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In the 1970s, tobacco companies successfully marketed smoking to women by linking their ad

campaigns to the (1)____________ women's liberation movement. Now, they are

(2)____________ using similar tactics to entice women in traditional societies

(3)____________ to take up smoking, Women's News reported August 19.

As smoking in the developed world declines, tobacco companies are starting to

(4)____________ on new markets in developing nations, especially in Asia. Female smoking

rates in these countries have been low historically, a fact that marketers want to change with ads

that (5)____________ that smoking (6)_____________ equality, fitness, and trendiness. In

South Africa, for instance, one ad shows a blonde woman smoking, with the message, "Do I look like I would cook you breakfast?"

As a result, (7)____________ show that female smoking is up in many Third World

nations, including Cambodia, Malaysia, and Bangladesh. "Cultural prohibitions against tobacco

use by women can be (8)___________ by social change and aggressive tobacco marketing,"

according to a recent World Health Organization report.

An American Cancer Society report said that tobacco firms are creating cigarette brands

(9)____________ for women and sponsoring events such as concerts, art shows, and beauty

pageants to appeal to girls. "It goes in waves around the world," said Dr. Omar Shafey, one of the report s editors. "As women experience democratization, they face these pressures intentionally

(10)____________ upon them by the tobacco industry. In Lebanon, Egypt, and many [Persian]

Gulf countries, women face these pressures."

"To enter the man's world that's taboo is part of the attraction," he added. "As waves of modernization spread, women seek to take up the bad habits of men."

Adapted from Join Together Online, August 28, 2003, http://www.jointogether.org/sa/news/summaries/reader/ 0,1854,56640 L00.html

Chapter 8 • Marketing

■■I Write five statements in your own words about the content of "Tobacco Companies Target Traditional Women." Use one or two of the following words in each statement.

ethical imply overall principal status

goal objective physical statistics target

1 The apparent goal of tobacco companies is to target women in developing countries.





a Collocations

*3 In the space provided, write the word that can precede all four words in each group to form common collocations.

ethical global media physical statistical

1. physical__ exercise, attraction, therapy, education

2. ____________ business, warming, population, travel

3. ____________ __ event, hype, attention, coverage

4. ____________ __ analysis, data, information, evidence

5. ____________ __ behavior, standards, conduct, values

86 Essential Academic Vocabulary

adult instant interna! principal technological

6. ____________ __ medicine, politics, issues, memo

7. ____________ __ problems, solutions, innovations, progress

8. ____________ __ reason, character, method, idea

9. ____________ coffee, success, response, access

10. ____________ population, language, theme, education


Complete each sentence with an appropriate collocation from the previous exercise.

1. The global popul<ztioft nas become a target of the tobacco industry.

2. The employees were reminded in an internal____________ that they were not allowed to

smoke inside the building.

3. Companies are expected to follow ethical___________ when conducting business.

4. The principal____________ in the movie was played by a popular Hollywood actor.

5. After I hurt my back, I had to have physical___________ for several weeks.

6. The space program has been troubled with numerous____________ problems in recent


7. The new CD released by my favorite singer was an instant____________

8. It is clear from the____________ data in numerous research studies that smoking causes

lung disease.

9. The wedding of the famous couple attracted a great deal of___________ coverage.

10. Children cannot go to see movies with an adult____________

6. Word Paris

-ology (the study of. . .)


Each of the following words contains the word part -ology, which means "the study of. . . ." This word part is very common in the names of academic studies. The job title of the person who works in one of these fields ends in -i$P. for example, biologist, archeologist, and cardiologist. The following statements might be made by students taking the courses that follow. Match the appropriate field of study with the statement.

Chapter 8 • Marketing








meteorology pharmacology

psychology technology


1. mek&orolocfy

2. _____________

3. 4.





9. 10.

Today we studied the causes of tornadoes and hurricanes.

Next spring our class is going to Egypt to help in the excavation of a newly discovered tomb.

This week our professor is discussing the causes of depression.

We have just finished studying the layers of rock in the Grand Canyon.

As part of our medical training, we will study heart disease.

In the lab we often have to use microscopes to study the tiny organisms that cause disease.

Tomorrow I have a final exam on the human digestive system.

We have to learn all the side effects of common painkillers, such as aspirin and ibuprofen, by the next class.

