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Simple and Perfect Gerund

Summary 4-3

Grammar: The Perfect (Past) Gerund

How many types of the Gerund do you know?

What痴 their structure?


Is this sentence possible: I知 proud of having done it.

How can you explain it? If the sentence is possible, how would you translate it?


Simple and Perfect Gerund

Rule: We use Simple Gerund to make generalizations. We use Perfect Gerund to show an action that occurred before the action of the main verb in the sentence. # Having met Jane in my first week of college helped me in my college career.
NB: We use a past gerund to emphasize the difference in time between two actions. The Simple Gerund is also correct in many situations. # Having gone to college is one of the best things I've ever done. OR Going to college is one of the best things I've ever done.



  1. Simple 2. Perfect
3. Active Structure: Ving I知 proud of inviting them   Structure: having +V3 I知 proud of having invited them
4. Passive   Structure: being + V3 I知 proud of being invited   Structure: having been V3 I知 proud of having been invited


You should remember that the gerund is always Simple or Perfect and at the same time, it is either Active or Passive.


Complete the sentences with simple gerunds or perfect gerunds. Use a past gerund if it痴 possible to do so.

Martha, who is 20 years older than I am, is my best cross-generational friend. _______________ 1. (meet) her when I was an unhappy college sophomore (糘韭) is one of the best things that has ever happened to me. Martha and I have stayed friends. I look forward to _______________ 2. (see) her whenever our schedules permit. Our relationship hasn't always been smooth (肭琅韜), though.

Martha and I were both in the same class. I was having a lot of difficulty and was angry at myself for _______________ 3. (enroll 鈞頌瑣) in a class that I didn't need for my degree. It was too late to drop the class, however, and since I was frustrated, I frequently got irritated with the teacher for _______________ 4. (assign) so much difficult homework every day.

Martha stopped me one day after class. She said she was tired of my continual _______________ 5.(argue) with the teacher. "You need to grow up," she said. I was offended at first, but the older I get the clearer it is to me that her _______________ 6.(say) that amounts to one of the major events in my life. I had to change my negative attitude. I did need to grow up.

A few days later I asked Martha if she would mind _______________ 7. (study) with me and _______________ 8. (help) me with the homework. She agreed. With a lot of patient work, I succeeded in _______________ 9. (pass) the course. Eventually we became great friends.

I suspect that most of us know someone whose _______________ 10. (tell) us what we needed to hear when we needed to hear it has made a difference in our life. Martha has certainly made a difference in mine.


Homework for the 18-th of September

Date: 2015-12-11; view: 1046

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Review the Articles Rules, do the exercise | a. For each sentence, write down: the form of the Infinitive and its structure. Translate the sentences.
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