Except perhaps for local or very short flights, a pilot, before taking off, obtains a weather forecast(1)giving him the weather conditions which are expected along the route of his flight and at his destination. Because weather conditions affect aircraft in flight, to a considerable extent, special aviation forecasts are provided by meteorologists(2)at weather offices all over the world.
The meteorologist, or forecaster, prepares a weather chart which shows the current weather conditions(3)over the whole country. The current weather chart is called a synoptic chart. (4)This synoptic chart shows the areas of low pressure,(5) the areas of high pressure,(6) where precipitation(7)is falling, and all other weather conditions across the country.
From this weather map, the forecaster can advise pilots of the weather conditions they can expect to encounter during their flights. A high pressure area, for instance usually means good weather while a low pressure area usually involves one or more fronts(8)producing clouds and precipitation over many hundreds of miles.
A pilot needs to know the wind direction and speed. A headwind(9)will obviously delay the arrival of flights and is to be avoided if at all possible. A tailwind(10)on the other hand, can be of great advantage as it increases the ground speed(11)and results in a reduction in fuel consumption. Winds vary with altitude, and also from one place to another, so information on winds is very important.
Pilots will pay particular attention to a low which lies en route, and the weather conditions associated with that low pressure area. The associated cold(12)or warm fronts(13)could involve clouds, thunderstorm, snow, rain, and turbulence. From his charts, the meteorologist can forecast where this weather will be at a certain time in the future, and with the help of these predictions, the pilot will decide which route to fly and when and he will know what weather conditions to expect. Should the forecast be very bad, for example, dense fog or poor visibility due to snow, the pilot may decide to postpone his flight. A pilot flying VFR would also cancel his flight because of low ceiling(14)or low overcast(15) conditions en route.
1. Weather forecast
─ Weather prediction; future weather.
─ The person qualified to predict a forecast of the weather.
3. Current weather conditions
─ The present weather conditions.
4. Synoptic chart
─ Weather map showing the present weather conditions.
5. Area of low pressure (low pressure area)
─ An area as shown on the weather map when the pressure decreases towards the centre.
6. Area of high pressure (high pressure area)
─ An area as shown on the weather map when the pressure increases towards the centre.
─ Rain, snow, hall or any water that falls to the ground in liquid or solid form.
─ An imaginary line on the ground which marks the division of the two air masses.
─ The wind in the opposite direction to the travel of the aircraft.
─ The wind in the same direction to the travel of the aircraft.
11. Ground speed
─ The speed of an aircraft measured on the ground. This speed is affected by a headwind which would reduce it, or by a tailwind which would increase the ground speed.
12. Cold front
─ A cold front is formed when a moving cold air mass meets a stationary warm air mass.
13. Warm front
─ A warm front is formed when a moving warm air mass meets a stationary cold air mass.
─ The base of the clouds which cover more than 50% of the sky.
─ The sky conditions when 90% or more is covered by clouds.
1. I heard the weather forecast on the radio this morning. It said it was going to rain. Is it raining now? Does it always rain just because it is forecast? Is the weather forecast importanttothe pilot? To a sailor?To a motorist? To whom is the weather forecast important? What is the weather forecast for today? For tomorrow? When does a pilot need the weather forecast, before or after the flight?
2. A meteorologist is qualified to forecast the Can a meteorologist forecast the weather? Can a meteorologist prepare a weather map? What can a meteorologist do? Can a farmer forecast the weather? A sailor? How does a farmer forecast the weather? A sailor? A meteorologist?
3. The current weather conditions in this area are good/poor/cloudy/overcast etc. Look out of the window and describe the current weather. Are you interested in the current weather? In tomorrow's weather? In yesterday's weather? Why are you only interested in the current weather and in tomorrow's weather? Why is the pilot more interested in the weather forecast than in the current weather?
4. Does a meteorologist prepare the synoptic chart? Does he prepare the navigational chart? What chart does a meteorologist prepare?
