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Describe the advantages and disadvantages of pre-reading tasks.


Discussing information about the selection or assignment prior to reading must take place.
This may take the form of class discussions, printed previews, photographs, outlines, or films. Spend enough time before the students begin the assignment to ensure understanding of it.

Stimulate interest: through a listening or reading text, a speaking activity such as a role play, visuals, etc. Create a situation where a piece of writing is required. Discuss the text type - is it a letter, a poster, a story, etc? Think about the reader(s). Who are they? What will interest them? What do they need to know?

2 Working with ideas

Get ideas from the students - through brain storm ing, using word pools, mind maps, etc.

• Note down ideas.

• Develop the ideas.

• Choose those ideas to keep and those to be rejected,

• Order the ideas.



What is a method? Method is an overall plan for systematic presentation of language based upon a selected approach. Techniques are the specific activities manifested in the classroom, which are consistent with a method and therefore in harmony with an approach as well.

Approach: Theoretical positions and beliefs about the nature of language, the nature of language learning, and the applicability of both to pedagogical settings.

Method: A generalized, prescribed set of classroom specifications for accomplishing linguistic objectives. Methods tend to be primarily concerned with teacher and student roles and behaviors, and secondarily with such features as linguistic and subject-matter objectives, sequencing, and materials. They are almost always thought of as being broadly applicable to a variety of audiences in a variety of contexts.



The deductive approach maintains that a teacher teaches grammar by presenting grammatical rules, and then examples of sentences are presented. Once learners understand rules, they are told to apply the rules given to various examples of sentences.

In inductive reasoning, we begin with specific observations and measures, begin to detect patterns and regularities and finally end up developing some general conclusions or theories.


- lesson is straight to the point

- many rules can be more explicitly and quickly explained

- allow more time for practice and application

- time-saving.


- quite formal

- encourages the belief that learning a language is simply a case of knowing the rules

- passive and boring lesson- teacher-centered (one way communication)

Inductive approach


- meaningful, memorable and lesson

students discover themselves

-stimulate students’ cognitive

- active and interesting lesson

- students are actively involved in the lesson

- attentive and motivated


- time-taking

- sometimes can frustrate students who would prefer simply to be told the rule

–learning styles/inability to discover themselves

- students may reach false conclusions on grammar rules

- place heavy demands on teachers in planning a lesson

- need to select and organise the data careful


Date: 2015-12-17; view: 3610

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