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See what words you can come up with that use the following suffixes.

· Typical noun suffixes are -ence, -ance, -or, -er, -ment, -list, -ism, -ship, -ency, -sion, -tion, -ness, -hood, -dom

· Typical verb suffixes are -en, -ify, -ize, -ate

· Typical adjective suffixes are -able, -ible, -al, -tial, -tic, -ly, -ful, -ous, -tive, -less, -ish, -ulent

· The adverb suffix is -ly (although not all words that end in -ly are adverbs—like friendly)



List of English Suffixes

Our suffix word lists are the second part of our comprehensive root word tables:

Suffixes are word endings that add a certain meaning to the word.

Click on the icon to the left and add the suffix list to your LearnThatWord profile for personalized review. If you don't have an account yet, you can start one in a few seconds. It's free!

To jump to a word's listing, please click on its first letter:

a-d e-h i-m n-r s-z


Suffix Meanings Sample Words and Definitions
-able able to be excitable, portable, preventable
-ac pertaining to cardiac, hemophiliac, maniac
-acity (-ocity) quality of perspicacity, sagacity, velocity
-ade act, action or process, product blockade, cavalcade, promenade,
-age action or process passage, pilgrimage, voyage
-aholic (-oholic) one with an obsession for workaholic, shopaholic, alcoholic
-al relating to bacterial, theatrical, natural
  -algia pain neuralgia, nostalgia,
-an (-ian) relating to, belonging to Italian, urban, African
-ance state or quality of brilliance, defiance, annoyance
-ant a person who applicant, immigrant, servant
    inclined to, tending to brilliant, defiant, vigilant
-ar of or relating to, being lunar, molecular, solar
    a person who beggar, burglar, liar
-ard a person who does an action coward, sluggard, wizard
-arian a person who disciplinarian, vegetarian, librarian
-arium (orium) a place for terrarium, aquarium, solarium
-ary of or relating to literary, military, budgetary
-ate state or quality of (adj.) affectionate, desolate, obstinate
    makes the word a verb (different pronunciation) activate, evaporate, medicate
-ation action or process creation, narration, emancipation
-ative tending to (adj.) creative, preservative, talkative
-cide act of killing homicide, suicide, genocide
-cracy rule, government, power bureaucracy, aristocracy, theocracy
-crat someone who has power aristocrat, bureaucrat, technocrat
-cule diminutive (making something small) molecule, ridicule,
-cy state, condition or quality efficiency, privacy, belligerency
-cycle circle, wheel bicycle, recycle, tricycle
-dom condition of, state, realm boredom, freedom, wisdom
-dox belief, praise orthodox, paradox
  -ectomy surgical removal of appendectomy, hysterectomy
-ed past tense called, hammered, laughed
-ee receiver, performer nominee, employee, devotee
-eer associated with/engaged in engineer, volunteer
-emia blood condition anemia, hypoglycemia, leukemia
-en makes the word a verb awaken, fasten, strengthen
-ence state or condition, action absence, dependence, negligence
-ency condition or quality clemency, dependency, efficiency
-ent inclined to performing/causing, or one who performs/causes competent, correspondent, absorbent
-er more bigger, faster, happier
    action or process flutter, ponder, stutter
    a person who does an action announcer, barber, teacher
-ern state or quality of eastern, northern, western
-escence state or process adolescence, convalescence
-ese relating to a place Chinese, Congolese, Vietnamese
-esque in the style of Kafkaesque, grotesque, burlesque
-ess female actress, heiress, lioness
-est most funniest, hottest, silliest
-etic relating to (makes the word an adj.) athletic, energetic, poetic
-ette diminutive (makes something smaller) cigarette, diskette, kitchenette
-ful full of helpful, thankful, cheerful
-fy make, cause (makes the word a verb) amplify, falsify, terrify
-gam/gamy marriage, union monogam, polygamy
-gon/gonic angle hexagon, polygonic, pentagon
-hood state, condition, or quality childhood, neighborhood, motherhood
-ial relating to celestial, editorial, martial
-ian relating to Martian, utopian, pediatrician
-iasis diseased condition elephantiasis, psoriasis
  -iatric healing practice pediatric, psychiatric,
-ible able to be audible, plausible, legible
-ic/ical relating to, characterized by analytic/al, comic/al, organic
-ile relating to, capable of agile, docile, volatile
-ily in what manner sloppily, steadily, zanily
-ine relating to canine, feminine, masculine
-ing materials bedding, frosting, roofing
    action or process dancing, seeing, writing
-ion action or process celebration, completion, navigation