5. Does a low pressure area bring poor weather? Does a low pressure area also bring good weather? What sort of weather does a low pressure area bring? Can a low pressure area affect an area many hundreds of miles away? Can it bring clouds/ rain/snow/hail/other precipitation? Can a meteorologist show a low pressure area on his chart? Who is interested in a low pressure area? Why is a pilot interested in a low pressure area?
6. Does a high pressure area bring fair weather? Sunny skies? Clear days? Does a meteorologist show a high pressure area on a synoptic chart? How does he show a high or a low pressure area on his synoptic chart?
7. Is rain precipitation? Snow? Hail? Turbulence? Wind? Name three kinds of precipitation.
8. Is a headwind in front of the aircraft? Do pilots like headwinds? Does a plane consume more or less fuel with a headwind? Does a plane go faster or slower with a headwind? Does a plane arrive early or late with a headwind?
9. If headwinds are in front of a plane, are tailwinds in the rear? Are tailwinds good for fuel consumption? What winds do pilots prefer? Why do pilots prefer tailwinds?
10. If a pilot travels a distance of 100 miles in one hour is his ground speed 100 mph? If he travels a distance of 60 miles in one hour what is his ground speed? What type of wind affects his ground speed?
11. Is a front shown on a weather map? Does a forecaster show a front on a synoptic chart? Does he show a front on the synoptic chart to the pilot? To the navigator? To the radio maintenance technician? To whom does he show a front on the synoptic chart? How many types of fronts are there?
12. Do we find cold fronts on a weather map? On a navigation map? On what sort of maps do we find cold fronts? Does a meteorologist prepare a weather map showing the cold fronts? Does a pilot prepare a weather map showing the cold fronts? Who prepares a weather map showing the cold fronts?
13. Is a warm front also found on a weather map? Can pilots recognize a warm front on a weather map? Does everyone recognize a warm front on a weather map? Who recognizes a warm front on a weather map?
14. A low ceiling means that the clouds are low. Are the clouds low today? Do we have a low ceiling? Would the ceiling today trouble a pilot? Is 800 feet a low ceiling? 15,000 feet? What do you consider is a low ceiling of clouds? What effect can a low ceiling have on flying?
15. With a low ceiling are there many clouds in the sky? Are there more clouds in the sky when the sky is overcast? Can you see any blue sky when the sky is overcast? What colour is the sky when it is overcast?
Instructions to students: The verb "to advise" and the noun "the advice" often cause some confusion. Similarly the verb "to affect" and the noun "the effect". In the following sentences choose the correct word.
a.) Forecasters can advice/advise pilots of the weather conditions.
b.) What advise/advice do pilots receive from forecasters?
c.) What affect/effect could a low pressure area have on an area hundreds of miles away?
d.) Does a low pressure area affect/effect an area hundreds of miles away?
e.) Snowstorms affect/effect aerodromes to the extent that all planes are grounded.
f.) What are the affects/effects of snowstorms on aerodromes?
g.) What affect/effect did the turbulence have on the passengers?
h.) Did the turbulence effect/affect the passengers?
i.) The engineer can advise/advice the pilot when fuel is low.
j.) The advise/advice the engineer gave the pilot was that his fuel was low.
k.) Will you advise/advice me of the precipitation in that area?
l.) I must receive advise/advice of the precipitation in that area.
m.) The affects/effects of metal fatigue on aircraft can be very dangerous.
n.) Metal fatigue effects/affects aircraft and can be very dangerous.
THE CONTROL TOWER
The control of air traffic on, or in the vicinity of an aerodrome, is provided by the control tower. In most cases the tower is located on top of the terminal building and, is restricted(1)to authorized personnel only. The aerodrome controller, who is located in the "tower cab", (2) provides separation between aircraft arriving and departing, and also controls aircraft and vehicles manoeuvring(3)on the manoeuvring area.
