1. Criticism: Van Wyck Brooks self-criticism, new realism
New Self-Criticism: 3. The 'Lost Generation' writers: – The Roaring Twenties: hedonism
Sherwood Anderson (1876-1941) Winesburg, Ohio (1919); The Triumph of the Egg (1921)
Sinclair Lewis (1885-1951) Main Street (1920); Babbit (1922)
Francis Scott Fitzgerald (1896-1940)This Side of Paradise (1920); Flabbers and Philosophers (1920); The Beautiful and the Damned (1921); Tales of the Jazz Age (1922); The Great Gatsby (1925); Tender Is the Night (1934); The Crack-up (1936); The Last Tycoon (1941).
– The lights grow brighter as the earth lurches away from the sun, and now the orchestra is playing yellow cocktail music, and the opera of voices pitches a key higher. Laughter is easier minute by minute, spilled with prodigality, tipped out at a cheerful word. The groups change more swiftly, swell with new arrivals, dissolve and form in the same breath; already there are wanderers, confident girls who weave here and there among the stouter and more stable, become for a sharp, joyous moment the center of the group, and then, excited with triumph, glide on through the sea-change of faces and voices and color under the constantly changing light.
4. New Realism and Social Criticism
John Dos Passos (1896-1970)One Man's Initiation (1920); Three Soldiers (1921); Manhattan Transfer (1925); U.S.A. (The 42nd Parallel (1930); Nineteen Nineteen (1032); The Big Money (1936))
Thomas Wolfe (1900-1938)Look Homeward, Angel (1929) – Eugene Gant; Of Time and the River (1935); You Can't Go Home Again (1940)
– 'the city of myself, the continent of my soul'.
John Steinbeck (1902-1968) Tortilla Flat (1935); In Dubious Battle (1936); Of Mice and Men (1937); The Grapes of Wrath (1939) – the Joads; Cannery Row (1945); The Pearl (1947); East of Eden (1952); The Winter of Our Discontent (1961) Travels with Charley (1962)
so much depends
a red wheel
glazed with rain
beside the white
, o no in-
can't do (never
from it; you
're wrong; my friend
Gertrude Stein (1874-1946)rose is a rose is a rose is a rose.
William Carlos Williams (1883-1963)
e e cummings (1894-1962)
Ezra Pound (1885-1972)Mauberly (1920); CantosThe apparition of these faces in the crowd;Petals on a wet, black bough.
Wallace Stevens(1879-1955) 'Peter Quince at the Clavier' (1923); "Disillusionment of Ten O'Clock" (1931)The houses are hauntedBy white night gowns.None are green,Or purple with green rings,Or green with yellow rings,Or yellow with blue rings.None of them are strange,With socks of laceAnd beaded ceintures.People are not going To dream of baboons and periwinkles.Only, here and there, an old sailor,Drunk and asleep in his boots,Catches tigersIn red weather.
Langstone Hughes(1902-1967) "The Negro Speaks of Rivers,"
AMERICAN LITERATURE SINCE THE 1950s
- New Journalism:
Tom Wolfe (born 1931) 'The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test' (1968), and in 'The Right Stuff' (1979), 'The Bonfire of the Vanities' (1986)
Norman Mailer (1923-2007) 'The Naked and the Dead' (1948), 'The Armies of the Night' (1968), 'Miami and the Siege of Chicago' (1968)
Truman Capote (1924-1984) "In Cold Blood" (1966), "Breakfast at Tiffany's"
- Experimental Fiction:
Thomas Pynchon (born 1937) 'Gravity's Rainbow' (1973)
Joseph Heller (1923-1999) 'Catch 22' (1961), 'Something Happened' (1974), 'Good as Gold' (1979)
Vladimir Nabokov (1899-1977), 'Lolita' (1955)(Humbert Humbert), 'Pale Fire' (1962)
Kurt Vonnegut, Jr. (1922-2007) 'Slaughterhouse Five' (1969), 'The Sirens of Titan' (1959), Cat's Cradle
John Barth (born 1930) 'The Sot-Weed Factor' (1960), 'Giles Goat-Boy' (1966)
Ken Kesey (1935-2001)"One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest" (1962)
William Styron (born 1925) 'Confessions of Nat Turner' (1967),
Reynolds Price (born 1933) 'The Surface of Earth' (1975), 'Kate Vaiden' (1986).
Walker Percy (1916-1990) 'The Moviegoer' (1961), 'The Thanatos Syndrome' (1987)
Flannery O'Connor (1925-1964) 'Wise Blood' (1952), 'Everything That Rises Must Converge' (1965).
John Cheever 'The Wapshot Chronicle' (1957), 'The Wapshot Scandal' (1964), 'Bullet Park' (1969)
Robert Penn Warren (1905-89) 'All the King's Men' (1946) Huey Long
John Updike (1932-2009) Harry "Rabbit" Angstrom: 'Rabbit, Run' (1960), 'Rabbit Redux' (1971), 'Rabbit Is Rich' (1981), and 'Rabbit at Rest' (1990).