Several professors in our department are well known for their contributions to the telecommunications industry.

It is fascinating learning about tribes in the Amazon region who still live hidden from modern life.

Which word in the following groups does not have an obvious connection to the other two words? Explain why this word does not relate to the others.

1. biologist, bacteriologist, meteorologist

2. archaeology, criminology, anthropology

3. neurologist, zoologist, ornithologist

4. meteorology, theology, climatology

5. cardiologist, neurologist, geologist

88 Essential Academic Vocabulary

7. Writing

Q Defining a Term

A marketing strategy is a plan that will enable an organization to make the best use of its resources and advantages to meet its short-term objectives and long-term goals. A marketing strategy consists of (1) the selection and analysis of a target market and (2) the creation and maintenance of an appropriate marketing mix.

• A target market is a group of individuals and/or organizations for which a company develops and maintains a marketing mix suitable for the specific criteria of that group in a manner consistent with the company's overall objectives, after an analysis of the existing competition.

• A marketing mix is a combination of product, price, distribution, and promotion developed to satisfy a specific target market.

Adapted from William M, Pride, Robert J. Hughes, and Jack R. Kapoor, Business, 7th ed. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2002), 360.

These definitions are marketing terms that may be applied to the selling of any product. For each term, write several sentences related to the marketing of tobacco products to developing countries. Include specific details or examples for each term. The first one is started for you.

1. Marketing strategy: because of decreased prof iis in the domestic market, the marketing

strategy of some major tobacco companies is now concentrated on selling cigarettes in

developing countries where the profits are likely to increase enormous/if over the long

term. For instance,

Chapter 8 • Marketing

2. Target market:

3. Marketing:

Respond to one of the following topics with your own opinion. Include at least eight vocabulary words in your paragraph.

1. Tobacco companies in the United States are not allowed to advertise their products on television and cannot sell them to minors. Do you think tobacco manufacturers in the United States should be required to follow U.S. laws and regulations when they market their products to other countries?

2. Tobacco companies are not allowed to advertise their products in the United States because cigarettes and other tobacco products are unhealthy and cause illness and death. However, there are many other products, such as fast food and snacks, that are also unhealthy but are legally advertised. Explain your position on the advertising of unhealthy products.




Essentjas AzashmixVjuajwasv

8. Speaking

Partner Discussion: World Health Organization Facts

Discuss with a partner your reaction to the information in the graphic from the World Health Organization. Consider the following questions:

World Health Organization, November 21, 2003, http://www.cnn.com/HEALTH/9704/16/tobacco.world/

• How does the World Health Organization try to make an impact with this information?

• Do you think the number of smokers will increase or decrease in the short term? In the long term?

• Why do you think people continue smoking even when they are aware of its potential health problems?

• How does smoking kill people?

• Do warnings on cigarette packages have any effect on smokers' habits?

M Partner Discussion: Analyzing a Cigarette Advertisement

Study the advertisement for cigarettes and analyze the marketing strategy being used to promote this product to the target market. Discuss the following with your partner:

• Demographic targets: age, gender, race, ethnicity, income, education, job, family relationships, religion, and social class

• Psychological targets: personality, motivation, and lifestyle

• Geographic targets: region or state, city size, city image, and urban versus rural

• Behavioral targets: volume of use, benefit expectations, brand loyalty, and price

How do you rate the overall effectiveness of this advertisement?


■■■■K""1-- l___ __ 'iiiiiirn

For more activities related to this chapter, go to the Essential Academic Vocabulary website.























commitment hypothesize occupational
















investigation mechanism option parameter



Essential Academic Vc



1. What necessities of life are free or almost free? Why are they easily available?

2. Name several things that are scarce. How does scar­city affect the price of these items?

3. How do you feel about diamonds? How much do they typically cost?

4. What are some of the traditional occasions for giving

diamond jewelry? How did these traditions begin?

5. Where do diamonds come from? What do you know about the methods used to mine and sell diamoncs :

6. Explain your reaction to these common sayings at:. diamonds:


• "Diamonds are a girl's best friend."

• "Diamonds are forever."


For over 200 years, economists have hypothesizedabout why diamonds are so expensive and water so inexpensive, whereaswater is so much more useful and necessary. The answer is that relative to the available quantities, more diamonds are wanted than water.