Approaching aircraft, particularly those operating under VFR, generally contact the aerodrome controller while still several miles away. The aerodrome controller informs the pilot of the runway in use, (4)the wind direction and speed, the altimeter setting, as well as information on other traffic in the area.
Approaching the aerodrome, the pilot joins the traffic circuit(5)on the downwind leg.(6) The aerodrome controller then advises the pilot of his landingsequence(7)giving such instructions as, "You are number two to land following the Cessna on final approach", (8) or, "You are number three following the 707 on base leg". (9)
The tower's "tools" include a number of radio transmitters and receivers used to communicate with pilots, and a signalling lamp(10)to send control signals to any aircraft not radio equipped or with a radio that is not properly working. The tower's radio equipment may be used with microphone(11)and loudspeakers(12)or with a headset.(13) There is a wind speed indicator(14)and a wind direction indicator(15)at each controller console.(16)A further instrument is the altimeter setting indicator. (17) It is from this instrument that the controller advises the pilot of the current altimeter setting which the pilot sets on his aircraft altimeter.
At some busy airports an Automatic Terminal Information Service (ATIS) is available to pilots of departing and arriving aircraft. This service consists of a continuous radio broadcast on a special frequency of recorded and periodically updated no control information. Included is information regarding ceiling, visibility, wind direction and speed, altimeter settings, and runway in use. Where ATIS is not available, the tower provides this information.
─ On the ground an area limited to authorized persons. In the air, an (area) airspace within which flying is restricted in accordance with certain conditions.
2. Tower cab
─ The upper part of the control tower wherein aerodrome controllers work.
3. To manoeuvre
─ To move around. A manoeuvring area is that part of an aerodrome to be used for take off and landing of aircraft and for the surface movement of aircraft associated with take off and landing, excluding aprons.
4. Runway in use
─ The runway used at any given moment for take-offs and landings.
5. Traffic circuit
─ A pattern which aircraft follow for landing consisting normally of downwind leg, base leg, final approach. (See below.)
6. Downwind leg
─ The downwind part of the traffic circuit. Downwind is the direction measured relative to the way the wind is blowing? Downwind means the direction in which the wind is moving.
7. Landing sequence
─ One's turn. Coming after or next to land. Whether number one, number two, number three, etc.
8. Final approach
─ The last part of the traffic circuit prior to landing. Also called "final".
9. Base leg
─ The crosswind part of the traffic circuit between downwind and final.
10. Signalling lamp
─ A light showing a red, white, or green signal for controlling aircraft without radio. Also called a light gun or an Aldis lamp.
─ The instrument one speaks into when using the radio or sound system.
─ An apparatus that converts electrical impulses into sound so that it is heard at some distance.
─ An apparatus that is worn on the head by pilots and controllers. It has a microphone and an earpiece (speaker).
14. Wind speed indicator
─ An instrument measuring the speed of the wind.
15. Wind direction indicator
─ An instrument showing the direction of the wind indicator
─ The furniture at the controller's position holding instruments, microphone, radar display etc.
17. Altimeter setting indicator
─ An instrument at the control tower which indicates the altimeter setting to be transmitted to aircraft.
1. Can controllers go to the control tower? Can aircraft mechanics go to the control tower? Why can't the mechanic go to the control tower? Because it is a restricted area. Can aircraft fly low over a city? Why not? Can you name any other restricted area?
2. Do aerodrome controllers work in the tower cab? Do area controllers work in the tower cab? Who works in the tower cab? Where is the tower cab? What can controllers see from the tower cab?
3. When a pilot taxis his aeroplane, does he manoeuvre it? Does he maneouvre it on the taxiway? On the apron? Does he go back and forth when he manoeuvres his aircraft? Where does he manoeuvre his aeroplane? Can pilots manoeuvre their planes easily in lots of open space? Can they manoeuvre their planes in crowded places? When can they manoeuvre their planes easily? Name the areas where aircraft manoeuvre.
