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Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на выделенные многофункциональные слова.


1. It is common practice to use a human being as one of the links in the chain of elements of a control system.

2. The emission or evaporation of electrons takes place at lower temperature than does that of atoms.

3. As radio waves travel away from their point of origin, they become attenuated or weakened.

4. The amplification may be applied to the radio-frequency currents before detection, in which case it is called radio-frequency amplification; or it may be applied to the rectified currents after detection, which is called audio-frequency amplification.

5. The system is earthed as before, by connecting the neutral conductor to an earthed plate or other earthing connection.

6. The unit which is used for measuring e.m.f. is the volt.

7. Electrical phenomena have been known to man for a very long time.

8. That semiconductor device is more efficient than the one under consideration.

9. Since the collector junction is reverse-biased in a transistor, the collector voltage is much higher than that of the emitter.

10. The crystal is known as P-type germanium, because of the presence of positive holes.

11. Semiconductors are materials that are neither good conductors nor acceptable insulators.

12. The word semiconductor means rather generally a material which has electrical conductivity half-way between that of a metallic conductor, and that of an insulator.

13. A wet insulator may very well be a semiconductor in some general sense, but it is regarded as hazardous rather than as useful electrically.

14. One should mind the conditions the instrument is designed for.

15. Therefore, as an oscillating electric field generates an oscillating magnetic field, the magnetic field in turn generates an oscillating electric field, and so on.

16. Electric and magnetic fields obey the properties of superposition, so fields due to particular particles or time-varying electric or magnetic fields contribute to the fields due to other causes.

17. The coding used in such data is similar to that used with radio waves.

18. As a photon is absorbed by an atom, it excites an electron, elevating it to a higher energy level.

19. Depending on the circumstances, it may behave as a wave or as particles. As a wave, it is characterized by a velocity.

20. One solution, is trivial. To see the more interesting one, we utilize vector identities, which work for any vector.


Computer Engineering

1. As a side note, there might be other new technologies introduced as this paper was written.

2. Ensuring that a particular file or document will always be available may be at least as important as ensuring that only authorized users can access that file or document.

3. When subjects leave an organization altogether, their rights must be terminated rather than merely suspended.

4. Travelling on business these days means that you still need to keep in touch with the office no matter where you are.

5. In order to do such iterative development from a prototype it is important that the expert system is written in a way that it can easily be inspected and modified.

6. Sincethe aim automates the system, the part description should be in a computer readable format.

7. In order toperform the process planning, a process planner must be able to understand and analyze requirements, understand the interactions between the parts, manufacturing, quality, and cost, possess analytical capabilities.

8. If the keys are stored sequentially then the time taken by the insertion operation may be of order N.

9. Since most of the global considerations are based on geometric relationships, some kind of geometric reasoning mechanism needs to be built in.

10. The shift operators introduced earlier act as permutations of the seven states of the cyclic system.

11. What properties does a code have to satisfy so that it can be used to protect well against a given error model?

12. An end-user wishing to retrieve information directly from a data source, such as an Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) database, faces a number of significant challenges.

13. The difference is whether or not the patterns that are minded are represented in terms ofa structure that can be examined, reasoned about, and used to infirm future decisions.

14. Common channels can be accessed both by idle mode and dedicated mode mobiles.

15. An RR-session is always initiated by a mobile station through the access procedure, either for an outgoing call, or in response to a paging message.

16. This is because the BSC usually does not know whether the poor signal quality is due to multipath fading or to the mobile having moved to another cell.

17. The purpose of the simulation study is to examine if the direct field and later reflections from the walls can be separated using time windowing.

18. That is the difference between the logical and physical organization of the data.

19. On the whole a file structure will specify the logical structure of the data,that isthe relationships that will exist between data items independently of the way in which these relationships may actually be realized within any computer.

20. There are several reasons. Oneis that data base systems are general purpose systems whereas automated library and retrieval systems are special purpose.

21. Each of these methods has disadvantages. The last one may be given the same address frequently if there are patterns in the keys.

22. If one looks carefully at some of the implementations of cluster methods onediscovers that the classificatory system is represented inside the computer by one of the more conventional file structures.

23. The terminology is based on that introduced by Harary.

24. Notice how the rings at a lower level are contained in thoseat a higher level.

25. Not all users of clustering techniques see it this way, and so the current scene is ratherconfused.


Information Security

1. The operating system must ensure that only specific operations can occur to the capabilities in the system.

2. A capability is defined to be a protected object reference which, by virtue of its possession by a user process, grants thatprocess the capability (hence the name) to interact with an object in certain ways.

3. In traditional operating systems, programs often communicate with each other and with storage using references like those in the first two examples.

