Dolls have ..46.. as children’s playthings for thousands of years. However, they were ..47.. manufactured as toys in large numbers in Germany in the ..48.. century. The centers of the industry were factories at Nuremberg, Augsburg, and Sonneberg. The dolls were primitive and ..49.. of wood, clay, rags, and wax. They were dressed in clothes to ..50.. German women of the time.
Soon factories in England, France, Holland, and Italy, as well as Germany, began ..51.. dolls dressed in fashions ..52.. of their respective countries. Another ..53.. of doll, "lady" dolls, were extremely expensive and elegant, and were used as gifts ..54.. the aristocracy. These dolls, and the "fashion" dolls, which were later manufactured in Paris, have remained popular ..55.. since. Such dolls were often used to model the latest clothing trends and were sent from one country to another to show off the latest fashions. Today they are prized collector’s ..56..
By the 17th century, however, ..57.. dolls began to appear, made of cloth or leather, and these were very ..58.. as toys for both boys and girls. There were several improvements in manufacturing. Dolls’ heads became more realistic, and new materials were used. ..59.. in the 18th century manufacturers developed soft leather which ..60.. like human skin, and this was used in the more expensive dolls. Dolls began to look, feel, and move more like humans.
46 A existed B been C used D sported
47 A initially B factored C first D final
48 A recent B fifteenth C fifteen D fiveteen
49 A fabricated B construction C fabric D made
50 A resemblance B be as C look like D appear
51 A production B produce C producing D produced
52 A clothes B typical C those D famous
53 A brand B make C breed D type
54 A among B for C to D with
55 A also B for C ever D until
56 A dolls B things C prizes D items
57 A latest B cloth C then D simpler
58 A adapted B suitable C useful D utilized
59 A Soon B But C Early D When
60 A resembled B fits C covering D felt
Part Two: Grammar and Vocabulary in Context Questions 61-75
The Penny Black
The Penny Black is the name of the world’s first postage stamp. It was introducedby the U.K. in 1840 and is perhaps the most ….61…. stamp ever issued. It has a … 62… of the young Queen Victoria and because of its color, and its ….63… of one penny, it is known as the ‘Penny Black’.
…..64…. 1840, postage rates for delivery of letters in the U.K. depended on the …. 65…. the letter had to travel and the number of sheets of paper used. Furthermore, ….66… that time it was not possible to pay foe your letter before you sent it. The postage had to be paid by the receiver …. 67…. than sender of the letter. The Penny Black changed everything: at the rate of one penny, letters that did not ….68… more than half an ounce could be sent to any ….69… in the U.K.
Nowadays, Penny Black stamps are not that rare although they are ….70… regarded by stamp collectors. About 68 million of these stamps were issued …71…. 1840 and 1841, and it is thought that about 1.5 million of these ….72…. today. The price of the stamp today varies according to whether it has been used or not and its condition. A fine used copy can be bought for around $77 or less, while unused examples are quite rare and sell for $2,000 or more.
To ….73… the U.K. for having issued the world’s first postage stamp, the Universal Postal Union has made an exception regarding its ….74…. that the name of the country must ….75….. on a stamp to date has ever had the country name on it.