Of course, water is far from free these days. Some people regularly spend over $6 a gallon onbottled drinking water, and most homeowners must pay their local government for tap water. Even air is not always cheap or free. In Mexico City, for example, an adequatesupply of breathable air is far from free. In this city of 19 million people and 3 million cars, dust, lead, andother chemical compoundsmake the air unsafe to breathe more than 300 days ayear. Private companies are now operating oxygen booths in local parks and malls. Breathable air, which ccs:; more than $1.60 per minute, has become a scarce commodity and generatesconsiderable revenue.

Interestingly, though, diamonds are not all that scarce. The volume of diamonds available ::: sale has been tightly and carefully monitoredand controlled. For about 100 years, there has bees preciselyone source for diamonds, De Beers, a South African company, which sells its own diamonds and those from other sources through a single agency the Central Selling Organization.


The Central Selling Organization has operated a central marketing system on behalfof the world's big producers, such as Botswana, Namibia, and Russia and for De Beers' own mines in South Africa. The Central Selling Organization manages the stock of diamonds so that prices c: not decline.During bad times, the organization collects and stores diamonds temporarilyuntL times improve. Then, during good times, the organization releases diamonds to the market in aprecisely controlled stream.

Many people argue that De Beers is a monopolist—the only sellerand should, therefore, not be grantedthe ability to retainthis position in the diamond business. In the United States, 25 monopolies are illegal unless specifically created by the government. In most developed

countries, monopolies are either illegal or have strict parametersinside which they must operaie De Beers is very careful not to have any currencydeposited with banks in the United States because of the fear of investigationunder U.S. law. However, the attitudesof other countries,

Chapter 9 • Economics

fuch as Britain, indicate that a monopoly may be considered a valid mechanismof commerce in some instances. Since diamonds are not used for anything important, it does not particularly matter if a monopoly exists.

.Although diamonds are not particularly useful, the dimensionsof their attraction to people are recognized through their beauty and through their power as an obvious imageof wealth, success, and love. A U.S. advertising agency invented the slogan "A Diamond Is Forever" for De Beers priorto 1950. De Beers spends about $200 million a year promoting diamonds as a conventionof love. Japanese couples once drank cups of tea when they became engaged to be married. Instead, De Beers introduced many of them to the optionof giving diamond engagement rings as a symbolic commitmentto marriage. Japan is now the second largest market for diamonds, after the United States.

A challengeto the De Beers' regime is predicted,as two big newcomers begin mining diamonds in Canada and Australia. These two major mining entitiesplan to sell outside of the Central Selling Organization, committing themselves to dealing with the occupationalstresses of r pen-market forces.

:, 2nd ed. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2003), 3-4.


-.urted from William Boyes and Michael Melvin, Fundamentals ofEi

1. Vocabulary in Context

Find the boldface words in the text that correspond to the following meanings.


-iragraphs 1+2
a. __________


.ijagraphs 3+4
e. _________

_- iragraph 5

9- ------------

h. _______

Paragraphs 6

m. n. o. P-



provided a possible explanation



keep j-
points of view k.
before q-
size r.
choice s.
clear t.
relating to a job  

combination of two or more elements

while on the contrary

become lower

fixed limits reasonable

independent organizations powerful business accepted behavior mental picture

Essential Academic Vocabulary

2. Reading Comprehension

3 Getting the Facts

Put a check mark (/) next to the statements that are true, according to the information in the reading.


Economics is the study of the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.

b. ____ Tap water is free.

c. ____ Air pollution in Mexico City is a health problem.

d. ____ The Central Selling Organization is currently the only agency in the world that sells


e. ____ A monopoly is a business that has complete control of a specific market.

f. _____ Private monopolies are legal in the United States.

g. ____ Britain has relaxed attitudes toward monopolies.

h. ____ De Beers diamond advertisements target couples who intend to get married.

i. ____ The Japanese buy more diamonds than Americans.

j. ____ In the future, two new mining companies may change the way that diamonds have

traditionally been sold.

