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Special forms of tourism

Text 1. Tourism

The act of travelling can be described by a number of synonyms which differ by various implications. They all describe the act of going from one place to another, but differ by the length of time taken by that act, by its purpose, destination or by the method of travelling. Travel the act of travelling, especially a long one in distant or foreign places, either for the purpose of discovering something new or in search of pleasure and adventure. Journey the act of going from one place to another, usually taking a rather long time. You often make the journey alone. Going on a journey is always exciting. Voyage a rather long journey, especially by water or air. Trip a journey, an excursion, frequently a brief one, made by land or water. Tour a journey in which a short stay is made at a number of places, usually with the view of sightseeing, the traveler finally returning to the place from which he had started. Cruise a sea voyage from port to port, especially a pleasure trip. Hitch-hiking travelling by getting free rides in passing cars and walking between rides. Hitch-hiking is a comparatively new way of travelling which gives one a chance to see much without spending anything.

Tourismcan be defined as the act of travel for the purpose of recreation, and the provision of services for this act. A touristis someone who travels at least fifty miles from home, as defined by the World Tourism Organization (a United Nations body).

A more comprehensive definition would be that tourism is a service industry, comprising a number of tangible and intangible components. The tangible elements include transportation systems - air, rail, road, water and now, space; hospitality services - accommodation, foods and beverages, tours, souvenirs; and related services such as banking, insurance and safety & security. The intangible elements include: rest and relaxation, culture, escape, adventure, new and different experiences.

Many sovereignties, along with their respective countries and states, depend heavily upon travel expenditures by foreigners as a source of taxation and income for the enterprises that sell (export) services to these travellers. Consequently the development of tourism is often a strategy employed either by a Non-governmental organization (NGO) or a governmental agency to promote a particular region for the purpose of increasing commerce through exporting goods and services to non-locals.

Sometimes Tourism and Travel are used interchangeably. In this context travel has a similar definition to tourism, but implies a more purposeful journey. The term tourism is sometimes used pejoratively, implying a shallow interest in the societies and natural wonders that the tourist visits.

"Travel", as an economic activity, occurs when the essential parameters come together

to make it happen. In this case there are three such parameters: 1. Disposable income, i.e. money to spend on non-essentials; 2. Time in which to do so.; 3. Infrastructure in the form of accommodation facilities and means of transport.

Individually, sufficient health is also a condition, and of course the inclination to travel. Furthermore, in some countries there are legal restrictions on travelling, especially abroad. Communist states restrict foreign travel only to "trustworthy" citizens. The United States prohibits its citizens from traveling to some countries, for example, Cuba.

Wealthy people have always travelled to distant parts of the world to see great buildings or other works of art; to learn new languages; or to taste new cuisine. As long ago as the time of the Roman Republic places such as Baiae were popular coastal resorts for the rich.

The terms tourist and tourism were first used as official terms in 1937 by the League of Nations. Tourism was defined as people travelling abroad for periods of over 24 h. The word tour gained acceptance in the 18th century, when the Grand Tour of Europe became part of the upbringing of the educated and wealthy British nobleman or cultured gentleman. Grand tours were taken in particular by young people to "complete" their education. They travelled all over Europe, but notably to places of cultural and aesthetic interest, such as Rome, Tuscany and the Alps.

The British aristocracy were particularly keen on the Grand Tour, using the occasion to gather art treasures from Europe to add to their collections. The volume of art treasures being moved to Britain in this way was unequalled anywhere else in Europe, and explains the richness of many private and public collections in Britain today. Yet tourism in those days, aimed essentially at the very top of the social ladder and at the well educated, was fundamentally a cultural activity. These first tourists, though undertaking their Grand Tour, were more travellers than tourists.

Most major British artists of the eighteenth century did the "Grand Tour", as did their great European contemporaries such as Claude Lorrain. Classical architecture, literature and art have always drawn visitors to Rome, Naples, Florence. The Romantic movement (inspired throughout Europe by the English poets William Blake and Lord Byron, among others), extended this to Gothic countryside, the Alps, fast flowing rivers, mountain gorges, etc.

Special forms of tourism

For the past few decades other forms of tourism have been becoming more popular,


Adventure tourism: Tourism involving travel in rugged regions, or adventurous sports such as mountaineering and tramping.

Agritourism: Farm based tourism, helping to support the local agricultural economy.

Ecotourism: Sustainable tourism which has minimal impact on the environment, such as safaris (Kenya) and Rainforests (Belize), or national parks.

Cultural tourism: Usually urban tourism, visiting historical or interesting cities, such as London, Paris, Prague, Rome, Cairo, Beijing, Kyoto, etc.

Heritage tourism: Visiting historical or industrial sites, such as old canals, railways, battlegrounds, etc.

Health tourism: Usually to escape from cities or relieve stress, perhaps for some 'fun in the sun', etc. Often to "health spas".

Sport tourism: Particularly skiing.

Sex tourism: mostly men from First World countries visiting Third World countries for purpose of engaging in sexual acts, usually with inexpensive local prostitutes. This form of tourism is often cited the principal way that paedophiles can hire child prostitutes.

Perpetual tourism: Wealthy individuals always on holiday, some of them, for tax purposes, to avoid being resident in any country.

Drug tourism (for use in that country, or, legally often extremely risky, for taking home)

Gambling tourism, e.g. to Atlantic City, Las Vegas, Macau or Monte Carlo for the purpose of visiting the casinos there.

Disaster tourism: travelling to a disaster scene not primarily for helping, but because one finds it interesting to see. It can be a problem if it hinders rescue, relief and repair work.

Medical tourism, e.g.: for what is illegal in one's own country, e.g. abortion.

Armchair tourism and virtual tourism: not travelling physically, but exploring the world through internet, books, TV, etc.

Space tourism

Regional tourism Tourism bundle of few country in the region, using one of the country as the transit point. The country of transit point is usually a country with good transport infrastructure. e.g. Singapore is the base for tourism for South East Asia due to its

strategic location and good transport infrastructure.

The World Tourism Organization forecasts that international tourism will continue growing at the average annual rate of 4 percent (http://www.world-tourism.org). By 2020 Europe will remain the most popular destination, but its share will drop from 60 percent in 1995 to 46 percent. Long-haul will grow slightly faster than intraregional travel and by 2020 its share will increase from 18 percent in 1995 to 24 percent


Date: 2015-12-11; view: 2027

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