-ious having the qualities of, full of ambitious, cautious, gracious
-ish relating to, characteristic apish, brutish, childish
-ism state or quality altruism, despotism, heroism
-ist a person, one who does an action artist, linguist, pianist
-ite resident of, follower, product of suburbanite, luddite, dynamite
-itis inflammation, preoccupation appendicitis, tonsillitis, frontrunneritis
-ity state, condition, or quality abnormality, civility, necessity
-ive inclined to; quality of; that which attractive, expensive, repulsive
-ization act or process of making colonization, fertilization, modernization
-ize cause, treat, become antagonize, authorize, popularize
-less without fearless, helpless, homeless
-let version of booklet, droplet, inlet
-like resembling, characteristic childlike, homelike, lifelike
-ling younger or inferior duckling, underling
-loger/logist one who does astrologer, cardiologist, chronologer
-log speech dialog, monolog,
-ly in what manner badly, courageously, happily
-ment action, result movement, placement, shipment
-ness state or quality (makes a noun) kindness, shyness, weakness
-oid resembling humanoid, tabloid, hemorrhoid
-ology study of, science of anthropology, archaeology, biology
-oma tumor, swelling carcinoma, osteoma, hematoma
-onym name, word synonym, antonym, homonym
-opia eye defect myopia, nyctalopia, hyperopia
-opsy examination biopsy, autopsy, necropsy
-or a person who inventor, legislator, translator
-ory relating to armory, dormitory, laboratory
  -osis process, diseased condition diagnosis, prognosis, neurosis, psychosis
-ostomy/otomy surgical colostomy, lobotomy, craniotomy
-ous full of hazardous, humorous, wondrous
-path one who engages in homeopath, naturopath, psychopath
  -pathy feeling, diseased sympathy, apathy, neuropathy
-phile one who loves bibliophile, audiophile, pyrophile
-phobia abnormal fear of acrophobia, claustrophobia, xenophobia
-phone sound homophone, telephone, microphone
  -phyte plant, to grow zoophyte, cryptophyte, epiphyte
-plegia paralysis paraplegia, quadriplegia, hemiplegia
  -plegic one who is paralyzed paraplegic, technoplegic, quadriplegic
  -pnea air, spirit apnea, hyperpnea, orthopnea
-scopy/scope visual exam arthroscopy, gastroscopy, microscope
-scribe/script to write transcript, describe, manuscript
-sect to cut dissect, insect, bisect
-ship state or condition of, skill of authorship, citizenship, friendship
-sion state or quality confusion, depression, tension
-some characterized by, group of cumbersome, quarrelsome, foursome
-sophy/sophic wisdom, knowledge philosophy, theosophy, anthroposophic
-th state or quality depth, length, strength
-tion state or quality attention, caution, fascination
-tome/tomy to cut hysterectomy, epitome, tonsillotome
-trophy nourishment, growth atrophy, hypertrophy, dystrophy
-tude state, condition or quality fortitude, gratitude, magnitude
-ty state, condition or quality ability, honesty, loyalty
-ular relating to or resembling cellular, circular, muscular
-uous state or quality of arduous, tumultuous, virtuous
-ure action, condition closure, erasure, failure
-ward specifies direction backward, eastward, homeward
-ware things of the same type or material hardware, software, kitchenware
-wise in what manner of direction clockwise, lengthwise, otherwise
-y made up of, characterized brainy, fruity, gooey



Use a prefixes to find the opposite of these verbs:

1- wrap  
2- use  
3- agree  
4- engage  
6- understand  
7- fold  
8- spell  
9- connect  
10- close  

Put the words in brackets in the appropriate form (use a prefixes or a suffixes):

    1. He was acting in a very way. (child)
    2. She looked .She started to cry. (happy)
    3. He passed his exam. He was for the second time. (succeed)
    4. The team that he supported were able to win the . (champion)
    5. I couldn't find any in his theory. (weak)
    6. He wants to be a when he grows up. (mathematics)
    7. There were only a of people at the match. (hand)
    8. The road was too narrow, so they had to it. (wide)
    9. I think that you should your decision. It may not be the best thing to do. (consider)
    10. You need a of motivation, organization and hard work to realize your dreams.(combine)



Giving advice

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Here are some ways through which we can give advice or make recommendations:

For example, imagine that your friend is worried that she is getting fat. She asks you for some advice. You can respond using the following phrases:

You should take some exercise.
You ought to eat more fruit and vegetables.
Why don't you go jogging?
How about eating less sugary food?

