that transports cargo and passengers by air. While air travel became possible only in the early 20th century, the airline industry now generates billions of dollars in annual income. It also provides services to many other industries, from medicine and national defense to tourism and sports. A large part of the airline industry focused on tourism and travel, some passengers can travel by air for flight, and not to reach a destination. Examples include hot air ballooning, parachuting and helicopter flights. Another sector of the airline industry connected with cargo transportation. Air travel is much faster than other means of delivery and readily available in most places. Thus, the aircraft play an important role in providing supplies in various other industries. A typical flight.Arrive at the airport three hours before departure. On the scoreboard look the name of your flight - if there are changes, not delayed if the flight is not started if it is already registered. If it appears that the registration has already started, it will be marked with numbers cell reception. Go there, find the sign in their flight number and the destination city. Checked baggage on the conveyor belt will take the plane. Next boarding pass (it shows a seat and place of passage for boarding) go for landing. We scan documents, then customs checks in the cabin. Then go "abroad". There are already a lot be spelling shops . You can walk or just sit and wait for your flight. When you are declared fit, don't worry and go quietly to the exit. You will tear off part of the boarding pass, and the remainder will go to the plane and find your seat. And after arrival calmly and slowly exit the plane. Airlines: low-cost and traditional.A low-cost carrier or low-cost airline is an airline that generally has lower fares and fewer comforts. To make up for revenue lost in decreased ticket prices, the airline may charge for extras like food, priority boarding, seat allocating, and baggage etc. Currently the world's largest low-cost carrier is Southwest Airlines, which operates in the United States and some surrounding areas. The term originated within the airline industry referring to airlines with a lower operating cost structure than their competitors. While the term is often applied to any carrier with low ticket prices and limited services, regardless of their operating models, low-cost carriers should not be confused with regional airlines that operate short flights without service, or with full-service airlines offering some reduced fares. Carbon offset schemes.Carbon offsetting is the use of carbon credits to enable businesses to compensate for their emissions, meet their carbon reduction goals and support the move to a low carbon economy. Businesses compensate for their environmental impact in order to meet increasing stakeholder pressure and are able to demonstrate leadership, differentiate from competitors and engage internal and external stakeholders in their action. Carbon offsetting delivers finance to essential renewable energy, forestry and resource conservation projects which generate reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. In order to ensure this finance delivers genuine results, the projects which are supported must be high quality and ‘additional’, proving that they would not happen without the sale of carbon credits. Projects follow a comprehensive set of validation and verification procedures to demonstrate that they are generating emission reductions and are monitored on a regular basis through independent third parties.Air travel in Belarus."Belavia" is the largest Belarusian airline with headquarters in Minsk. Base is the national airport Minsk (Minsk-2). Flies mainly on short-haul routes in the countries of the former CIS, Europe and the middle East. For 2013 Belavia carried 1.6 million passengers. Belavia flying in Russia, CIS countries, Europe and the middle East. The most popular destination in between Minsk and Moscow (Domodedovo). The company is constantly expanding its route network by briefly mainline flights in Europe. Among the last Prime nice, Geneva and Vilnius. In the summer season, the airline makes numerous Charter flights to popular tourist destinations, including from the regional centers of Belarus - Gomel and Vitebsk. Tickets cost "Belavia" starts at 62 euros (Minsk-Vilnius-Minsk "Restricted Economy") to 1025 euros (Minsk-Nice-Minsk, the "Business"). During the round-trip ticket discount is given. Discounts are also given to children under 12 years. The company does not reduce the price of tickets, depending on the date of booking, just cheap tickets "Restricted Economy" sold out first, so they are worth to think in advance.
