1. Tom must____________ his paper before turning it in tomorrow.
2. At the party last Saturday, there was__________ music, and everyone danced all night long.
3. I was asked to bring a____________ of my artwork to show during my interview for a
graphic arts job.
4. In my job as a hospital____________ , I have to interact with both doctors and patients.
5. Although Mary is almost 30, her behavior is sometimes very____________
6. The____________ at the crime scene proves that the man with short, dark hair is guilty.
7. There was a terrible accident on the highway today because of poor___________ in the
8. The____________ of this technology also invented a new kind of transportation system.
9. International visitors can face___________ if they do not obey the conditions of their visa.
10. People normally wear glasses or contact lenses to correct their___________
11. I received a grade of___________ because I did not finish my research paper on time.
12. My____________ suggested that I take five academic courses next semester.
13. When Dr. Jones arrived at the airport, a____________ assisted her with her luggage.
14. I prefer to eat in the____________ section of a restaurant so that I can breathe more easily.
15. I took my cousin, who is a____________ , to a wonderful new cafe that serves food made
from the freshest vegetables and fruit.
I http://www.college.hmco.com/esl/students| >
For more activities related to this chapter, go to the Essential Academic Vocabulary website.
compensation lew comment constant
component location ensure dominant
constraint minority illustrate ethnic
core outcome react initial
decade philosophy intermediate
diversity proportion sufficient
integration vision interaction
1. What do you notice about the children in the photo- want your children to have the same experience? graph? What special challenges might a teacher Explain why or why not.
encounter with students who come from different 4_ DescribetheQtherstudent$atco[[Dqth countnes and speak different languages? a[[Qmefromsimilarculturalandeconomkbad.
2. Why do you think there are so many students from dif- grounds? How do the students get along together? ferent cultures in U.S. schools? 5_ ^ yQUeverconsideredbecomjngateacher?whyQr
3. Think back to your elementary-school or high-school why not? years. Were those years happy or umappy? Would you
i Mrs. Margaret Tanner's classroom in a sunny, southern California elementary school is similar to any other fifth-grade room in communities all over the United States. The school was constructed in the 1950s, and the corenumber of students it serves has remained around 600 since its opening. Since she started teaching there in 1981, Mrs. Tanner has had as few as 19
5 students in her classroom and as many as 35, but on the average, her daily attendance is between 26 and 28 students of both sexes.
Mrs. Tanner has taught fifth grade in this classroom, in this school, in a suburb of Los Angeles, for 24 years. At the core of her philosophyof education is her emphasis on student interactionas a frameworkfor successful educational outcomesfor all students. When she
io accepted her initialteaching assignment, the dominantstudent population was middle class, white, and English speaking—the descendents of people who had emigrated to the United States from Europe during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. In short, they were very similar to Mrs. Tanner herself.
In that first decade of her professional career, however, demographic shifts took place in
15 California. Los Angeles expanded and its suburbs multiplied, and her community became a popular locationfor recently arrived Mexican immigrantsand other Spanish-speaking people coming to California from towns and cities in the southwestern United States. Correspondingly,the proportionsof white and minoritychildren in Mrs. Tanner's fifth-grade class also began to change. Her white, middle-class students were joined by African American children whose parents had relocated from the southern United States and by children who spoke Spanish in their working-class homes and commuted regularly between the United States and Mexico. The parents of these children, like the grandparents of her earlier students, had come to the United States to find employment with sufficientfinancial compensationto ensurea higher standard of living for their families.
25 Since the second decade of Mrs. Tanner's teaching career, considerableshifts in the
population have continued to alter the demographics of her students. More and more, she is teaching children who speak a variety of languages in their homes and communities, including Spanish, Vietnamese, Russian, Hmong, Chinese, and Farsi. In the classroom, students' English abilities may be at the beginning, intermediate,or advanced level. The students come from
Chapter 6 • Education 55
30 families who have immigrated to the United States to seek a better standard of living, to find freedom from political or religious constraints,or to escape from dangerous circumstancesin their own countries.
