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Morphemic structure of words

Lecture 1

Language as a system


Language and its 3 basic parts

Correlation between grammar and meaning

Relations between language units


Language and its 3 basic parts


Language is a social phenomenon, developing with the society, due to the varies social factors.

It is the reason why many specific branches of sociolinguistics exist.


3 basic parts (constituents) of the language:


Phonological Lexical Grammar
Phonological units determine the material appearance of words and word groups A set of naming things Set of regularities for writing and speaking, that regulates the formation of utterances



Correlation between grammar and meaning


Meaning – grammatical and lexical

general narrowed, individ.


The important element of grammar form is Word order (direct, indirect, inverted)

plays specific role in the language,

differentiates the style of speaking

syntactic stylistic devices


Grammar subsystem regulates phonetics and lexics.


There is a Plain of content and plain of expression. Correlation between them is complicated. There is no 1 – to - 1 correlation, that’s why synonyms exist.




Relations between language units



Syntagmatic (SR) Paradigmatic (PR)
Linear sequences of units   Syntactic Syntagma (SS) - the combination of 2 units, notional word grouping, Relations in the “absence”  
Types of SS:  
PSS – predicative Syntactic Syntagma Combinations of subj. and pred.  
OSS – objective Syntactic Syntagma Combinations of verb and obj.  
AttrSS – attributive Syntactic Syntagma Combinations of N and attr.  
AdvSS – adverbial Syntactic Syntagma Combinations of verb and adv.  
The spaceship was launchedPSS without the help of a booster rocketAttrSS.  


Units of languages


1. the hierarchy of segmental and suprasegmental units

2. levels of lingual units phonetic






3. syndetic and asyndetic; the functional status of level-forming units.



the functions of a Superproposeme - sentence grouping, that consists of some sentences

that are not isolated.

they make a different style of communication.

1. nominative

2. predicative

3. topicalization

4. stylization


the smallest unit of syntactics – morpheme

the biggest – superproposeme


2 sublevels of grammar

Lowest Morphemic level the smallest unit of MS (morph.system) – morpheme – means form (Bodyen de Kyrtene (1841)   Highest Syntactic level



Lecture 3

The morphological subsystem of language


Morphemic structure of words

Word as a complex many-sided phenomenon

More insight into the morphemic structure of words

Specifics of the morpheme


morphemic structure of words


Morpheme means form.,

it is an abstract unit that represents MS through the numbers of its variants – Morphs



smallest language unit


Allomorph – means something actual, is the realization of the morpheme



Each word has its morphemic composition. we can find the morpheme only within the structure of a word.

(beauty/full - affix) 2 sides – lexical and grammatical


2 criteria of a classification of a morpheme (traditional)

Positional Semantic
Takes into account the position of a morpheme within a word Morphemes contributes into general semantics of a word
Morphemes are represented by Morphs Root morphemes and affixal morphemes  
Central morpheme Prefixes Suffixes Grammatical suffixes =inflections WB functions  

Prefix + root morpheme + Lexical suffix + grammatical suffix


Allo-emic theory – theory of descriptive linguistics – helps identify semantic properties of ling units

1. differentiates imunits and allounits

general concrete

abstract real

Specific identification of lingual units with the help of distributional analysis. (how the units are distributed?)

Types of distribution:

Contrastive Non-contrastive Complementary
Contrast No contrast at all 1 gram meaning through different morphs
Listened – listening   Learned – learnt Listen – listening
    phonological morphological


Allo-emic theory classifies morphemes distributionaly: factors


1. morpheme is classified on the basis of a degree of self-dependence:

free – capable of making words by themselves (free, root morphemes)

bound – affixal morphemes

(hand root/ full affix )


2. basis of a formal presentation: whether we can see or not

overt - explicit

covert – implicit

(comeexplicit [0] implicit – come explicit s explicit)


3. grammatical alternation:

additive - edited to the stem of the word

replacive - mechanism of changes – one root is replaced by another root

(drive, drove, driven) , (woman – women)

(clock – clock[s] – additive )


4. basis of linear characteristics:

continuous - uninterrupted

discontinuous – (have been doing – 1 morpheme (3 constituents))

(She has been writing – discontinuous this article for a number of years)



Traditional distributional
Positional Semantic (root, affixes- prefixes, lexical suffixes, inflections) Degree of self dependence Formal presentation Grammatical alternation Linear characteristics


lecture 4

Categorial specifics of the word


Date: 2015-12-11; view: 2197

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