- Afro-American Fiction:- Ralph Ellison (born 1914) 'Invisible Man' (1952)
- James Baldwin (1924-1987) 'Go Tell It on the Mountain' (1953), 'Another Country' (1962), 'If Beale Street Could Talk' (1974)
- Ishmael Reed (born 1938) 'The Free-Lance Pallbearers' (1967) 'Nineteen Necromancers from Now' (1970)
- Toni Morrison (born 1931) 'Song of Solomon' (1977), 'Beloved' (1987)
- Alice Walker (born 1944) 'The Color Purple' (1983).
- Jewish-American writers: - Saul Bellow (born 1915) 'The Adventures of Augie March' (1953)á 'Herzog' (1964), 'Mr. Sammler's Planet' (1970), 'Humboldt's Gift' (1975)
- Isaac Bashevis Singer (1904-1991) 'The Family Moskat' (1950), 'The Magician of Lublin' (1960), 'The Slave' (1962),'Enemies, a Love Story' (1972).
- Philip Roth (born 1933) 'Goodbye, Columbus' (1959), 'Portnoy's Complaint' (1969), 'My Life as a Man' (1974), 'The Counterlife' (1987)
- Bernard Malamud (1914-1986) 'The Natural' (1952), 'The Assistant' (1957), 'The Fixer' (1966), 'God's Grace' (1982).
- Feminist literature: Mary McCarthy (1912-1989) 'The Group' (1963) Vassar graduates
- Katherine Anne Porter (1890-1980) "Flowering Judas,"
- Eudora Welty (1909--) "Why I work at the P.O."
- Drama: - Jack Gelber (born 1932) 'The Connection'
- La Mama Experimental Theatre Club, the Open Theatre, the Negro Ensemble Company -- Lonne Elder III (born 1931), Megan Terry (born 1932), and Lanford Wilson (born 1937).
- Lorraine Hansberry (1930-1965) 'A Raisin in the Sun' (1959)
- LeRoi Jones (Imamu Amiri Baraka) (born 1934) 'Dutchman' (1964).
- Ed Bullins (born 1935) 'In the Wine Time' (1968), 'The Duplex' (1970)
- Charles Fuller (born 1939) 'A Soldier's Play' (1982)
- August Wilson (born 1945) 'Ma Rainey's Black Bottom' (1981), 'Fences' (1987), 'The Piano Lesson' (1990).
- Edward Albee (born 1928) 'Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?' (1962), 'Quotations from Chairman Mao Tse-Tung' (1968).
- Sam Shepard (born 1943) off-off-Broadway theaters; Mae West, Jesse James, Marlene Dietrich 'Mad Dog Blues' (1971), 'The Tooth of Crime' (1972), 'Buried Child' (1978), 'True West' (1981), 'Fool for Love' (1983), 'A Lie of the Mind' (1985).
- David Rabe (born 1940) 'The Basic Training of Pavlo Hummel' (1971), 'Streamers' (1976).
- David Mamet (born 1947) 'Sexual Perversity in Chicago' (1974), 'American Buffalo' (1975), 'Glengarry Glen Ross' (1983), 'Speed-the-Plow' (1987).
- Neil Simon (born 1927) 'Barefoot in the Park' (1962), 'The Odd Couple' (1965), 'The Sunshine Boys' (1972); 'Brighton Beach Memoirs' (1983), 'Biloxi Blues' (1985), 'Broadway Bound' (1986).
- beatniks/ the Beat
Jack Kerouac(1922-1969) On the Road
John Ashbery (born 1927)
John Berryman (1914-72) 'The Dream Songs' (1969)
Robert Bly (born 1926)
W.S. Merwin (born 1927),
James Merrill (born 1926) 'The Book of Ephraim' (1976) Ouija board
-A.R. Ammons (born 1926) 'Sphere: the Form of a Motion' (1974)
Allen Ginsberg (1926-1997)'Howl' (1956), 'Planet News' (1968)
Adrienne Rich (1929-2012) 'Diving Into the Wreck' (1973)
Robert Lowell (1917-77) 'Life Studies' (1959)
- confessional poetry:
- Black Mountain experimentalists:
- Denise Levertov (born 1923)
- Robert Creeley (born 1926)
- Robert Duncan (1919-88)
- Charles Olson (1910-1970)
- New York school:- Frank O'Hara (1926-1966),
- Kenneth Koch (born 1925)
- traditional forms: - Howard Nemerov (1920-1991)
- "the language poets," "Temblor" magazine
- "poetry slams"
- "New Formalists"
- Concrete poetry
Sylvia Plath (1932-1963), 'Ariel' (1965), 'Crossing the Water' (1971).
Anne Sexton (1928-1974)
W.D. Snodgrass (born 1926)