General morphology treat morphemes and grammatical meanings expressed by them in lg. in general without regard to their stylistic value. Stylistic morphology is interested in gram. Forms and gram. Meanings explicitly or implicitly comparing them with the neutral ones, common to all sublang.-s. It is interested in the stylistic potencials of specific gram. forms and categories.
Acc. to Screbnev: 2 general trends of styl-c significance:
1. synonymy (paradigmatic equivalence or interchangeability of different morphemes (dog-s, cow-s – ox-en phenomen-a, etc.);
2.variability of use of morphological “categorical forms” or of members of the opposition that constitute the grammatical category – “tense”, “person”, etc. (He is coming next Monday; Well, are we feeling better today?)
Word-building expressive means:every particular affix has its own connotational potential. Eg. – ish – is a neutral morheme.If added to N. Forms ajective with negative connotation (boyish,girlish). If added to a compound word the negative evaluation becomes more intensive (honey-moonish). If added to numerals it demonstrates the uncertainty (fourty- fourtish).
Diminitive suffexes: kin(lambkin), dy (daddy), ie(sweetie), ette(kitchenette),roo (bodyroo).
The gram. meaning of plurality can be expressed by a variety of dif. morphemes: -s[s]-books, [z] boys,[iz]boxes, en-oxen, children, -a-data, i[ai]- stimuli, ae[i:]formulae.
The use of ungram. Forms: we/you/they was, he don’t, says I, dunno-don’t know,
Interchangeability of prepositions and forms of participle II and Subjunctive I may reveal national pecularities of Eng.: at the corner (Br. Eng,) – on the corner(Am.eng.), Whom you are talking to? Who are you talking to?
Gram. Transposition is unusual usage of dif. parts of speech with violation íàðóøåíèå of traditional valency. The speaker uses it to express his emotions and attitude.
Noun. The names of animals or imagery creatures used with regard to people in colloquial speech gain emotionally colored expressive communication: 1) tender, affectionate – angel, lamb; 2) ironical – pig, donkey, monkey; 3) highly negative: shark, snake, bear, ass, ape, devil. You are lazy dog!
Number: sing. Instead of pl.: reading books (when there is only1 book), How dare he talk like that to ladies?; pl. Instead of sing.: That is what the student is supposed to know.
Synechdochy (the simplest type of metonymy) –using the name of the part instead of the whole and visa versa– hands wanted, a hundred head of cattle.(for the whole, whole for the part, spicies for genus, genus for spicies, name of material for the thing).
Only animate nouns have category of person. Personification – attributing human properties to lifeless objects.Ship – she, countries – she; abstract nouns can be transformed into class of nouns naming individuals: you are horror, , you are a horrid girl.
Depersonification –treaty a person as a thing. (you are little thing).
Case: is a typical feature of proper names. When the possessive case is used with common nouns it becomes the mark of personification. My country’s laws. Substitution – adjectives into people names (Listen my sweet),Adjectives describing people qualities (the rich, the hurt, the sick). Gender: Eng. Lang, is male oriented.We can see that importance of women diminished. (He shares information, she- gossips, He is analytical, she uses femenine logic.) master – mistress.
Article – the indefinite article with a family name in sing. Points to representation of some family in bad or good reputation.(A Forsyte is not an uncommon animal)., with the family names in sing may be charged with negative connotation and diminish the person’s status (A Mr. Smith).
Definite article with family – to denote the whole family – the Simpsons. Metaphoric antonomasia – use of name of historical personage.(Don Juan.)
Absence of article – (newspapers,telegrammes, reference books, directions)
Pronoun.One is expressed the idea of indefinite person.we, you , they, a man, a chap, a fellow, a body – the idea of impersonality.We- as you in the speech of doctors. We instead of I – (we, Charles II); we insteadof you ironically used in the speech f uneducated people; The frequent repetition of I – idea of ego-mania. The use of archaic forms of pronoun (thou, thee, thy, thine) creates a historic effect.that may point to excitement of the speaker (that wonderful day!) .
Verb. Ungram. Present and past forms can be used to show illiteracy, and poor educational background. Present tenses for plans in the future (I’m meeting him.) continuous forms can show the emotional states of the speaker - persistance(She, is never coming here again. I tell you that.), irritation, surprise, impatience. Auxiliary verbs do and did are emphatic devices in colloquial speech.(I do know him).
Adjective.the category of comparison is of great stylistic value. Superlative degree – large degree of some quality (the sweetest baby). Non-standard norms- colours (greener, pinker), beautifulest. For humorous effect – He is the most married man I’ve ever met.
Adverb. Now- indicates the present moment, then- shows the sequence of events. “now, before, after ” is in amer. press after September11.