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But remember, to give good advice strategy is even more important than language. Here is some advice about when and how to give advice.

First of all, make sure that the person who is talking to you is actually soliciting advice. Listen carefully to the person asking for advice. Every situation is unique. Put yourself in their shoes (imagine it is you living their problem in their situation) Think about the consequences of taking your advice Empathize. The other person reaction will not be just rational, but also emotional. Brainstorm to get good ideas Be honest about the good and bad things of your advice Set a good example. If you don’t follow your own advice, nobody will listen to you. Understand that that person may or may not take your advice, it’s their choice.

Kinds of Sentences and Their Punctuation

A sentence may be one of four kinds, depending upon the number and type(s) of clauses it contains.


An independent clause contains a subject, a verb, and a complete thought.

A dependent clause contains a subject and a verb, but no complete thought.



1. A SIMPLE SENTENCE has one independent clause.

Punctuation note: NO commas separate two compound elements (subject, verb, direct object, indirect object, subjective complement, etc.) in a simple sentence.



2. A COMPOUND SENTENCEhas two independent clauses joined by

A. a coordinating conjunction (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so),

B. a conjunctive adverb (e.g. however, therefore), or

C. a semicolon alone.

Punctuation patterns (to match A, B, and C above):

A. Independent clause,coordinating conjunction independent clause.

B. Independent clause;conjunctive adverb,independent clause.

C. Independent clause; independent clause.



3. A COMPLEX SENTENCEhas one dependent clause (headed by a subordinating conjunction or a relative pronoun ) joined to an independent clause.

Punctuation patterns (to match A, B, C and D above):

A. Dependent clause, independent clause

B. Independent clause dependent clause

C. Independent, nonessential dependent clause, clause.

D. Independent essential dependent clause clause.


4. A COMPOUND-COMPLEX SENTENCE has two independent clauses joined to one or more dependent clauses.

Punctuation patterns:
Follow the rules given above for compound and complex sentences.
A compound-complex sentence is merely a combination of the two.



