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Exercise 7.1: Simple Past Tense and Past Progressive

Choose the best answer.

 

1. While I washed/was washing my hair, the phone rang/ringed.

2. How did you felt/did you feel yesterday afternoon?

3. When I got/was getting home I received/was receiving a phone call.

4. Last summer I was going swimming/went swimming every weekend.

5. When the dog bit/was biting Laura's leg, she screamed/was screaming.

6. We sang/sung some songs and then ate/eat some sandwiches.

7. When you fell/felt over the cliff, what happened/was happening next?

8. While Mary washed-up/was washing-up, she broke/was breaking a cup.

9. I didn't see/saw where the bus stop was, so I was missing/missed the bus.

10. What did you do/were you doing when I phoned/was phoning you last night? There was no reply.

 

• Present perfect: Use the following rule to form the present perfect.

subject + has have + verb in past participle …

 

The present perfect is used to indicate:

(1) An action that happened at an indefinite time in the past.

John has traveled around the world. (We don't know when.)

 

(2) An action that happened more than once in the past.

George, has seen this movie three times.

 

(3) An action that began in the past and is still occurring in the present.

John has lived in the same house for twenty years. (He still lives there.)

OR

John has lived in the same house since 1962. (He still lives there.)

 

• For / since: Use for + duration of time: for five hours, for thirty years, for ten minutes. Use since + beginning time: since 1972, since five o'clock, since January.

• Yet/ already: The adverbs yet and already are used to indicate that something has happened (or hasn't happened) at an unspecified time in the past. These adverbs are often used with the present perfect.

already – affirmative sentences
yet – negative sentences and questions

 

Note: Already usually appears between the auxiliary and the main verb; however, it can appear at the beginning or end of the sentence. Yet appears at the end of the sentence.

subject + has have + already verb in past participle …

 

subject + has have + not + verb in past participle + yet…

 

Examples of yet and already:

We-have already written our reports.

We haven't written our reports yet.

Gabriel has already read the entire book.

The president hasn't decided what to do yet.

Sam has already recorded the results of the experiment.

Maria hasn't called her parents yet.

 

Note: Another option with the use of yet is sometimes possible. In this case, the verb is positive and the adverb yet does not appear at the end of the sentence.

subject + has have + yet + verb in infinitive …

 

John has yet to learn the material. - John hasn't learned the material yet.

We have yet to decide what to do with the money. - We haven't decided what to do with the money yet.



 

• Present perfect progressive (continuous): For category (3) of the present perfect rules only, it is also possible to use the present perfect progressive (continuous). Use the following rule to form this aspect.

 

subject + has have + been + verb + -ing …

 

John has been living in the same house for twenty years. = John has lived in the same house for twenty years.

 

Examples of present perfect:

Jorge has already walked to school.

He has been to California three times.

John has worked in Washington for three years.

OR

John has been working in Washington for three years.

Mary has seen this movie before.

They have been at home all day.

We haven't gone to the store vet.

 

Exercise 8: Present Perfect and Simple Past

Use either the present perfect or the simple past in the following sentences.

 

1. John (write) his report last night.

2. Bob (see) this movie before.

3. Jorge (read) the newspaper already.

4. Mr. Johnson (work) in the same place for thirty-five years, and he is not planning to retire yet.

5. We (begin; negative) to study for the test yet.

6. George (go) to the store at ten o'clock this morning.

7. Joan (travel) around the world.

8. Betty (write) a letter last night.

9. Guillermo (call) his employer yesterday.

10. We (see; negative) this movie yet.

 

Exercise 8.1: Present Perfect and Simple Past

There are mistakes in some of these sentences. Find the mistakes and correct them.

 

1. I live in Brighton. I lived here for ten years.

2. Tolstoy has written War and Peace.

3. I started studying Spanish two years ago.

4. Oh, no! Look! Someone stole my car radio!

5. Who has discovered America?

6. We've played tennis yesterday afternoon.

7. When have you passed your driving test?

8. When did Neil Armstrong walk on the moon?

9. I never ate Chinese food in my life.

10. Look at Mike! He grew a beard!

Exercise 8.2: Present Perfect and Simple Past

Complete each sentence with a time word or phrase from the box.

yet for since often ever never already so far just always

 

1. Luis has lived in the city centre .... 1996.

2. Thanks for the present! I've....... wanted a pet goldfish!

3. Have you.. drunk pineapple juice? It's fantastic!

4. I've ….. heard some fantastic news! I've passed my exams!

5. Hurry up! Haven't you finished........ ? You're so slow!

6. Nina has worked in this company......... five years.

7. I've ….. been on a big ship before. It's an interesting experience!

8. We're very busy today. ….. we've sold over a hundred bikes.

9. I've …… passed this building, but this is the first time I've been inside.

10. Can I have a different book? I've ….. read this one.

Exercise 8.3: Present Perfect and Simple Past

Underline the correct word or phrase in each sentence.

 

1. I live here/I've lived here since the end of last year.

2. I'm afraid the last train left/has left an hour ago.

3. Someone has just stolen/has just been stealing my bicycle.

4. Thank you for your offer, but / decided/I've decided not to accept.

5. Yesterday I lost/I've lost my wallet.

6. Take your umbrella with you. It started/It's started raining.

7. We're enjoying our trip. We visited/We've visited two countries so far.

8. I'm standing here/I've been standing here for hours and I feel tired.

9. This was/has been a busy day and it isn't over yet!

10. I feel really tired. We went/We've been to a party last night.

 

• Past perfect: Use the following rule to form the past perfect.

subject + had + verb in past participle

 

The past perfect is used to indicate:

(1) An action that happened before another action in the past; there usually are two actions in the sentence.

John had gone to the store before he went home.

Jack told us yesterday that he had visited England in 1970.

 

The past perfect is usually used with the adverbs before, after, or when. Study the following formulas.

subject + past perfect + before + subject + simple past tense

 

John had gone to the store before he went home.

 

subject + simple past tense + after + subject + past perfect

 

John went home after he had gone to the store.

 

before + subject + simple past tense + subject + past perfect

 

Before John went home, he had gone to the store.

 

after + subject + past perfect + subject + simple past tense

After John had gone to the store, he went home.

 

Note: The adverb when can be used in place of before or after in any of these four formulas without change in meaning. We still know which action happened first because of the use of past perfect.

(2) A state which continued for a time in the past, but stopped before now. This is similar to rule number (3) for present perfect, but in this case, there is no connection with the present.

Abdu had lived in New York for ten years before he moved to California.

 

• Past perfect progressive (continuous): For category (2) of past perfect only, we can also use the past perfect progressive (continuous). Study the following rule.

subject + had + been + verb + -ing …

 

Abdu had been living in New York for ten years before he moved to California.

 

Examples of past perfect:

The professor had reviewed the material before he gave the quiz.

After Henry had visited Puerto Rico, he went to St. Thomas.

Before Ali went to sleep, he had called his family.

George had worked at the university for forty-five years before he retired.

OR

George had been working at the university for forty-five years before he retired.

After the committee members had considered the consequences, they voted on the proposal.

The doctor had examined the patient thoroughly before he prescribed the medication.


Date: 2015-12-11; view: 2062


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