4. One novel approach to solving this problem involves the use of an orthogonally persistent operating system.

5. A system state is defined to be "secure" if the only permitted access modes of subjects to objects are in accordance with a security policy.

6. The notion of a "secure state" is defined, and it is proven that each state transition preserves security by moving from secure state to secure state.

7. With Bell-LaPadula, users can create contentonlyat or above their own security level.

8. Another interpretation of the tranquility principles is that they both apply onlyto the period of time during which an operation involving an object or subject is occurring.

9. Therefore one can show if rights can leak with respect to a given safety model.

10. In simple terms, a computer is modeled as a machine with inputs and outputs.

11. This is a very strict policy, in that a computer system with covert channels may comply with, say, the Bell-LaPadula Model, but will not comply with non-interference.

12. There may be only oneor two commercially available product that has been verified to comply with this policy, and these would essentially be assimple asswitches and one-way information filters.

13. The most secure computers are those not connected to the Internet and shielded from any interference.

14. A proper attack does not need to be very high tech, or well funded, for a power outage at an airport alone can cause repercussions worldwide.

15. Lightning, power fluctuations, blown fuses, and various other power outages instantly disable all computer systems, sincethey are dependent on electrical source.

16. They provide some protection from online intrusion, but since they allow some applications (e.g. web browsers) to connect to the Internet, they don't protect against some unpatched vulnerabilities in these applications.

17. If one of these API servers has a bug, the kernel and the other servers are not affected.

18. The early Multics operating system was notable for its early emphasis on computer security by design.

19. Multics was possibly the very first operating system to be designed as a secure system from the ground up.

20. If the operating environment is not based on a secure operating system capable of maintaining a domain for its own execution.

21. Since the early days of writing, heads of state and military commanders understood that it was necessary to provide some mechanism to protect the confidentiality of written correspondence and to have some means of detecting tampering.

22. A malignant virus is onethat attempts to inflict malicious damage to your computer, although the damage may not be intentional.

23. An analogy for public key encryption is that of a locked mailbox with a mail slot.

24. Since keys are subject to potential discovery by a cryptographic adversary, they need to be changed often and kept secure during distribution and in service.

25. This requires that mechanisms be in place to control the access to protected information.



1. Onehas to be ready to incur sales expenses commensurate with the potential profits

2. Sinceprices have been rising each year, the total consumers’ expenditure has risen too.

3. Oneattorney defends his marketing tactics by arguing, “People want to be entertained, whetherit’s selling lawyers orselling soap”.

4. These goods are by no means satisfactory.

5. You should note that investment increases the circular flow since it comprises extra spending that has not originated in the circular flow.

6. The inflation rate grows ascredit emission increases.

7. Consumer goods shortages become widespread, as price distortions encourage the informal export of food products to neighboring countries.

8. The only publicity from which the hotel could not distance itself was the word of mouth recommendations of patrons of long standing.

9. Money includes both currency, particularly the many circulating currencies with legal tender status, and various forms of financial deposit accounts, such as demand deposits, savings accounts, and certificates of deposit.

10. For merchants, a credit card transaction is often more secure than other forms of payment, such as cheques, because the issuing bank commits to pay the merchant the moment the transaction is authorized, regardless of whether the consumer defaults on their credit card payment (except for legitimate disputes, which are discussed below, and can result in charge backs to the merchant.

11. 'Wealth' refers to some accumulation of resources, whether abundant or not.

12. Regardless of whether one defines wealth as the sum total of all currency, the M1 money supply, or a broader measure which includes money, securities, and property, the supply of wealth, while limited, is not fixed.

13. Paul Hawken argues that the only reason why goods produced unsustainably are usually cheaper than goods produced sustainably is due to a hidden subsidy, paid by the non-monetarised more than human environment, community or future generations.



1. The only publicity from which the hotel could not distance itself was the word of mouth recommendations of patrons of long standing.

2. In India, the word ‘hotel’ may also refer to a restaurant since the best restaurants were always situated next to a good hotel

3. Nevertheless, just like Indian cuisine has spread its influence to South Asia and Far East, French cooking techniques have been a major influence on virtually all Western cuisines

4. Customer expectations are influenced by cultural values, advertising, marketing, and other communications, both with the supplier and with other sources.

5. This is the practice of only displaying the brochures of those travel companies whose holidays they wish to sell, the ones that pay them the most commission.

6. As for guests, the hotel didn’t offer them usual range of entertainments or attractions.



1. The mental disorder may be due to either a psychological, social, biochemical orgenetic dysfunction or disturbance in the individual.

2. A more generally useful definition than either of the above is that a mental disorder is an illness with significant psychological or behavioral manifestations that occurs in an individual and that is associated either with a painful ordistressing symptom, with impairment in one or more important areas of functioning, or with both.