Two independent clauses may be joined by

1. Coordinating conjunctions (FANBOYS) Ic, and ic

2. Conjunctive adverbs Ic; therefore, ic.

A dependent (subordinate) clause may be introduced by

1. Subordinating conjunctions (ADVERB CLAUSE) Dc, ic. or Ic dc.

2. Relative pronouns (ADJECTIVE CLAUSE) I, dc, c.orI dc c.

3. Relative pronoun, subordinating conjunctions, or adverbs (NOUN CLAUSE)


1. A subject and a verb that cannot stand alone is called a __________. (5 points)

  simple sentence
  independent clause
  dependent clause
  complex sentence

2. What type of sentence has two independent clauses and is joined by a FANBOYS (conjunction) or a semicolon? (5 points)

  a simple sentence
  a compound sentence
  a complex sentence

3. A sentence with one independent clause and at least one dependent clause is called ____________. (5 points)

  a simple sentence
  a compound sentence
  a complex sentence



4. Eric ran home the rest of the way because he knew he was in trouble. (5 points)

  a simple sentence
  a compound sentence
  a complex sentence

5. Although he searched everywhere, Mr. Brooks could not find the keys to the computer lab.(5 points)

  a simple sentence
  a compound sentence
  a complex sentence

6. Mrs. Carrero said that will be enough, and everyone agreed. (5 points)

  a simple sentence
  a compound sentence
  a complex sentence

7. Her left arm was badly broken at the wrist during the car accident. (5 points)

  a simple sentence
  a compound sentence
  a complex sentence

8. A simple sentence that stands alone is called ___________. (5 points)

  a dependent clause
  an independent clause
  a phrase

9. Sarah and Ashley giggled and whispered all night. (1 point)

  a simple sentence
  a compound sentence
  a complex sentence

10. Dr. Matthews did what could be done, but it simply was not enough to save his life. (5 points)

  a simple sentence
  a compound sentence
  a complex sentence



11. My classmates were wearing heavy clothes in the winter months. (5 points)

  a simple sentence
  a compound sentence
  a complex sentence

12. The vacation to Myrtle Beach should be extremely restful. (5 points)

  a simple sentence
  a compound sentence
  a complex sentence

13. I know you don't like him, but that doesn't matter. (5 points)

  a simple sentence
  a compound sentence
  a complex sentence

14. Elijah remained at home because he had a sore throat. (5 points)

  a simple sentence
  a compound sentence
  a complex sentence

15. Since we had only gone a mile from camp, we could turn back before dark. (5 points)

  a simple sentence
  a compound sentence
  a complex sentence

16. Dad went hunting, but Mama decided to stay home. (5 points)

  a simple sentence
  a compound sentence
  a complex sentence

17. Mara and Kelly had planned to return to Canada. (5 points)

  a simple sentence
  a compound sentence
  a complex sentence

18. In which of the following sentence types are FANBOYS or semicolons (;) used to join clauses?(5 points)

  simple sentences
  compound sentences
  complex sentences

19. Those clouds promise snow; we might get another snow day off from school. (5 points)

  a simple sentence
  a compound sentence
  a complex sentence

20. While the music played, Rachel sneaked in through the side door. (5 points)

  a simple sentence
  a compound sentence
  a complex sentence



We often have to give information about what people say or think. In order to do this you can use direct or quoted speech, or indirect or reported speech.

Direct Speech / Quoted Speech

Saying exactly what someone has said is called direct speech (sometimes called quoted speech)

Here what a person says appears within quotation marks ("...") and should be word for word.

For example:

She said, "Today's lesson is on presentations."


"Today's lesson is on presentations", she said.

Indirect Speech / Reported Speech

Indirect speech (sometimes called reported speech), doesn't use quotation marks to enclose what the person said and it doesn't have to be word for word.

When reporting speech the tense usually changes. This is because when we use reported speech, we are usually talking about a time in the past (because obviously the person who spoke originally spoke in the past). The verbs therefore usually have to be in the past too.

For example:

Direct speech Indirect speech
"I'm going to the cinema", he said. He said he was going to the cinema.


Tense change

As a rule when you report something someone has said you go back a tense: (the tense on the left changes to the tense on the right):

Direct speech   Indirect speech
Present simple She said, "It's cold." Past simple She said it was cold.
Present continuous She said, "I'm teaching English online." Past continuous She said she was teaching English online.
Present perfect simple She said, "I've been on the web since 1999." Past perfect simple She said she had been on the web since 1999.
Present perfect continuous She said, "I've been teaching English for seven years." Past perfect continuous She said she had been teaching English for seven years.
Past simple She said, "I taught online yesterday." Past perfect She said she had taught online yesterday.
Past continuous She said, "I was teaching earlier." Past perfect continuous She said she had been teaching earlier.
Past perfect She said, "The lesson had already started when he arrived." Past perfect NO CHANGE - She said the lesson had already started when he arrived.
Past perfect continuous She said, "I'd already been teaching for five minutes." Past perfect continuous NO CHANGE - She said she'd already been teaching for five minutes.


Modal verb forms also sometimes change:

Direct speech   Indirect speech
will She said, "I'll teach English online tomorrow." would She said she would teach English online tomorrow.
can She said, "I can teach English online." could She said she could teach English online.
must She said, "I must have a computer to teach English online." had to She said she had to have a computer to teach English online.
shall She said, "What shall we learn today?" should She asked what we should learn today.
may She said, "May I open a new browser?" might She asked if she might open a new browser.

!Note - There is no change to; could, would, should, might and ought to.

Direct speech Indirect speech
"I might go to the cinema", he said. He said he might go to the cinema.

You can use the present tense in reported speech if you want to say that something is still true i.e. my name has always been and will always be Lynne so:-

Direct speech Indirect speech
"My name is Lynne", she said. She said her name was Lynne. or She said her name is Lynne.

You can also use the present tense if you are talking about a future event.

Direct speech (exact quote) Indirect speech (not exact)
"Next week's lesson is on reported speech", she said. She said next week's lesson will be on reported speech.

Time change

If the reported sentence contains an expression of time, you must change it to fit in with the time of reporting.

For example we need to change words like here and yesterday if they have different meanings at the time and place of reporting.