Making Inferences

1. What are monopolies and why are they illegal in many countries?

^ Accar<£ag/z> /fies&z/fifig; /fiey77^/orp/vr/,i/cerso/jA?/77r?/7(^s^/-eBr?/sw£/7^ Tskm/h/a,
South Africa, and Russia. Other countries that have diamond mines include Angola,
the Democratic Republic of Congo, Canada, and Australia. The countries
where diamonds are sold in large numbers are the United States, Britain, fj

and Japan. From this information, write five sentences inferring g

You can learn a large number of words quickly by memorizing the word and its most common meaning. However, in-depth knowledge of a word requires more time and effort.

differences between the countries where diamonds are mined and the countries where diamonds are primarily sold.

The diamond-producing countries are gen&ral^ poor countries.

a. b. c. d.

Chapter 9 • Economics 9

3. Dictionary Skills

Study the dictionary entries for the various meanings of commit (v.) and commitment (n.). Match the following; causes with their results.

Com#mit (lo mit') tr.v. com*mitned, comamit*ting, com#mits. 1. To co, perform, or be guilty of (a mistake or crime): commit a crime; commit a serious blunder. 2. [to] To place (sbdy./sthg.) in the keeping of another; entrust: commit oneself to the care of a doctor; commit responsibilities to an assistant. 3. To place (sbdy.) in confinement or custody by an official act: The judge committed the criminal to prison for two years. 4. [to] To place (sthg.) for future use or preservation: The spy committed the secret code to memory. 5. To promise or obligate (one­self): He committed himself to finish the project by Friday.

COm«mit«ment (ks mit'msnt) n. 1. [U] The ace of committing: the commitment of poems to memory. 2. [C; U] A promise or an obligation to keep certain beliefs or to follow a certain course of action: The President takes an oath that is a binding commitment to uphold the laws of the United States. 3. [C] The state of being emotionally or mentally bound to another person or to a course of action: a strong commitment to each other; a deep commitment to help clean up the environment.

A likely result is that you will. . . Result a.have more time to work on other projects b. pay your household bills on time c. get married d. volunteer at the animal shelter e. get fired f. recover from an illness g. get caught by the police h. get divorced i. work late at the office j. go to a party k. attend a church regularly I. perform well on a test m. join the army n. lose your freedom o. forget to vote in elections

If you . . . Cause

1. ____ commit a crime

2. ____ have a religious commitment

3. ____ demonstrate commitment to your country

4. commit a serious error at work

5. demonstrate professional commitment


6. commit yourself to a doctor's care

7. meet your financial commitments

8. commit responsibilities to a new employee

9. have a strong emotional commitment


10. are committed to prison

11. have a deep commitment to animal rights

12. commit facts to memory

13. ____ display a lack of political commitment

14. have a social commitment

15. show a lack of commitment to your spouse

Essen_ial Academic Vocabulary

4. Word Forms

M Chart Completion

Complete the following chart with the different forms of each word. Note that some words do not have all forms.


Noun Verb Adjective Adverb
precision X precise, precisely
    valid X
investigation, investigator     X







generate   X
X adequate  
retain   X
  symbolic, symbolical  

Word Forms in Sentences

Reread "The Economics of Diamonds and Water." Complete the summary of the reading with the following words. Make sure that each word fits grammatically and meaningfully.










regime whereas

For the last 200 years, the buying and selling of diamonds has been carefully (1)--------------

by the Central Selling Organization, which manages the supply of diamonds so

(2)____________ that prices rarely (3)_____________ De Beers, a South African company,

has a (4)

on the diamond trade that is operated by the Central Selling

Organization. However, monopolies are not legal in every country. De Beers would risk

Chapter 9 • Economics

(5)____________ in the United States, (6)_____________ in Great Britain the company is free

to operate without restrictive (7)____________ De Beers promotes the selling of diamonds by

advertising them as an (8)____________ of personal and financial success and as a

(9)____________ to love and marriage. However, De Beers' (10)____________ may soon

receive a (11)___________ from two new mining companies that plan to sell diamonds

outside the Central Selling Organization.

5. Collocations

Give two examples of each of the following common collocations.