11. Reservations and sales. Taking a booking is one of the stages in sales process. Booking procedure guarantees that the key information is correctly recorded and also avoids problems arising from incorrect information.Typical booking involves: completion of the booking form, payment of a deposit, transfer of the booking information to the tour operator, payment of the balance (6 or 8 weeks before departure). Computer Reservation Systems (CRS). These originated in 1950`s and initially were restricted to internal use in airlines. On seeing the value of CRSs the airlines opened up their systems to other airlines. As a result, sales consultants could access information about availability of flights offered by more than one company. Global Distribution Systems (GDS).More recently, CRSs have begun to carry a wide range of tourism products and services (flights, rooms, car hire). In the order to make travel reservations available directly to the public, special computer programs are used. These are accessed by the public through the Internet.
12. Modern airports are like mini-cities', so they must offer users all the facilities and services that this involves. Moreover, airports do not only provide services travelers. They also serve the people and companies that use the airport professionally, such as aircraft crew-, check, In staff, baggage handlers, and so on. The turn-around team that Ali is a member of is a very good example of the type of key airport worker that passengers do not normally meet. Of course, passengers are the central bails of an airport's activity, and in order to meet their needs, an airport must: have good access by road and adequate parking; have good alternative access by public transport; have spacious areas for check-in, baggage handling, etc.; offer food and other services; maintain very high levels of security. One indication of the status of the passenger In airport operations and air travel in general are air passengers' rights documents. The document on is from the European Union: This document was made public in February 2005, and covers four basic situations: Denied boarding usually because of overbooking. Overbooking is common practice. It involves deliberately selling more tickets than there are seats on the aircraft. Airlines do this because on many flights there are always passengers who do not show up at the airport; Cancellation; Long delays the exact interpretation of long depends on the type of flight, as the EU document explains; Lost or damaged baggage. The United States also has legislation regarding passengers' rights, hut there is no single, easily available document as is the case with the EU, and in general compensation is not as clearly stipulated as in the EU. Airlines in the US are not required to give compensation for flights that are delayed or cancelled, for example. There are flight crew, pilots and flight attendants, cashiers, workers in the screening of passengers and baggage, passport control, customs officers, cleaners, workers catering facilities, Manager, fuel tankers, aircraft, sellers souvenir stalls and shops, the drivers of the shuttles and buses, loaders, IT specialists, cleaners and aircraft cleaners, security guards, security services, fire fighters, doctors working at the airport. Minsk-2 National airport - international airport in Minsk. He is mostly on the geographical location as it is located at the intersection of the most significant lines linking Western Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). The airport is a member of the International Association of airports and the Association of civil aviation airports in the CIS countries. At the moment, is the primary and that he accepts all regular and Charter flights. Is 42 km from the center of Minsk. Able to make available all types of aircraft. Parking can accommodate up to 48 aircraft. The terminal is equipped with six telescopic ladders. The terminal area is 75000 m2. At the airport available cellular communication, there is Wi-Fi. Now between Minsk and airport operates road and rail links. Currently, Minsk 2 airport annually serves about one million passengers. On your arrival at airport Minsk 2, the schedule can be found on the big online scoreboard.
13. Tourism is about encounters - encounters with people, with places, and with experience. And the most important encounter is the first on: arrival and greeting. Get that one right and the rest is much easier. Arrival encounters can take place anywhere: at the airport, at the hotel, at the campsite, in the restaurant, on the tour bus, or at the attraction. Wherever it takes place, the rules are the same: be prepared, look the part, smile, be interested, be helpful, be yourself. Even before you say a word, there are many ways of greeting people. How you do it will depend on many things, for example your nationality and culture, how well you know the person you are greeting, your relative ages, and your gender. You need to think about who you are meeting before you do it. Car hire, which has been important for business travelers for many years, is now becoming popular as tourists move towards a more individual approach. Car hire staff must be courteous and efficient, as the arrival of a flight often means a sudden demand for their services. What about local transport, tourists can use buses, minibuses, trolleybuses, trams, that goes to timetable, and also taxi.