Now + 24 hours - Indirect speech
"Today's lesson is on presentations." She said yesterday's lesson was on presentations. or She said yesterday's lesson would be on presentations.


Expressions of time if reported on a different day
this (evening) that (evening)
today yesterday ...
these (days) those (days)
now then
(a week) ago (a week) before
last weekend the weekend before last / the previous weekend
here there
next (week) the following (week)
tomorrow the next/following day



In addition if you report something that someone said in a different place to where you heard it you must change the place (here) to the place (there).

For example:-

At work At home
"How long have you worked here?" She asked me how long I'd worked there.

Pronoun change

In reported speech, the pronoun often changes.

For example:

Me You
"Iteach English online." Direct Speech She said, "I teach English online." "I teach English online", she said. Reported Speech She said she teaches English online. or She said she taught English online.

Reporting Verbs

Said, told and asked are the most common verbs used in indirect speech.

We use asked to report questions:-

For example: I asked Lynne what time the lesson started.

We use told with an object.

For example: Lynne told me she felt tired.

!Note - Here me is the object.

We usually use said without an object.

For example: Lynne said she was going to teach online.


If said is used with an object we must include to ;

For example: Lynne said to me that she'd never been to China.

!Note - We usually use told.

For example: Lynne told me (that) she'd never been to China.

There are many other verbs we can use apart from said, told and asked.

These include:-

accused, admitted, advised, alleged, agreed, apologised, begged, boasted, complained, denied, explained, implied, invited, offered, ordered, promised, replied, suggested and thought.

Using them properly can make what you say much more interesting and informative.

For example:

He asked me to come to the party:-

He invited me to the party.
He begged me to come to the party.
He ordered me to come to the party.
He advised me to come to the party.
He suggested I should come to the party.

Use of 'That' in reported speech

In reported speech, the word that is often used.

For example: He told me that he lived in Greenwich.

However, that is optional.

For example: He told me he lived in Greenwich.

!Note - That is never used in questions, instead we often use if.

For example: He asked me if I would come to the party.


The sneaky comma

I'm British, so I only tend to place the comma inside quotation marks when it's part of the sentence being quoted.

"I didn't notice that the comma was inside the quotation marks," Lynne said, "but Hekner did."

That said, I read so much American literature, that even I tuck them away sometimes.

Really, no one has set in stone what the rules of the English language are. It's a diverse language, and the rules that exist have arisen through usage, and they can change in exactly the same way, so maybe it doesn't matter, but it's best to be consistent.

Sentences are given in the direct speech. Change them into the indirect speech.

1. He said, “I have got a toothache”.

2. Manu said, “I am very busy now”.

3. “Hurry up,” she said to us.

4. “Give me a cup of water,” he told her.

5. She said, “I am going to college.”

6. She said to me, “Thank you”

7. Raju said, “Gautam must go tomorrow”.

8. Geetha says, “My father is an Engineer.”

9. He said, “I have passed the physical test.”

10. She said to me, “You are my only friend.”

11. ‘I love you,’ he told me.

12. ‘Where are you going?’ James asked Mary.


Ex. 1 Turn into reported speech.


1 “It’s hot” Tom said that


2 “I have done my homework.” Tom said that


3 “I will give you a book” Tom said that


4 “Do you smoke?”. Tom asked me if


5 “Where does Bob live?” Tom asked me where


6 “ Jane has not arrived yet” Tom told us that


7 "I’m very worried” Tom told us that


8 “I want to go away”. Tom told us that



9 “You should eat less.” The doctor told me that


10 “Don’t shout” The teacher told me


Ex 2 Turn into direct speech.


1 Mary said she was very tired. Mary said:""



2 The teacher told the boys to open their books. The teacher said to the boys: " "



3 Tom's mother told him not to eat any icecream. Tom's mother said to Tom: ""



4 My friend said that he was going skiing at the weekend. My friend said: " at the weekend."



5 Bob's mates told the teacher that Bob was ill that day. Bob's mates said: "Teacher, today"



6 Mary told Jane she would help her . Mary said to Jane:" "


7 I said I would have bought a new car if I had had the money. I said: ""



8 My father told me to look for a job if I wanted more money . My father said:" "



9 Tim wrote to his brother that their cat had died that day. Tim wrote to his brother: " "



10 The teacher informed the students that the break lasted ten minutes. The teacher said to the students:""

Ex. 3 Turn the following questions into reported speech.