For stronger advice you can use 'have to' or 'must':

You must see a doctor
You have to take her to see that movie. She'll love it!

Using suggest and recommend

There are two ways which we can use 'recommend' and 'suggest':

I suggesttaking a holiday.
I suggest (that) you take a holiday.

I recommend going to bed earlier.
I recommend (that) you goto bed earlier.

Using imperatives to give advice

We can use imperative verbs + '-ing' to give advice. Let's look at some more examples using your fat friend!:

Start going to the gym.
Stop drinking so much coke.
Consider switching to brown bread and rice.
Try cycling to work.


· You ___ to leave as soon as you can.



· They ___ fix that broken traffic signal.



· You should start ___ for your future.



· How ___ sending them some flowers?



· Try ___ your own lunch instead of buying it.




Good Advice: giving advice and making suggestions

Giving advice and making suggestions are two different language functions, but in real life they often go together. Let’s see here some very common constructions you can use to give advice to a friend.

SHOULD You should go to the doctor, he’ll tell you what to do You shouldn’t go to bed so late, you need more sleep WHY DON’T YOU I know it’s difficult to find, but why don’t you look on the Internet? Why don’t you wait here for a moment, I’m sure she will be back very soon HOW ABOUT + ING (or YOU + bare infinitive) You look bored. How about going for a walk? We could go to the river. How about you stay here and I go and look for help?

MUST/HAVE TO [strong advice]
You must go to the doctor immediately, that looks serious.
You have to take her to that movie, she’s going to love it.

IF I WERE YOU (+ would)
If I were you, I’d send her an e-mail saying sorry
If I were you, I wouldn’t buy that book

(not) + bare infinitive (colloquial often: YOU BETTER...)
You’d better not call her now, she must be too angry with you
You better come to my house and ask my father

That girl is wonderful. You’d be crazy not to love her
The house you showed me is so expensive. You’d be crazy to buy it.

(+ simple past)
You can’t be with that job all your life. It’s high time you started looking for a new job.
I think it’s high time we went home, it’s too late.

SUGGEST (+ that you (should) )
I suggest that you eat more vegetables
I suggest that you should take a holiday, you look so tired

IMPERATIVES (start, stop, try, consider...) + ing
Stop drinking so much coffee, it’s not healthy
Start going to the gym
Try talking to him, you may convince him
Consider buying a new bicycle and give the old one to your little brother

Notes: Advice is the noun, Advise is the verb
He always gives very good advice.
I advise you to buy the cheaper one
"Advice" is an uncountable noun, so you can’t say “an advice”, you must say “some advice” or “a piece of advice”

I’ll give you some advice, if you want to listen
That was only a piece of advice, not an order


TIP: many people don’t like getting advice if they haven't asked for it! To avoid giving the wrong impression, you can try some of these expressions:

I think you should tell your parents You could always… tell your parents Have you considered… telling your parents? Have you thought about… telling your parents? Perhaps we could… tell your parents In your position, I would… tell your parents You should perhaps… tell your parents It may be a good idea to... tell your parents Maybe you can... tell your parents

I think you shouldn’t tell your parents

Do you think it's a good idea to… tell your parents?
Are you sure it’s a good idea to... tell your parents?
I don’t know if it’s a good idea to... tell your parents
I don’t know about you, but I would never... tell your parents
Maybe you should think twice if you’re going to... tell your parents
I’m not so sure about... telling your parents
And, of course, we can also use the positive phrases in the negative:
You could always not... tell your parents
Have you considered not... telling your parents?
It may be a good idea not to... tell your parents

Date: 2015-12-11; view: 1974

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