Mrs. Tanner has reactedto these demographic changes by remaining constantin her enthusiasm and her visionfor her teaching job,but she is also the first to admit that the ethnic
35 diversityof her students illustratesthe challenges of her role as a teacher and of her
understanding of the tasksand techniquesnecessary to teach her students effectively. As she comments,her greatest challenge is now the cultural diversity of her students, who come from different countries, language backgrounds, and economic levels. In order to reach her diverse students while creating a positive learning environment, componentsthat address the
4o integrationof cultural and language differences must enter into her teaching strategies. At the same time, the school's relianceon state leviesfor fundsmay constrain her efforts to teach the various minority groups in her classroom in the most effective ways.
Note: Demographics refers to the characteristics of people who live in a specific area. The word is derived from the Greek words demo (people) and graph (record or write).
Adapted from Eugene Garcia, Student Cultural Diversity: Understanding and Meeting the Challenge, 3rd ed. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2002), 4-5.
1. Vocabulary in Context
Choose the best meaning according to the context in which the word is used in the reading.
sufficient (line 23)
compensation (line 23)
Essential Academic Vocabulary
2. Reading Comprehension
E9 Getting the Facts
Read the following statements about the reading selection. Identify which statements are true (T) and which are false (F).
a. ____ _ Mrs. Tanner has been teaching since the 1950s.
b. _____ _ Mrs. Tanner teaches sixth-grade students.
c. _____ The average number of students per day in Mrs. Tanner's class is currently 27.
d. _____ _ Mrs. Tanner has changed teaching jobs several times.
e. _____ _ Mrs. Tanner is a white, middle-class American.
f. _____ During her first years as a teacher, a minority of her students were white.
g. ____ The students in her class now come from many different countries.
h. ____ Some of Mrs. Tanners students do not speak English as their first language.
i. ____ Mrs. Tanner's teaching style has not changed during her teaching career.
j. ____ A lack of government money may influence the way Mrs. Tanner responds to the
needs of her minority students.
Q Making Inferences
M&Xfcotis Spanish tAe-Xico
1. The families of Mrs. Tanner's students have come to California from all over the world. Using information from the reading and making inferences from your own general knowledge, complete the chart about each ethnic group.
Chapter 6 • Educatios
2. Immigrants to the United States come from many other countries besides those mentioned in the reading. What other ethnic groups have immigrated in large numbers to the United States in recent years and for what reasons?
The best way to remember new words is to associate them with words that you already know.
3. Dictionary Skills
Match the following common "work" expressions with their meanings.
task(ta'sk) n. 1. A piece of work assigned or done as part of one's duties: daily tasks. 2. A difficult or tedious undertaking: the task of building a nation. ♦ take to task.To scold sbdy.: The teacher took all of us to task for not doing our homework.
SYNONYMS: task, job, chore, assignment.These nouns mean a piece of work that one must do. Taskmeans a well-defined responsibility that is sometimes burdensome and is usually required by sbdy. else: The receptionist's main task is to answer the telephones. Joboften means a specific short-term piece of work: We spent the day doing odd jobs around the house. Choreoften means a minor, routine, or odd job: I have to finish my chores before I'm allowed to go out. Assignmentusually means a task given to one by a person in authority: For tonight's assignment, read the first chapter.
task forcen. A temporary grouping offerees and resources for a specific goal: a military task force.
a steady job foreign assignment job description job satisfaction
job security odd jobs
on-the-job training task force
workaholic working class workload
workout workplace works of art
1. a steady job
3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
a permanent job
a group of people in a society who usually earn relatively little money in jobs that may involve physical labor
the likelihood that a job will last a long time
small tasks and repairs that need to be done around the house
the place where people perform their jobs
a group of people organized for a specific goal
getting initial experience while working
Essential Academic Vocabulary
9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.
objects such as paintings, drawings, and statues
the amount of work to be done in a specific period of time
sent to work overseas by one's company
a list of responsibilities and tasks for a job
the positive feeling of knowing that a job is meaningful
a person who is addicted to working all the time
4. Word Forms
Complete the following chart with the different forms of each word. Note that some words do not have all forms.
Chapter 6 • Education
Word Forms in Sentences
Use the correct word form from the chart in the previous exercise to complete the following sentences. Make sure the word you choose fits meaningfully and grammatically into the sentence.
Complete the sentences with an appropriate verb, adjective, or noun from the chart.
1. Teachers place considerable_ &Mphasis__ on successful outcomes for all students.
2. One of the tasks of government is to establish a___________ framework for public
funds to operate successfully.
