Supply the past perfect or simple past in the following sentences.
1. The policeman read the suspect his rights after he (arrest) him.
2. After John (wash) his clothes, he began to study.
3. George (wait) for one hour before the bus came.
4. Maria (enter) the university after she had graduated from the community college.
5. Jeanette (wash) the pipettes after she had completed the experiment.
6. Jane sent a letter to her university after she (receive) her scholarship check.
7. After the stewardesses had served lunch to the passengers, they (sit) down.
8. The car (flip) ten times before it landed on its roof.
9. We corrected our papers after we (take) the quiz.
10. John (live) in Miami for one year when his parents came to visit.
Exercise 9.1: Past Perfect and Simple Past
Underline the correct word or phrase in each sentence.
1. While I had waited/was waiting/waited at the bus stop, I had noticed/was noticing/noticed a new shop which wasn't/hadn't been in the street the day before.
2. I had gone/went out into the garden to fetch my bike, but found/was finding that someone stole/had stolen it.
3. When George met/was meeting Diane at the party, he thought/was thinking that he saw/had seen/was seeing her somewhere before.
4. Emily got off/was getting off the bus, and walked/was walking into the bank when she realized/had realized/was realizing that she left/had left/was leaving her handbag on the bus.
5. After I was buying/had bought my new computer, I discovered that I wasn't having/didn't have enough memory.
6. I went to the post office to ask about my package, but they had said/said that it still hadn't arrived/didn't arrive.
Remember that the subject and verb in a sentence must agree in person and number.
The elevator works very well. The elevators work very well.
• Subject separated from the verb: When taking the TOEFL, you must always check the subject and verb to be sure they agree. However, sometimes it is difficult to decide exactly what the subject is if the subject and verb are separated.
The boys in the room are studying.
Very often, if the subject and verb are separated, they will be separated by a prepositional phrase. The prepositional phrase has no effect on the verb.
subject + [prepositional phrase] + verb
The study of languages is very interesting.
Several theories on this subject have been proposed.
The view of these disciplines varies from time to time.
The danger of forest fires is not to be taken lightly.
The effects of that crime are likely to be devastating.
The fear of rape and robbery has caused many people to flee the cities.
The following expressions also have no effect on the verb.
together with along with
accompanied by as well as
The actress, along with her manager and some friends, is going to a party tonight.
Mr. Robbins , accompanied by his wife and children, is arriving tonight.
Note: If the conjunction and is used instead of one of these phrases, the verb would then be plural.
The actress and her manager are going to a party tonight.