1 "Where do you live?" Mary asked Tom .


2 "How are you going to travel to Italy?" Mary asked Tom .


3 "Why did you buy that book?" Mary asked Tom


4 "What's the time?" Mary asked Tom


5 "Who helped you with your work?" Mary asked Tom .

English Spelling!

I often apologise for the horrors of English spelling, along with my rather frequent apologies for English pronunciation it means I do a lot of apologising, but it's a fact: To speak English well, you need vocabulary, a nice accent, and good grammar. To write English well, you need vocabulary, grammar, an understanding of punctuation and good spelling.

As you learn English you might start to ask yourself, "Why is English spelling such a nightmare in the first place?" One reason is that English has adopted words from many other languages, sometimes we keep the spelling and sometimes we change it to suit us. In Olde Worlde England words were written as they sounded (phonetically) and so one word could often be spelt in many different ways, seemingly you only need to look at original Shakespeare manuscripts to see this chaos in action. Eventually spelling was standardised and set in stone in numerous dictionaries, but the chaos peeks through from time to time. As you learn English you will notice the pronunciation of a word often bears no resemblance to the way it is spelt, (sorry) usually you will find a historical reason for this.

The good news is that although many English words have irregular spellings there are some rules that can help you. Watch out though, for every rule there are always some exceptions (sorry)!

English has over 1,100 different ways to spell its 44 separate sounds, more than any other language, think of it as a game rather than a chore.

How to Improve Your Spelling

  1. Keep a notebook of words you find difficult to spell. Underline the part of the word that you find most difficult.
  2. Use a dictionary, not a spell-checker! OK use a spell-checker, but don't rely on it. Spell-checkers don't check for meaning, the most common misspelt words I have seen on the net are there and their.
  3. Learn words with their possible prefixes and suffixes.
  4. Learn the rules, but don't rely on them. As I mentioned earlier for every rule there is at least one exception. For example:-

i before e except after c
One of the first English spelling rules that was learnt in most schools is "i before e except after c". This only works when the pronunciation of the word is like a long ee as in shield.
For example:- piece, relief, niece, priest, thief but after cconceive, conceit, receive, receipt
when A or I is the sound it's the other way round
with an 'a' sound - deign, eight, neighbour, feign, reign, vein, weight with an 'i' sound either, feisty, height, neither, sleight
Exceptions (sorry): seize, weird, conscientious, conscience, efficient . . .

Silent Letters

There are lots of silent letters in English. Yes, we stick letters in a word and then we don't pronounce them (sorry).

What is a silent letter?
A silent letter is a letter that must be included when you write the word even though you don't pronounce it. Over half the alphabet can appear as silent letters in words. They can be found at the beginning, end or middle of the words and, from the sound of the word, you wouldn't know that they were there.
For example:-
a - treadle, bread b - lamb, bomb, comb c - scissors, science, scent d - edge, bridge, ledge e - see below h - honour, honest, school k - know, knight, knowledge l - talk, psalm, should n - hymn, autumn, column p - pneumatic, psalm, psychology s - isle, island, aisle t - listen, rustle, shistle u - biscuit, guess, guitar w - write, wrong, wrist
Silent e Silent e is the most commonly found silent letter in the alphabet. There are some hard and fast rules for spelling when a word ends with a silent e. When you wish to add a suffix to a word and it ends with a silent e, if the suffix begins with a consonant you don't need to change the stem of the word. For example:
force + ful =forceful
manage + ment =management
sincere + ly =sincerely

If however the suffix begins with a vowel or a y, drop the e before adding the suffix.
For example:

fame + ous =famous
nerve + ous =nervous
believable + y =believably
criticise + ism =criticism
Exceptions: mileage, aggreeable

Prefixes and Suffixes

Date: 2015-12-11; view: 2984

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