__ tasks such as writing reports and keeping records.
education. 3. Schools need to receive
4. School managers carry out_________
5. Most parents____________ great emphasis on a good education for their children.
6. This course provides a____________ framework for the study of psychology, but the
internship will provide practical experience.
7. My chemistry professor predicted a successful___________ for my research project.
8. Some state universities have to increase the cost of tuition because they received insufficient from the state government.
9. I thought that Dr. Niven_____________ unnecessary emphasis on the Civil War in the final
exam because she had barely mentioned it in class.
sufficient funds to cover the
10. Before we could plan our field trip, we had to expenses.
Chapter 6 • Education
6. Word Parts
■Mi Each of the following words contains the word part mini-, which comes to English from Latin and means "small." In each word, notice the word part that gives a clue about the words meaning. Match each word with its meaning.
2. 3. 4.
5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
1. _ L_ miniature (n.)
— minimum (n.)
— miniscule (adj.)
— minority (n.)
— minor (n.)
— minimize (v.) _ minus (prep.) _ minimalism (n.)
— minor (adj.)
— minibus (n.)
a. extremely small
b. a term used in subtraction
c. a person under the legal age
d. a style of art using the smallest range of colors or materials
e. a small bus or van
f. a very small copy of an object
g. a small group in society that is different because of race, religion, or beliefs
h. having little importance
i. the smallest amount or number possible
j. reduce to the least possible amount
*■! With a partner, discuss the meaning of the following collocations. Then write five sentences to illustrate the meaning of five collocations of your choosing.
a minimalist painting a miniseries
a minor traffic violation minimum qualifications minor adjustment
minor injuries minority opinions minus numbers the minimum age the minimum wage
1Mu friend suffered minor injuries in a traffic accident yesterday, but she did not have to stay in the hospital overnight.______________________________________________
Essential Academic Vocabulary
See Appendix III for additional information on paraphrasing.
Rewrite the following sentences in your own words. You can use synonyms, change the grammar structure, and/or change the order of ideas. However, the overall meaning of the sentence should remain the same.
1. At the core of Mrs. Tanners philosophy of education is her emphasis on student interaction. Actm student participation is at -the, center of Mrs, Tanner s beliefs and values as an educator._______
2. In the first decade of Mrs. Tanner's professional career, demographic shifts took place in the state.
3. Mexicans came to the United States to find employment with sufficient financial compensation to ensure a higher standard of living for their families.
4. Current immigrants come to the United States to seek a better standard of living, to find freedom from political or religious constraints, or to escape from dangerous circumstances in their own countries.
5. The school's reliance on levies for state funds may constrain Mrs. Tanner's efforts to teach the various minority groups in her classroom in the most effective ways.
Chapter 6 • Education
Write a response to oneof the following topics. Include at least six to eight vocabulary wordsin your paragraph.
1. Who was your favorite teacher in elementary school or high school? What do you remember about this teacher? What special personal qualities did this person possess? What made this teacher different from other teachers? What special teaching strategies did this teacher use to motivate students? Can you identify the teacher's philosophy of education?
2. Testing is widely used to evaluate learning in individual classes and to assess students for college admission. Testing methods may include writing an essay, answering multiple-choice questions, or writing short answers. Which kind of test do you prefer? Do you think that these tests accurately assess your strengths and weaknesses? Why or why not? What other methods could be used to evaluate your academic performance?
Discuss with your partner the following questions about your partner's experience in high school. Write your notes in the space provided.
What do you think are the components of a good education?
2. What is your philosophy of education?
3. Were sufficient funds available for educational activities in your school?
4. What were the core subjects that you had to study in high school?
5. What kinds of effective techniques did your teachers use?
Essential Academic Vocabulary
6. What kind of interaction was expected between students and the teacher?
What was the proportion of students who went to college in your graduating class?
Which minority groups were represented in your school?
What kinds of cultural issues were emphasized in your school?
10. What comments do you have about the educational system as a whole?
Using your notes, orally summarize your partner's ideas and experiences back to your partner. Remember to use as many words as possible from Chapter 6. Your partner should monitor the oral summary carefully for accuracy.
In small groups, discuss and write down the pros and cons (advantages and disadvantages) of becoming a teacher. Consider such factors as status, compensation, benefits, vacation time, classroom management, student motivation, and school environment. When you have finished, summarize your notes orally to another group or the whole class.
Chapter 6 • Education
The following polite expressions may be useful in your discussion: Giving opinions