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Compound verbal predicate.

The predicate is the second principal (main) part of the sentence and its organizing centre, as the object and nearly all adverbial modifi­ers are connected with and dependent on it. According to the meaning of its components, the predicate may denote an action, a state, a quality, or an attitude to some action or state ascribed to the subject. From the structural point of view there are two main types of predicate: simple and compound. Both these types may be either nominal or verbal, which gives four sub-groups: simple verbal, simple nominal, compound verbal, compound nominal. Is of two kinds: modal and aspective. The Compound Verbal Modal. This kind of predicate consists of a verb in one of its finite forms expressing a certain modal meaning and an infinitive. The predicate may consist of the following components: 1. a modal verb and an infinitive: I can’t read. She must go to him. The enemy shall not pass. 2. the verbs "be" and "have" in modal meaning, also "have got" in the meaning of necessity and an infinitive: They were to marry in the autumn. Why did he have to leave her? I've got to express my likes and dislikes. 3. an equivalent of a modal verb "to be (un)able", "to be capable", "to be allowed", "to be permitted", "to be obliged", "to be compelled", "to be willing", "to be anxious", "to be eager"and an infinitive: He was only anxious to forget. And children were always willing to play cricket with him. 4. a notional verb with a modal meaning and an infinitive. Here belong the verbs "to hope", "to want", "to desire", "to wish", "to long”, to expect, to intend, to attempt, to try. I long to see her. He almost expected to hear a price. 5. the combination "to be going to"denoting intention and an infinitive: He is going to buy her some shoes. 6. the phraseological units "had better (best)", "had rather", would rather (sooner) and an infinitive: Hadn't we better call him? She said she would rather have a flowered summer frock. The compound verbal aspect(ive). This kind of predicate consists of two components. The first is a finite verb denoting: a) beginning, b) duration, c) repetition, d) cessation, or end of an action. The second component is an infinitive or gerund. To the verbs of the four mentioned groups belong in particular: 1. beginning of an action: begin, start, commence, which are followed by both an infinitive and a gerund; come, grow, which are combined only with an infinitive: He began to sing. The Cubans started talking in Spanish. 2. Duration of an action: keep (on), gî on, which are followed only by a gerund: continue, which is followed by both an infinitive and a gerund: His mother continued to sway. Daniel continued eating. 3. Repetition of an act ion: used to and would followed by an infinitive only: Where did he use to hang out! Now and then the old man would correct her pronunciation and she would repeat word. 4. cessation, or end of an action, stop, give up, leave off, finish,which are followed only by a gerund, cease, which combines both with an infinitive and a gerund: He ceased, however, to take out and replace the letter. She had given up calling him sir. She hadn't stopped talking.



Attribute

Is a secondary part of the sentence which characterizes person or non-person expressed by the headword ether qualitatively, quantitatively, or from the point of view of situation. They may refer to nouns and other words of nominal nature, such as pronouns and substitute words: It was a letter from his devoted friend. Attributes may be divided into non-detached (close) and detached (loose). Non-detached attributes form one sense group with their headword. Attributes with identical reference (crimson flowers, white flowers, and yellow flowers — crimson, white, and yellow flowers) are usually interchangeable (yellow, white, and crimson flowers) and are set off by commas (crimson, white, yellow flowers) or joined by a conjunction. Attributes may form a string with different reference, that is, those of them which are closer to the noun form a composite idea with subse­quent words: her usual (good temper); a clever (young man) (compare with crimson, white, yellow flowers)', a large black and white (hunting dog). In the word-group a large black and white hunting dog the adjective large refers to black and white hunting dog, black and white refers to hunting dog, and hunting refers to dog. This relation of attributes embedded inside a string of them requires a fixed order and no comma is used to separate them. A detached attribute is only loosely connected with its head­word and is often optional from the point of view of structure, although very important semantically. It forms a separate sense group in speech and is accordingly separated by commas in writing. A detached attribute may be placed in preposition, post-position, or at some distance from the headword. Unlike non-detached attrib­utes, a detached attribute may modify personal and relative pronoun. Carrie looked about her, very much disturbed and quite sure that she did not want to work here. A daughter of poor but honest parents, I have no reason to be ashamed of my origins. Very often a detached attribute refers not only to the headword, but also to another part of the sentence, thus forming a double connection. And for a moment I hesitated, unable to start talking (as I was unable to start talking). Familiar with these details, Michael paid them little attention (be­cause he was familiar with these details). Not in a hurry to get home, he dined in town (as he was not in a hurry to get home).

 


Date: 2015-12-11; view: 943


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