EXERCISE 10. Complete the sentences using the words in bold.
1. "Let me help you with your essay," the professor said to me.
suggested The professor ….. my essay.
2. He started taking driving lessons three weeks ago.
beenHe….. for three weeks.
3. I haven't spoken to Paul for ages.
sinceIt's ages….. Paul.
4. "Would you like me to do the shopping?" Steve said,
offered Steve….. the shopping.
5. "I'm sorry I came late," Pam said.
comingPam ….. late.
6. She went to Glasgow two weeks ago.
been She ….. two weeks.
7. "Don't play football on the grass!" he said to us.
forbadeHe ….. on the grass.
8. "You lied to the police," he said to Mark.
lying He to the police.
9. "No, I won't ask her out again," he said.
refusedHe ….. again.
10. "Ok, it was me who broke the window," he said,
having He ….. the window.
11. It's a month since I last saw Peter.
for I ….. a month.
12. She has never eaten caviar before.
time It's the ….. caviar.
13. He hasn't called us yet.
still He ….. us.
RELATIVE CLAUSES: Level B
Relative Clauses are introduced with:
a) relative pronouns: who, whom, whose, which or that
b) relative adverbs: when, where or why.
| Relative pronouns
| Subjectof the verb of the relative clause(cannot be omitted)
|| Object of the verb of the relative clause (can be omitted)
|| Possession(cannot be omitted)
| Used for people
| There’s the boy who/that started the fight.
|| Here’s the woman (who/that) I told you about last week.
|| This is Mrs Smith, whose daughter works in my office.
| Used for things/
|| whose/of which
| I saw a film which/that was very good
|| This is the book (which/that) I read last week.
|| This is the house whose roof/the roof of which was destroyed.
| Who, whom, which or that can be omitted when there is a noun or personal pronoun between the relative pronoun and the verb, that is, when they are the objects of the relative clause. When who, which etc are subjects of the relative clause, they cannot be omitted.
The dress (which/that) you bought yesterday is very nice.(can be omitted)
The man whocalled just now is my brother..(cannot be omitted)
| Relative Adverbs
|| when (= in/on/at which)
|| July is the month when a lot of tourists visit the country.
|| where (= in/at/on/to which)
|| That’s the hotel where the guests are staying.
|| why (=for which)
|| Lack of money is the reason (why)we are not going on holiday.
| Prepositions in Relative Clauses
| We usually avoid putting prepositions before relative pronouns.
That’s the boy with whom I shared the room. (formal – not usual)
That’s the boy who/that I shared the room with. (less formal)
That’s the boy I shared the room with. (more usual)
| || || || || || |
Defining / Non- Defining Relative Clauses
| Adefiningrelative clause gives necessary information and is essential to the meaning of the main sentence. The clause is not put in commas. Who, which or that can be omitted when they are the object of the relative clause.
He’s the actor whostared in the new film.
That’s the letter (which/that ) Sally sent me.
| Anon-definingrelative clause gives extra information and is not essential to the meaning of the main sentence. In non-defining relative clauses the relative pronouns cannot be omitted. That cannot replace who or which. The relative clause is put in commas.
John, who is very lazy, failed his test again.
Date: 2015-12-11; view: 1965