What is the main idea of Komissarov's theory of 'translation equivalence level'?
the translation process fluctuates passing from formal inter-language transformations to the domain of conceptual interrelations.
2. What is translation according to Retsker, Catford and Firth?
According to Retsker any two languages are related by «regular» correspondences (words, word-building patterns, syntactical structures) and «irregular» ones. The irregular correspondences cannot be formally represented and only the translators knowledge and intuition can help to find the matching formal expression in the target language for a concept expressed in the source language.
According to J. Firth16, in order to bridge languages in the process of translation, one must use the whole complex of linguistic and extralin-guistic information rather than limit oneself to purely linguistic objects and structures.
J. Catford17, similar to V. Komissarov and J. Firth, interprets translation as a multi-level process. He distinguishes between «total» and «restricted» translation - in «total» translation all levels of the source text are replaced by those of the target text, whereas in «restricted» translation the substitution occurs at only one level.
3. What is translation ranking?
the theories that divide the translation process into different levels theories
4. What translation ranks do you know?
there are different ranks of translation, that one rank of translation consists of rather simple substitutions whereas another involves relatively sophisticated and not just purely linguistic analysis.
5. What relationship is there between the approaches to translation and types of translation?
in oral consecutive translation priority is given to denotative method, because a translator is first listening to the speaker and only after some time formulates the translation, which is very seldom a structural copy of the source speech.
In simultaneous translation as opposed to consecutive priority is given to direct transformations since a simultaneous interpreter simply has no time for conceptual analysis.
In written translation, when you seem to have time for everything, priority is also given to simple transformations (perhaps, with exception of poetic translation).
Date: 2014-12-29; view: 1627