14. HOTELIt's a well known fact that hotels nowadays play a big role in tourism. Sometimes it is even difficult to decide which to choose while traveling. Hotels are classified according to the number of stars, facilities and services. Types of hotel facilities and services:1) Lodge. This guest house with a limited range of services. They are located, usually in remote areas. 2) Inn. This guest facility, small in size and the number of rented a room.3)B & B (Bed and Breakfast). Tourists are offered free room and breakfast.4)Motel. This hotel for motorists.5)Hotel. This is the most common and the most usual form of temporary housing. The hotel includes rooms for accommodation, restaurants and cafes, trenazherka, swimming pools, conference rooms, a casino and other places. When placing the hotel is important to remember that the Check in starts at two o'clock in the afternoon, and Check out at 12 am. In the case of early check-in or check-out fee charged eXtra. If you book in advance the number, the check takes a few seconds. If registration you will spend no more than 5 minutes of your time. Hotel staff structure consist of:1)Service management capacity (staff at the reception, meeting and dealing with the placement of guests, booking). 2) Economic service (maids, laundresses, porters). 3) Administrative services (secretaries, accountants). 4) Service catering (cooks, waiters, bartenders). 5)Commercial service (advertising manager, sales and reservation). 6) Engineering service (engineer, plumbers,carpenters). In Belarus, about 180 hotels. Only in Minsk there are about 55 hotels. Among popular tourist hotels such capital as Europe, Jubilee, Growne Plaza, Minsk, Victoria, Pekin and others.
15. Tourist information services. Tourist information centers. Getting around the city. Ways of giving tourist information. TIC in Minsk.Tourist information comes in a variety of forms, but the two most important are probably Tourist Information Centres (TICs) and websites.
TICs are found in city centres, major resorts, and transport termini. Tourist information offices, which may be smaller than TICs, are also found in smaller towns and rural areas. Inside the TIC there will be displays of leaflets and brochures on local attractions, entertainment venues and events, transport information such as time tables and schedules, and listing of accommodation providers. Many TICs have touch-screen facilities and interactive information displays, as well as trained staff. Staff will be expected to provide information on a range of areas-such as which restaurant provides a high chair for a baby, the best place for a scenic walk or drive, how to get to local sights, and where the nearest toilets are. Some TICs will have an accommodation booking service, including booking accommodation at the next destination for tourists who are travelling around the region. They may also be able to reserve theatre tickets, arrange car rental, book an excursion or a guide, change currency, and even make an emergency dental appointment. To work in a TIC, a pleasant and helpful personality is essential. You should have a good telephone manner, be able to work with computers, and have good written skills. Knowledge of a foreign language is also useful. There are 4 tourist information centres in Minsk. There you can:
· receive free information and reference support in foreign languages
· get information about the objects of history, culture, sports, social, cultural events in Minsk;
· get acquainted with the repertoire of theaters and museums, theaters and galleries;
· get advice on the selection of a guide;
· receive promotional materials of Minsk: map, booklets, brochures, guides;
· buy souvenirs.
Òåìà 16 “Holiday reps” Holiday representatives (a.k.a. holiday reps) are employed by companies that offer package holidays. Because holiday reps are normally the only contact guests have with the tour operator whilst on holiday, they are expected to excel in customer service and always remain friendly, approachable and enthusiastic at all times. You will be the main person that a guest will reflect the professionalism of a tour operator on.
Family Reps. Being a Family Rep you would be looking after people of all ages including groups of families, small groups of men or women whilst they are on holiday. Club Rep. A young persons rep is somebody to make sure that groups of men and women aged between 18-35 have the time of their life on holiday. Being this type of rep you would be guaranteed to be sent to the liveliest of resorts. Childrens Rep. Your responsibilities will not only be to keep children from the ages of 2 to 12 happy, but their parents as well. A children’s rep must have a cheerful and patient mannerisms at all times with loads of imagination. A transfer rep is somebody who mainly accompanies holiday makers to and from the airport and hotels. A transfer rep is normally the first person the holiday maker sees to represent the tour company so must always be friendly and approachable. Main routine consists of visiting the team in their resorts and meeting suppliers and hoteliers. The starting salary for a holiday rep is normally around £450/£525 per month including commission from selling excursions, car hire etc. Once you have finished a season, most tour operators will increase your basic salary. If you get promoted then your salary will also increase