The United States has mixed economy that has maintained a stable overall GDP growth rate, a moderate unemployment rate, and high levels of research and capital investment.
2. What is the role of the government in the US economy? What does it provide?
The federal government does play an important part in the national economy. It provides services and goods that the market cannot provide effectively, such as national defense, public goods and services, assistance programs for low-income families, and interstate highways and airports. The government also provides incentives to encourage the production and consumption of certain types of products, and discourage the production and consumption of others, establishes guidelines regulating environmental protection.
3. Why is the USA considered as the largest trading nation?
The United States is the largest trading nation in the world, because the U.S. is exporting and importing more goods and services than any other country.
4. What sectors can US economy be divided into?
The U.S. economy can be divided into 4 sectors : a natural resource sector, manufacturing and energy sectors, service and commerce sector, information and technology sector.
5. What do these sectors deal with?
The first sector provides goods that come directly from natural resources : agriculture, forestry, fishing, and mining. The second sector includes manufacturing and the generation of electricity. The third sector, made up of commerce and services. It comprises financial services, wholesaling and retailing, government services, transportation, entertainment tourism, and other businesses that provide a wide variety of services to individuals and businesses. The fourth major economic sector deals with recording, processing, and transmission of information, and includes the communication industry.
6.What is the key component of the US economy?
The key component of the US economy is manufacturing
7.What are the leading categories of the US manufactured goods?
The leading categories of the US manufactured goods are chemicals, industrial machinery, electronic equipment, processed food and transportation equipment.
8.What is the largest sector of the US economy in terms of output and employment?
The largest sector of the US economy in terms of output and employment is the service and commerce sector.
9.When and how did the Internet begin?
The Internet began in the 1960s as a small network of academic and government computers primarily involved in research for the USA military. But soon it became a worldwide network providing users with information on range of subjects
10.What can you say about the US communication system?
The communication systems in the US are among the most developed in the world. Television, newspapers, and other publications, provide most of the country’s news and entertainment. On the average there are 2 radios and 1 television for every person in the US.
11.What are the country’s major mineral resources?
The country’s major mineral resources are coal, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, natural gas, gold, silver
12.What makes the US the world’s richest agricultural country?
The nation’s favorable climate, soil, and water conditions make the US the world’s richest agricultural country
13.What are the most wide-spread branches of animal husbandry?
Cattle production, hog production, and chicken production are the most wide-spread branches of animal husbandry
14.Why is the USA the world’s largest importer of lumber?
Since all the US demand for forest isn’t satisfied, the United States has to import lumber.
15.What do the fishing grounds of the country provide?
Rich fishing grounds of the country provide a rich marine harvest, the commercial value of which is about evently divided between fish and shellfish. 14. THE ECONOMY OF GREAT BRITAIN
1. What place does the United Kingdom hold in the world and in Europe?
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, a leading trading power and financial centre, has the fourth largest economy in the world, the second largest in Europe, and is a member of the European Union as well as the United Nations and North-Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).
2. What is the United Kingdom composed of?
The United Kingdom is composed by the political union of four constituent entities: England, Scotland and Wales on the island of Great Britain and Northern Ireland on the island of Ireland.
3. What type of the economy does Great Britain have?
Great Britain has a mixed private and public enterprise economy.
4. What does the government do to make the British economy more efficient?
To make the British economy more efficient the government tries to stimulate innovations in industry, encourage competition, reduce taxes, promote exports, and work for world-wide free trade. The government provides financial assistance and guidance to small companies as small businesses employ more than a third of the private sector workforce.
5. What has been a key part of British economy for centuries?
Trade has been a key part of the British economy for centuries.
6. What has its prosperity been dependent upon?
Its prosperity has been depend upon the export of manufactured goods in exchange for raw materials and foodstuffs.
7. What can you say about the international trade of Great Britain?
Great Britain’s trade focus has shifted from the United States to the European Community, which now makes up over 50% of Britain’s trade. In addition, Commonwealth nations account for 11% of Great Britain’s trade. Germany, the United States, France and the Netherlands are Britain’s main export markets.
