What are the main features of Gothic architecture represented in the Rheims Cathedral?
The Rheims Cathedral, erected between 1211 and 1430, illustrates the main features of Gothic architecture. An examination of the facade indicates certain qualities inherent in Gothic church design. The lower portion of the facade contains huge portals which prove to be grand and imposing entrance ways. Directly above the main portal a huge rose window appears, flanked by monumental towers which reach far above the main portion of the cathedral. The towers create vertical thrusts. The rose window and the stained-glass windows along the cathedral’s sides flood the church with the tined light providing luminous richness to the interior. Minor towers with decorative pinnacles add accents to main tower, and niches containing religious statuary are incorporated in the facade.
Air-conditioning (Ìóñèõèíà: ñòð.80)
1. Air-conditioning is the bringing of air in a building to a desired temperature, purity, and humidity throughout the year to maintain healthy and comfortable atmosphere.Air-conditioning may be divided into two main sections: one for the processing of materials in industry; the other for human comfort. It has been found that there is an optimum condition of temperature and humidity at which the processing of different materials may be carried out with the minimum of wastage and the maximum of goods of specification quality. The system is therefore designed to produce air of predetermined temperature and moisture content and to keep it so despite all external influences. Such air is filtered free of foreign material.
2. Conditioning air for human comfort may also be divided into two main sections – winter and summer. Frequently, the systems installed in office buildings provide control during both seasons. Complete air-conditioning provides the following services.
First, filtration of the air both in winter and summer to remove dust.
Second, circulation of the air at low velocity and with proper diffusion to prevent draughts and maintain a uniform temperature and humidity at all parts of the inhabited space.
Third, introduction of enough fresh air from the outside atmosphere.
Fourth, heating of the air in winter.
Fifth, cooling of the air in summer below the outside atmosphere.
Sixth, humidifying the air in winter to a relative humidity of at least 20-25 per cent.
Seventh, dehumidifying the air in summer to a relative humidity not exceeding 55 per cent.
3. The basic pieces of equipment are the filters, preheat coils, humidifiers, reheat coils, additional cooling coils, fans and controls. The control of air purity can be achieved in various degrees. As a minimum control some sort of filtering must be done near the entrance of the air-conditioning system. Possibly the most efficient filtering device is the electrostatic precipitator.
4. Air conditioning for human comfort is employed in both large and small installations, such as theaters, office buildings, department stores, residences, airplanes, railways, cars and submarines.
5. People are comfortable when they are neither too cold, nor too warm and when the air about them is neither too dry, nor too damp and is not stuffy or dusty. To bring about these desirable conditions the heating or air-conditioning apparatus must be capable of maintaining the following conditions inside the house, whatever the conditions outside may be.
6. To avoid stuffiness, the air should be given a certain amount of motion. Under winter conditions this must be sufficient to distribute the heat uniformly throughout the rooms. It must not be too cold at the floor, not too hot at the ceiling. A stove causes the hot air around it to rise up toward the ceiling and cooler air to flow toward the stove. A radiator acts in this respect like a stove. Warm-air registers bring heated air into a room with a certain motion or velocity which imparts movement to the air already in the room. An outlet for this air should be provided in order to have good ventilation. In summer time much greater air motion is needed, enough to change the air in a room completely from three to ten times per hour. Sometimes a fan is placed in the attic to blow the warm air out and to cause the cooler night air to flow through open windows. When this is done, air in the house can be expected to be changed completely every two or three minutes. When air is brought into a house from outside, heated in a furnace and distributed through all the rooms, it ought to be cleaned by passing it through "filters" before it enters the furnace.
3. What Is Meant by "Bioclimatic Architecture"
1. Bioclimatic architecture is a way of designing buildings and manipulating the environment within buildings by working with natural forces around the building rather than against them. Thus it concerns itself with climate as a major contextual generator, and with benign environments using minimal energy as its target. Bioclimatic architecture aims to protect and enhance the environment and life. It is developing on many different levels from rethinking basic concepts about our need for shelter and the function of the "city" in our lives to developing recycled or sustainable building materials.
2. The impact of traditional building on the environment and natural resources is enormous. However, the idea of designing and building structures that are environmentally friendly has become fairly widespread throughout the community of architects and builders in developed nations. In many areas there is the necessity of complying with new regulations and standards aimed at protecting the environment. In addition, there are an increasing number of incentives for putting up buildings with more efficient energy consumption and that reduces the negative impacts on natural resources by using recycled or sustainable materials. While these vary around the world, there is awareness that our need for shelter must not jeopardize the environment.
3. There is growing interest in "green" building practices, which offer an opportunity to create environmentally sound and resource efficient buildings by using an integrated approach to design. "Green" buildings promote resource conservation through energy efficiency, renewable energy, and water conservation features. They take into consideration the environmental impact of the building and minimize waste. Other goals are to create a healthy and comfortable environment, reduce operation and maintenance costs, and address issues such as historical preservation, access to public transportation and other community infrastructure systems. The entire life cycle of the building and its components is considered, as well as the economic and environmental impact and performance.
4. As public awareness of environmental issues increases, the construction developers are also beginning to see that "green building" can be profitable and a selling point. Market surveys are showing that a surprising number of potential buyers are interested and will pay the higher prices for a home that is environmentally friendly. In the last few years there has been much talk concerning environmentally responsible architecture, that is, architecture respectful of the earth's resources and its natural beauty. Unfortunately, many of the architects and designers who profess interest in the concept of sustainable architecture do not practice it in their own work for whatever reason, be it their client's lack of interest or their own lack of conviction. In fact, most architects ignore the issue altogether, preferring to regard architecture as fashion. This is a terribly irresponsible view, because in terms of energy use and visual pollution, buildings have had an increasingly severe and damaging impact on the environment, this makes the issue of sustainable architecture not only an important consideration but also a necessary one. As for a building philosophy for national parks, which were created to conserve nature for future generations, it seems that sustainable architecture, or "integrated bioclimatic architecture", is the only logical and responsible approach.
5. What is integrated bioclimatic architecture? It is the architecture that arises out of the landscape, with the site determining the orientation and construction of a building, not just aesthetically, but also mechanically, determining its heating, cooling, and lighting too. Thus, it is an architecture that respects nature and its resources and provides its occupants with the most comfortable and pleasing environment possible. However, this architectural approach need not be a restrictive one for imaginative practitioners. As integrated bioclimatic architecture encompasses examples of vernacular architecture, like the typical "white stucco Mediterranean fishing village", as well as mimetic architecture, which draws on the materials textures, even the plants of the surrounding landscape for its inspiration. Indeed, good integrated bioclimatic architecture should exist in harmony with the site.