4. Do planes use the runway in use? Are all the runways at an aerodrome in use at the same time? How many runways are in use at the same time? In what direction generally is the runway in use facing? Why does the runway in use generally face the wind?
5. Do all aeroplanes join the traffic circuit? Do aeroplanes descend in the traffic circuit? Do they wait to land in the traffic circuit? What do aeroplanes do in the traffic circuit?
6. Is the downwind leg part of a plane's descent? Is the pilot flying into the wind on the downwind leg? Who tells him to join traffic at the downwind leg? Can a controller tell a pilot to follow a plane on the downwind leg? What is a pilot doing on the downwind leg?
7. When a controller advises a pilot of his landing sequence, is he telling him he is next to land? Last to land? Cannot land? What is the controller saying to the pilot when he advises him of his landing sequence?
8. At final approach can the pilot see the runway? At final approach can the controller see the aircraft? Is the aircraft close to the ground at final approach? At what part of the traffic circuit is final approach? What clearance does the controller give the pilot at final approach?
9. Is base leg also a part of the traffic circuit? Is a plane landing on base leg? Is it also taking-off on base leg? What is an aeroplane doing on base leg? Is base leg before final approach? Higher, lower than final approach? Downwind leg? Where is base leg? What can a pilot see on base leg? How many turns does he have to make on base leg? Is he far from the runway on base leg? Where is the plane while on base leg?
10. Is a signalling lamp a light for signalling aircraft? Is it also called a light gun? An Aldis lamp? Can one fire a light gun? What does a controller do with a signalling lamp? Where does he use a signalling lamp? What colour signals does signalling lamp have? What does a green light mean? Red? White? Why does a controller need a signalling lamp? Give me some other names for a signalling lamp.
11. Does a controller need a microphone? Does he need a microphone if he uses a signalling lamp? When does a controller need a microphone? Where is the microphone? Where is the pilot's microphone? Have you ever used a microphone?
12. Are there loudspeakers in the tower cab? In the aeroplane? Can many people listen to messages from the loudspeaker? Can only one person listen to messages from the loudspeaker? How many people can listen to messages from the loud-speaker? Who can hear the loud-speaker in the control tower? In the passenger cabin? Can one talk into a loudspeaker?
13. Does a pilot wear a headset on the flight deck? In the cabin? Walking through the terminal? Where does a pilot wear a headset? The controller? Why does he wear a headset? Does a headset have a microphone? Is the microphone fixed to the headset? What else is on he headset?
14. 15. Does a wind speed indicator show the speed of the wind? Velocity? Direction? What does a wind speed indicator do? What does a wind direction indicator show? Are these indicators to be found in the control tower? On an aeroplane instrument panel? Where are they to be found? How does a pilot find out the direction of the wind? Name another wind direction indicator on the aerodrome.
16. Is a console a piece of furniture? Is a console in front of the controller? The pilot? Where is the console? What instruments are on the console?
17. Is an altimeter setting indicator an instrument? Does a pilot have an altimeter setting indicator? What does an altimeter setting indicator show? How does a pilot make sure that his altimeter setting is correct?
Instructions to the students: Write in your answers on a separate sheet of paper, using full sentences.
a) Name the three parts of the traffic circuit in order of sequence.
b) Describe the use of the signalling lamp.
c) Why is ATIS of the help to the controller?
d) Name some of the visual references you use to determine the direction of the wind.
e) Describe some of the equipment in the tower cab, as well as their uses.
Approach control can be situated at the aerodrome or at some other site. Normally, if there are two aerodromes in a vicinity, there will be one approach control unit to cover them both. Generally speaking, the approach controller's main task is to provide separation to departing and arriving aircraft operating under instrument flight rules. The approach controller generally takes over the control of an arriving aircraft from the airways controller and eventually hands over that aircraft to the control tower. For departing aircraft the procedure is reversed. A considerable degree of (1) co-ordination is therefore required between the various units in air traffic services.
