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morpheme feautures of words and gramm meanings

Categorical notions

Gramm forms and categories


Each class of words is characterized by a certain number of categories. Some of them are really important to the Parts of the language.(N, V, adj, adv etc.)

gramm categories

Primary (inherent) Reflective



Categorical notions


Category --- a specific form of a presentation.

---symbolizes the most general notion

---a system of expressing generalized gramm meaning

by means of paradigmatic correlation of gramm forms

---is a paradigm (is a set of forms)


Opposition (Trybetskoj) – opposition of forms is a paradigm too.

---binary privative oppositions (Pr Ind – Past Ind, sing – plur)

---strong (marked) member of opposition + - (to be written)

---weak member of opposition - - (to write)

is the most typical in English

---equipollentisolated opposition (is, am, are)

---gradual oppositions (good, better, the best)

oppositional substitution – one form is used instead of the other form. (man-men)

+ sharp substitution of forms (to be or not to be)


Neutralisation of the opposition – one member of the form is used in general (man is fool)

Transposition ( I just quite don’t like her eye)


Gramm forms and categories


Grammatical forms:

Synthetical Analytical
Inner inflexion (man-men) Outer inflexion (work – worked) Phenomenon of suppletivity - interchange of roots (to go, went, gone) Lexical (advise- pieces of advise)     Components of the words morpheme – (has| been| written) Specific stylistically colored gramm forms – grammatical repetition – to produce stylist. effect ---exposes semantics ---intensifies the meaning ---emphasizes the degree of quality ---identifies the indefinite number of objects (they talked for a long-long time)  



Lecture 5

the Verb, complexity and categorial specifics


1. the verb: situation and reality

Categorial meaning

Functional value

Forms of WB

Classes of verbs

Notional verbs

Types of categorization

verbs combining power – valency

The synt valency


Finite and non finite

The verbals paradigm



1. the verb: situation and reality


Verbs categorial meaning – process developing in time

Finite (personal form) Non-finite (impersonal)
Agree with the person and number     Plays a central role in the predication of a sentence, makes up the primary predication Don’t agree Are very specific   Form additional secondary predication   4 types – Infinitive – verbal name of process Gerund Participle1 and Participle2  


WB specifics:

1. simple (go, take, try, sing)

2. sound replacive (blood-bleed, food-feed)

3. stress replacive (export – to export)

4. composite (blackmail – to blackmail)

5. expanded (normal – normalize)


Linear characteristics:

--- continuous / discontinuous

--- full nominative value – notional verbs / partial nominative value – semi notional verbs


--- perceptional (seem, look)

--- factual (to become, to grow)

--- linking verbs - Linking function



combining power – valency

Obligatory Optional
V+N V+N in the function of the direct object (she wrote a letter of application)  


Date: 2015-12-11; view: 1120

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