1. valid documents passportbirth certificate,

2. chemical compounds ______________ _____ ______________

3. criminal investigations ______________ ______________

4. conventional behavior ______________ ______________

5. unpopular political regimes ______________ ______________

6. weather predictions ______________ ______________

7. optional courses ______________ ______________

8. foreign currency ______________ ______________

9. physical challenges ______________ _____ ______________


10. personal defense mechanisms ______________ ______________

11. occupational hazards ______________ ______________

12. the generation gap ______________ ______________

13. room dimensions ______________ _____ ______________

14. negative attitudes ______________ ______________

Essential Academic Vocabulary

6, Word Parts

pre- (before)

The prefix pre- means "before" in time or place.

mm Discuss with a partner the meaning of the following collocations.

precancerous growth preconceived opinions precooked meals pre-existing medical condition

prefabricated house prehistoric remains premature baby premeditated murder

prenuptial agreement prerequisite course preschool children preshrunk T-shirt

Now write sentences to indicate your understanding of five of these collocations.

1 Mi/ doctor found a precancerous growth on mif leg, so he removed it before, it caused a

major problem._________________________________________________________





Chapter 9 • Economics

7. Writing

B3 Writing an Advertisement

Write an advertisement for the diamond necklace in the photograph. The advertisement should be appropriate for the target market of one of the following publications:

• a women's magazine

• an elegant fashion magazine

• a general news magazine

• a sophisticated men's magazine

• a bridal magazine

Ej Paragraph Writing

Write a response to one of the following topics. Include at least six to eight vocabulary words in your paragraph.

1. A monopoly is defined as a market structure for a specific product that is controlled by one company with no outside competition. In reference to De Beers and its monopoly on the marketing of diamonds, what do you think have been the positive and negative effects for the consumer?

2. What is your personal opinion and personal experience regarding the convention of giving or receiving a diamond engagement ring? What does a diamond ring mean to you? What other symbols of love and commitment might replace a diamond?

8. Speaking

mt Group Project: Oral Summaries

As a small group, investigate a topic related to diamonds. Topics could include the following:

• the De Beers Company

• the Central Selling Organization

• diamond mining

• the lives of diamond miners

Essential Academic Vocabulary

• diamond formation

• the diamond pipeline

• the manufacture of diamond jewelry

• traditions associated with diamonds

Search the Internet for an interesting article about the topic your group has chosen. Take notes on the main ideas and supporting details. Use these notes to give an oral summary of the article's content to your group. Discuss any issues or questions that arise from the summaries. Finally, combine your groups information to give a short summary to the class about your group's topic.

M Role-Plays

Using new vocabulary words from this chapter, act out the following role-plays.

1. You and your boyfriend/girlfriend are planning on getting married next year. You want to celebrate the engagement with a diamond ring, but your partner thinks the money could be better spent on something else, such as a honeymoon, a deposit on a house, or a new car. This is your first serious disagreement with your partner, and you do not want to cause a fight. Try to conduct a serious and reasonable discussion with your partner on this issue.

2. You have just returned from vacation in South Africa, where you visited a diamond mine. You have become aware of the dangerous working conditions and low salaries of the miners and now feel that they are being exploited by the diamond-mining companies. Your partner is planning on getting married next year, and you feel that he/she should not contribute to the wealth of the diamond regimes by buying an expensive diamond ring. Try to persuade your partner that it would be unethical to wear a diamond ring and provide some alternative solutions.

■ _L. .„.-».V. -itS

For more activities related to this chapter, go to the Essential Academic Vocabulary website.



Preview Sentences

Write five sentencesthat might describe what is happening in the photograph. Each sentence should include a nounand a verbfrom the following lists.




compensation ensure
interaction illustrate
corporation coordinate
professional demonstrate















Essential Academic Vocabulary



The professionals are predicting -their company's revenue for next year.






1. Vocabulary in Context

Write the appropriate word from each group of word choices in the numbered blanks in the text.

1. considerable, initial, occupational

2. profession, professional, professionally

3. promote, promoted, promotions

4. attitudes, mechanisms, sexes

5. constraints, options, reactions

6. interactions, interactive, interacts

7. cooperate, cooperation, cooperative

8. communication, immigrant, outcome

9. components, documents, labels

10. emphasis, emphasized, emphatically


11. similar, similarity, similarly

12. demonstrate, demonstration, demonstrative

13. convention, job, location

14. ensuring, imposing, predicting

15. circumstances, dimensions, options

16. commitments, commits, committed

17. challenge, challenged, challenging

18. global, globally, globe

19. despite, hence, whereas

20. corporation, partnership, regime

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