8. What does GD export and import?
The country’s chief exports are manufactured goods such as electrical and electronic equipment, aerospace equipment, machinery, chemicals, textile fibers, fuels, iron and steel, and transport equipment. The leading imports are manufactured and consumer goods, foodstuffs, industrial and electrical machinery, semi-finished goods, clothing and accessories, office machines and data processing equipment, and transport equipment.
9. What sectors can the British economy be divided into? What does each deal with?
According to the trends the structure of the British economy can be divided into three main sectors :
1.Primary industries that deal with providing raw materials and food from the land and the sea.
2.Manufacturing industries that deal with making finished goods from raw materials.
3.Service industries that deal with providing a wide variety of services.
10. Why is the country is self-sufficient in energy?
By successfully exploiting oiland gas from the North Sea Britain has become self-sufficient in energy .
11. What mineral resources does the country possess?
Great Britain is also rich in such mineral resources as iron ore, tin, limestone, salt, china clay, gypsum, and lead.
12. What the British agriculture known for?
The British agriculture is known for its high efficiency and productivity according to European standards and based on modern technology and research.
13. What are British farms engaged in?
About three-fifths of farms are engaged in dairy or beef cattle breeding and sheep-raising.
14. Production of what goods does manufacturing cover?
It is a broad category of output covering production of textiles, wood and metal products, paper, plastics, rubber, vehicles, machinery and equipment, and host of other produced goods.
15.What new industries has Britain made important advances in?
Britain has made important advances in electronics and telecommunications equipment, aircraft and aircraft engines, radio-isotopes and new medicines.
16.Why does Great Britain remain one of the most highly industrialized countries of the world?
Thanks to the increasing use of intensive methods and modern technologies Great Britain remains of the most highly industrialized countries of the world
17.Why is electronic data-processing equipment growing? What are the main electronicconsumergoods produced in the UK?
Britain has originated a lot of advanced technologies in microelectronics. The main electronic consumer goods produced are television sets, with an increasing proportion of widescreen and digital sets, electronic control equipment.
18.What can you say about the central bank of England? What is it responsible for?
The Bank of England, as the central bank, was nationalized in 1946 and is the bank of issue in England and Wales. It is responsible for the monetary policy of the country and also manages the country’s foreign exchange and gold reserves.
19.What is the basic unit of currency in Britain? What did the British government decide about euro?
The pound sterling is the basic unit of currency in Britain. The British government decided not to adopt the euro as its currency.
20.Why does government support and promote tourism?
Britain is one of the world’s foremost travel destinations and tourism is an essential part of Britain’s income. It employs about 1/5 million of the workforce and contributes about 3.5% to the GDP
21.What can you say about the London Underground?
London Underground operates more than 400km of railway and it serves 275 stations with more than 500 trains running during peak period. The underground provides reliable public transportation for an impressive number of commuters across a large metropolitan area. 15. THE ECONOMY OF UKRAINE
1. When did Ukraine gain its independence?
Ukraine gained its independence from the Soviet Unions on the 24th of August, 1991.
2. What problems did Ukraine face at the beginning of its independence?
Despite the huge amounts of natural resources possessed by the country, Ukraine entered the post-USSR era in a mess. A huge national debt, mixed with a heavy reliance on other nations for energy, and the political instability within the country during the move to a market economy has put a tremendous strain on the Ukrainian economy. The situation during the early 90's was so desperate that many workers haven't been paid for months, sometimes years. Other serious problems which occurred at the beginning of Ukraine's independence were high unemployment and inflation rates. In 1991 the unemployment rate was 19%, but by 1997 it had shrunk to 10%, slightly higher than Canada's rate.