3. We are faced with two basic problems where Symbolic Gestures are concerned: either one meaning may be signaled by different actions, or several meanings may be signaled by the same action, as we move from culture to culture.

4. Before 1960, some people believed that, for the most part, intelligence was innate or inborn. In other words, either you were born smart oryou weren’t and nothing could change that.

5. Too much stress often injures both the mind and the body.

6. One method of treatment is to lock up mentally ill people in hospitals and even prisons to separate them from society.

7. The only solution is to approach each culture with an open mind and learn their Symbolic Gestures as one would their vocabulary.

8. A third category often fallswithin the second as a sub-category though nevertheless is a domain in its own right. This is the category of performance or skilled behavior.

9. The licensing carries the title of licensed psychologist; Marriage and Family Therapist, or some other title depending upon the state or province, is usually reserved for those who have not obtained the doctorate in psychology and only hold a Master's degree in the fields of professional counseling or Marriage and Family Therapy.



1. Since the rule of law incorporates notions of equal treatment and fair pay, no person is above the law and no person is below it.

2. Since the place was used as a police station, the headquarters of the Metropolitan Police became known as Scotland Yard.

3. One of the purposes of courts is to adhere to standards of impartiality and fair procedure, so that the courts are credible to the public and their procedures are predictable to lawyers.

4. Trial courts are the ones the general public is familiar with sincethey are the setting of the vast majority of courtroom dramas.

5. Oneof the most bizarre methods of execution was inflicted in ancient Rome on people found guilty of murdering their fathers.

6. It is unlikely the fault will be due to ageing of components or maladjustment.

7. Constitutional and administrative law govern the affairs of the state. Constitutional law concerns both the relationships between the executive, legislature and judiciary andthe human rights or civil liberties of individuals against the state.

8. With the transition from English law, which had common law crimes, to the new legal system under the U.S. Constitution, which prohibited ex post facto laws at both the federal and state level, the question was raised whether there could be common law crimes in the United States.

9. Rather, the notion of property arises where one can have his/her right to land or chattels respected and enforced by a court of law.

10. Since the courts are open to everybody, citizens have the right to rely on the law and be confident of the protection provided by the courts.

11. Sincea new legislation was passed the rate of crime has decreased greatly.

12. These states maintain that sovereignty - and thus what some view as the basis of sovereignty, the ultima ratio regum, or last argument of kings (force and coercion, by military or other means) - is the only true international law; thus seeing states as having free rein over their own affairs and their affairs in the larger world. Other states oppose this view.

13. Whereas the "higher" law to which Aristotle suggested onecould appeal was emphatically natural, in contradistinction to being the result of divine positive legislation, the Stoic natural law was indifferent to the divine or natural source of the law.

14. She is an experienced lawyer; she has worked for several law firms since she left university.


Aircraft Building

1. Regular maintenance can be fitted into periods of low production and usually takes only an hour or so to complete.

2. Too often maintenance schedules break down because managements do not cooperate in allowing equipment to be out of operation for maintenance during working hours.

3. The rocket engine does not use atmospheric air as the propulsive fluid stream.

4. There is a constant relationship between the volume, the temperature, and the pressure of the air as it passes through the axial compressor.

5. As the range of functions performed by the digital avionic systems has widened, the reliability of the systems has improved and significant advances have been achieved in the methods of detecting and identifying faults.

6. Aspart of this program, a wind shear training aid was developed by the Boeing Commercial Airplane Group consultation with international organizations concerned, including ICAO.

7. Both monocoque andsemi-monocoque are referred to as "stressed skin" structures as all or a portion of the external load (i.e. from wings and empennage, and from discrete masses such as the engine) is taken by the surface covering.

8. Because of the complications in scheduling flights and maintaining profitability, airlines have many loopholes that can be used by the knowledgeable traveler.

9. There have been efforts to develop propellers for aircraft at high subsonic speeds. The 'fix' is similar to that of transonic wing design.

10. Since this is nearly the same as the velocity of the gas entering the impeller tip from the nozzle guide vanes, an "impact" between the hot gas and the turbine impeller is avoided

11. Thin blade sections are used and the blades are swept back in a scimitar shape (Scimitar propeller); a large number of blades are used to reduce work per blade and so circulation strength; contra-rotation is used.

12. One needs to adjust to the pressurized cabin air from the beginning. 1 in 3 passengers suffer ear discomfort, pain and temporary hearing loss on takeoff or landing, called "aerotitus" by the House Ear Institute in Los Angeles.

13. The burning process in the combustor is significantly different from thatin a piston engine.

14. Since they are less efficient than combined cycle plants, they are usually used as peaking power plants, which operate anywhere from several hours per day to a couple dozen hours per year, depending on the electricity demand and the generating capacity of the region.


Date: 2015-12-11; view: 1983

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