The approach control unit has radio equipment similar to that in the control tower. This enables the controller to communicate with aircraft on several different radio frequencies. Most of the frequencies are in the (2) VHF range with some in the (3) UHF.
Aircraft operate under two different types of rules: IFR and VFR. If (4) Visual Meteorological Conditions prevail, flight under Visual Flight Rules (VFR) Coordination between unit in ATS is permissible. In (5) Instrument Meteorological Conditions. Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) apply.
When airports are very busy the approach controller may have (6) to stack the aircraft at different levels so that each may descend in turn towards the airport. In such cases the approach controller usually gives aircraft their (7) expected approach time. Because of their high fuel consumption at low levels, jet aircraft and, particularly (8) supersonic aircraft, prefer to remain at higher altitudes before starting their descent.
1. To co-ordinate:
─ To pass all information from one controller to another.
─ Very High Frequency.
─ Ultra High Frequency.
4. Visual Meteorological Conditions:
─ Known as VMC. Clear weather conditions equal to or better than, specified minima which permit a flight to be conducted in accordance with Visual Flight Rules (VFR).
5. Instrument Meteorological Conditions:
─ Known as IMC. Poor weather conditions, less than the minima specified for VMC.
6. To stack:
─ To place one on top of the other.
7. Expected Approach Time (EAT):
─ The time at which À̉Ñ expects that an arriving aircraft following a delay, will leave the holding point to complete its approach for landing.
8. Supersonic aircraft:
─ Aircraft flying over Mach 1 (faster than the speed of sound).
When many people are working at similar tasks, they must co-ordinate (1) their work. Do military pilots flying in formation coordinate with each other? Is it necessary for an architect to coordinate with an engineer? Approach controller with aerodrome controller? Area controller with aerodrome controller? Who does an area controller co-ordinate with? Approach controller? Military pilots flying in formation? Tell me what you think, would happen if military pilots did not co-ordinate with each other.
Is VHF (2) very high frequency? Can we transmit messages on VHF? To whom does the controller speak on VHF? What does VHF mean?
Is UHF (3) another radio frequency? Is UHF ultra high frequency? Can we tune-in to UHF? Can we tune-in to UHF on an ordinary radio? On what type of radio can we tune-in to UHF?
Is the weather clear under Visual Meteorological Conditions? Do pilots like to fly under Visual Meteorological Conditions? (4) Can he see the airport under Visual Meteorological Conditions? Can the airport be closed-in under Visual Meteorological Conditions? What sort of weather is Visual Meteorological Conditions? What is the abbreviation of Visual Meteorological Conditions? What rules do pilots follow under VMC?
Is the weathwer cloudy under Instrument Meteorological Conditions? (5) Is it overcast? Is visibility good under Instrument Meteorological Conditions? What sort of weather is it under Instrument Meteorological Conditions? What is the visibility under IMC? What conditions do we have today, IMC or VMC?
Do controllers stack (6) flights at busy airports? Do they stack flights at quiet airports? At what airports do controllers stack flights? Why do they stack flights? Who stacks flights? How do they stack flights? Where do they stack flights?
Does a pilot receive his expected approach time (7) from the controller? Does he receive his expected approach when he is at the holding position? On base leg? On the downwind leg? Where is the pilot when he receives his expected approach timer? Who gives the pilot his expected approach time? What is the pilot doing when he receives his expected approach time? What is the abbreviation of expected approach time?
The Concord is a supersonic aircraft. (8) Does a supersonic fly faster than the speed of sound? Does the supersonic fly very high? Does the supersonic consume a lot of fuel? Is the Boeing 747 supersonic? What plane is supersonic? What other supersonic aircraft do you know? Is there any special radiotelephony phraseology for supersonic aircraft?
Instructions to students: What is the difference between the job of an aerodrome controller and an approach controller? Describe in your own words.