The major functions of the language. The classification of styles.
Function of the language – a definite aim of language in a partic. Sphere of life. Functions of the language (Galperin): Communicative (producing primary information ALL spheres of life), Phatic (language contacts with the members of speaking community EVERYDAY LANGUAGE), Emotive(expressions of the speaker’s feelings and emotions, ALL spheres), voluntative/appealing (LAW sphere, urging the adresse to action), Cognitive (realize more about the world – SCIENCE), Aesthetic (prominent in artistic area –ART), Metalanguage (Interpreting function – SCEINCE), magic functions' (Incantation and pells –RELIGION)
Style –a system of interrelated language means, which serves a definite aim in comminication..
(Galpein íå îñíîñèò coll. style ê ñòèëþ)
Classification of functional styles:
V. Arnold (îíà):Colloquial s., Scietific s., Newspaper s., Belles-lettres s.
Y. M. Skrebnev – binary division o styles (formal/informal)
1) First member of the opposition – the well regulatedspeech types, subject to many rules, the violation of whcih is liable to various punitive social sanctions
2) Second member of the opposition – the nregulated, uncultivated types of speech, “untouched by grammarians”
Y. S. Stepanov –doesn’t defined b/w “language” and “speech”, divides the “national language” into: 1) bon usage (correct speech) a) poetic language b) language of “imaginative literature” c) colloquial style d) bookish stly (includes judicial, administrative and scientific) 2) language vulgaire (common parlance, popular, ungrammatical speech) a) common parlance b) popular speech c) argot and jargon
according to periods: augustian, mataphisical, georgian; according to authors: Stream of conciousness (Ex. Joyce, Hamingway – iceberg technique), Modernistic writing (Lawrence), Lots of details (K. Mansfield); according to level: Lomonsov (3 types of styles : sublime (grand), middle and low – corresponeds to styles in literature (epic, drama, poetry)); according to language( Galperin): Belles-lettres style: poetry proper, emotive prose, drama ; Publicistic style: speeches (oratory), esays, articles in journals and newspapers; Newspaper style: newspaper headlines, brief news items, advertisements; Official documents style, commercial documents, diplomatic documents, legal documents, military documents
1) Colloquial style and its substyles: Literary Colloquial, Familiar Colloquial, Low Colloquial, Slang, Non-literary layers (vulgarisms, dialects, jargons).
Their most prominent features on: phonetic – there are different contractions, morphological – violation of grammar, lexical – coll, slang, jargon,argo, syntactical levels – simplicity of structures (nominative structure, omitions).
2) The Belles-Lettres style and its substyles: the language of poetry, the language 6f emotive prose, the language of the drama. Can be submmed up as follows:
1) the common function – “aesthetico-cognitive”. This is a double function, which aims ath the cognitive process, which secures the gradual unfolding of the idea to the reader and at the same time calls forth a feeling of pleasure. The pleasure is derrived from the form in which the content is wrought.
2) Genuine, not trite, imaginary, achieved by purely linguistic devices.
3) The use of words in contextual and often in more than one dictionary meaning, or a least greatly influenced by the lexical environment.
4) A vocabulary which will reflect to a greater or lesser degree the author’s personal evaluation of things and phenomena
5) A peculiar individual selection of vocabulary and syntax, a kind of lexical and syntactical idiosyncray
6) The introduction of the several features of colloquial language to a full degree (in plays) or to a lesser degree (in emotive prose) or a slight degree, if any (in poetry).