Common, to reveal, former, by accident, total, artificial, available, fewer, the least, success, to survive, careless, authorized person, confidential information, experts, to detect, abuse.
XI. Put the following sentences logically in the right order according to the text:
1.Those two professors understood that hacking created new insights.
2.Finally they formed a group.
3.Levy presented the hacker’s rules in his book.
4.The first hackers belonged to the TMRC.
5.They offered a new course at MIT.
6.At the Al Lab many innovations were created.
7.Other members were fond of the wires and circuits underneath the track platform.
XII. What's missing? You can help yourself referring to the text.
1.Computers can …… your life for the better.
2.Those members who were …… in creating innovative, stylistic, and technically clever circuits called themselves…..
3.Hackers were given …. ….. on the computer by two AI Lab professors.
4.Access to computers should be ……..and total.
5.The first “hackers” were …… at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) who ……..to the TMRC.
6.John McCarthy and Marvin Minsky realized that hacking created new …….
7.During the spring of 1959, a new course was …… at MIT, a ……. programming class.
XIII. Match the words given in the left column with their definitions in the right column.
1.Innovation a) functioning well with little waste of effort
2.Hacker b) introduction of new ideas or methods
3.Available c) help to make something happen or increase
4.Access d) obtain data from a computer
5.Promote e) one who breaks into the computer system of a company
6.Bona fide f) genuine
7.Efficient g) obtainable or accessible.
XIV. Are you up to giving a right explanation?
It's a sort of a game, the game that develops student's abilities to express themselves. In some ways it helps students to plunge into English.
One of the students, a volunteer, is invited to take place at the teacher's table. He is facing the class and mustn't turn back and look at the blackboard. The other student with the rest of the company picks secretly out one of the statements given in this book and writes it on the blackboard.
Now the volunteer after getting some information from his colleagues tries to restore the statement.
The information concerns:
• The number of words;
• the main idea of the statement, if possible;
• the meaning of each word of the statement. It is strictly prohibited to use the words written on the blackboard, but it is quite well to use synonyms and antonyms.
It's extremely desirable that everybody takes part in this game.
THE DEVELOPMENT OF COMPUTERS: PREHISTORY
(1)Tools are any objects other than the parts of our own bodies that we use to help us do our work. Technology is nothing more than the use of tools. When you use a screwdriver, a hammer, or an axe, you are using technology just as much as when you use an automobile, a television set, or a computer.
(2)We tend to think of technology as a human invention. But the reverse is closer to the truth. Stone tools found along with fossils show that our ape-like ancestors were already putting technology to use. Anthropologists speculate that using tools may have helped these creatures evolve into human beings; in a tool-using society, manual dexterity and intelligence count for more than brute strength. The clever rather than the strong inherited the earth. Most of the tools we have invented have aided our bodies rather than our minds. These tools help us lift and move and cut and shape. Only quite recently, for the most part, have we developed tools to aid our minds as well.
(3)The tools of communication, from pencil and paper to television, are designed to serve our minds. These devices transmit information or preserve it, but they do not modify it in any way (If the information is modified, this is considered a defect rather than a virtue, as when a defective radio distorts the music we’re trying to hear.)
(4)Our interest lies with machines that classify and modify information rather than merely transmitting it or preserving it. The machines that do this are the computers and the calculators, the so called mind tools. The widespread use of machines for information processing is a modern development. But simple examples of information-processing machines can be traced back to ancient times. The following are some of the more important forerunners of the computer.
(5) The abacus is the counting frame that was the most widely used device for doing arithmetic in ancient times and whose use persisted into modern times in the Orient. Early versions of the abacus consisted of a board with grooves in which pebbles could slide. The Latin word for pebble is calculus, from which we get the words abacus and calculate.
(6) In the seventeenth century, calculators more sophisticated than the abacus began to appear. Although a number of people contributed to their development, Blaise Pascal (French mathematician and philosopher) and Wilhelm von Leibniz (German mathematician, philosopher, and diplomat) usually are singled out as pioneers. The calculators Pascal and Leibniz built were unreliable, since the mechanical technology of the time was not capable of manufacturing the parts with sufficient precision. As manufacturing techniques improved, mechanical calculators eventually were perfected; they were used widely until they were replaced by electronic calculators in recent times.
(7) Until modem times, most information-processing machines were designed to do arithmetic. An outstanding exception, however, was Jacquard’s automated loom, a machine designed not for hard figures but beautiful patterns. A Jacquard loom weaves cloth containing a decorative pattern; the woven pattern is controlled by punched cards. Changing the punched cards changes the pattern the loom weaves. Jacquard looms came into widespread use in the early nineteenth century, and their descendants are still used today. The Jacquard loom is the ancestor not only of modem automated machine tools but of the player piano as well.