3. What are the biggest cities of Ukraine and what are they famous for?
The biggest cities of Ukraine are Kiev, Kharkov, Dnepropetrovsk, Donetsk, Odessa and Zaporozhye. Kiev is the administrative, cultural, and financial core of Ukraine, represented by over 3 million citizens. Kiev's most famous historical architectural complexes are the St. Sophia Cathedral and the Kiev Pechersk Lavra (Monastery of the Caves), which are recognized by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. Kharkov is the city which can be said to produce everything from a needle to an aircraft. The architecture of Kharkov and its sightseeing attracts a lot of tourists: Uspenskiy (Dormition) Cathedral, Complex of Glory, Freedom Square which is the third large square in the Europe and the seventh in the world Militia Museum and many others. Dnepropetrovsk is the important center of the metallurgy industry und machine building, aerospace industry and rocket production. Among the most interesting sightseeing of Donetsk is Mertsalov's Palm. In August 2009 in Donetsk was opened Donbass Arena stadium, designed and built in accordance with the standards of UEFA category Elite. Odessa is a big city-port located in the south of Ukraine. Numerous historical places attract a lot of tourists to Odessa each year. For its beauty and location Odessa is called the pearl of the Black Sea. Zaporozhye On the basis of the power, a large metallurgical industry developed, including Zaporozhstal iron and steel plant, factories specializing in high-grade steels made in electric hearths, ferroalloys, titanium and aluminum smelting. Zaporozhye has one of the largest strip-rolling mills of Ukraine. Coke by-products supply is an important chemical industry of Zaporozhye. A range of engineering and light industries includes the manufacture of automobiles and electrical apparatus.
4. What are the main industries of Ukraine’s economy?
The main industries of Ukraine’s economy are power generation, fuels, ferrous and non-ferrous processing, chemicals, gas, machine-building, machinery-building, woodworking, and food production.
4.Which industries contribute to GDP of Ukraine most of all? What industries are the most export oriented?
GDP bysectoragriculture (9.8%), industry (32.3%), services (57.9%) (2009 est.) . By far the largest sector of the Ukraine economy is the service sector and accounts 57,9 % of GDP. The most export oriented industry is manufacturing and energy sectors. Exportgoodsferrousmetalsandnonferrousmetals, fuelandpetroleumproducts, chemicals, machineryandtransportequipment, foodproducts.
5.What are the most important sectors of Ukraine's industrial production?
Industry is the most important area of Ukraine’s economy. In the current structure of Ukraine’s industry a great proportion is occupied by heavy industry, especially the steel, machine-building and coal industries. A considerable part is played by the food and light industries. About two-fifth of Ukraine’s people work in industry, and about a fifth work in agriculture. Most other Ukrainian shave jobs in such service industries as education and health care.
6. What are the most important branches of Ukraine's agriculture?
There are two main branches of agricultural production in Ukraine: crop production1andanimal husbandry. Among the crops grown in Ukraine are sugar beet wheatryebarleyo at scorn, sunflower, a large variety of grain cultures, fruitandvegetables.Themostwidespreadbranchesofanimalhusbandryaredairyandbeefcattlebreedingandpigraising.
7.What is the position of Ukraine in the world's grain market?
Traditionally, Ukraine claims its position as one of the leading agricultural countries in the world. The country possesses 30 percent of world’s black soil – the most favorable oil for agriculture. This allows for a certain commercial advantage. Accordingly, agriculturalexportsbroughttenbilliondollarstotheUkrainianbudgetin 2011.
8. What are the main crops cultivated in Ukraine? What crops does Ukraine?
Historically, Ukraine is well known for its agricultural production. Among its main agricultural products are sugar beets, wheat, meat, and dairy products. Other crops include barley, corn, rye, andtobacco.
Ukraine produces a lot of agricultural production for exportsuch as wheat, barley, corn and also Industrial crops include sun flower, sugar beet and rape seed
9. What are Ukraine's main exports and imports?
Ukraine stop export is beverages, chemicals, food, fuel sand to bacco and the top import is food stuffs, fuels, machinery and manufactured goods. The Ukraine also is big in exporting medications, aircraftparts and Passenger cars. The Ukraine also import saircraft, gold, medication and computer parts mostly all from the US.
10. What can promote a suitable climate for persistent growth of Ukraine', economy?
One of the main problem of our economy – is a large diversification in incomes, and a large number of people who can’t satisfy even their first needs. As a result the decreasing of poverty rate means improving the business-enabling environment and increasing the competitiveness of Ukrainian firms. The economic downturn underlined further the need to diversify the economy and stimulate productivity and innovation in key sectors, and it will promote sutible business climate.
11. What are the priorities of the government's activity?
Ukraine has out lined its priorities for development, setting out an extensive plan for reformin such areas as:
• Rule of law and government effectiveness
• Trade an dinvestment
• Taxation and public finances
• Laws and standards
12. What should be the priority of the government - Euro 2012, stable local currency, social protection or something else? Why? Prove you opinion.