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There is no doubt that computers have had (1)___ P&fl&r/aaJ___ effects on the way we work,

study, and play. However, computer addiction has become a (2)____________ problem for

some students whose lives are (3)____________ by long (4)_____________ of time spent in

front of a (5)____________ screen. Instead of (6)____________ face-to-face relationships

on campus, these students (7)____________ the computer as their (8)_____________

method of interaction. Research (9)____________ that these students have a greater

(10)____________ for failing their classes and dropping out of college because they are

unable to (11)____________ academically and socially.

It is not always easy for students to (12)___________ whether their computer

use has become an addiction or not. However, if they (13)___________ a negative

(14)____________ on their grades or if they seem incapable of (15)____________ their own

computer use, then it may be time to (16)____________ professional (17)____________ on

this (18)____________ A college counselor can (19)____________ the problem and advise

students of effective (20)___________ to stop their addiction.

Chapter 5 • Review

2. Synonyms

Match the nouns in column A with their meanings in column B.

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

Column A

1.____ labor

2. ____ region














Column B

a.part of one hundred

b. surroundings

c. management

d. safety

e. careful examination

f. mathematical statement

g. work

h. well-planned action

i. proof

j. written legal agreement

k. special attention

I. area

m. result

N. rule


3. Word Forms

Chart Completion

Give the noun form for each of the following verbs.


Verb Noun Verb Noun
identify id&nkrfaf conduct  
theorize   analyze  
major   create  
formulate   categorize  
assist   select  
survey   maintain  
reside   regulate  



50 Essential Academic Vocabulary

Ej Word Forms in Sentences

Write the appropriate word from each group of word choices below the reading in the numbered blanks in the text.

1. assist, assistance, assistant

2. community, communication, communion

3. secure, secured, security

4. elementary, elemental, element

5. survey, surveyed, surveyor

6. appropriate, appropriateness, appropriately

7. regulates, regulations, regulatory

8. maintain, maintenance, maintained

9. consequently, consequent, consequence


10. design, designed, designing

11. invest, investment, investor

12. purchase, purchaser, purchased

13. acquire, acquired, acquisition

14. residence, reside, resident

15. commission, commissioned, commissioner

When my family and I arrived in Boston so that I could attend graduate school, I went to the

campus housing office to get (1)____________ in finding a place to live. I told the advisor

that I wanted to live in a quiet (2)___ I also wanted to make sure that my chil­
dren were safe, so (3)____________ was an important (4)_____________ in my search. I

(5)____________ several properties, but nothing seemed (6)_____________ One apartment

unit had too many (7)____________ , such as not allowing pets. Another had poor

(8)____________ and, as a (9)_____________ , some of the appliances were broken. Another

house had an unattractive (10)_____________ However, I finally found a suitable house. In

fact, the price was right, and it seemed like such a good (11)_____________ that I decided to

(12)____________ it instead of renting it. This (13)_____________ meant that both the

seller and I were happy. I found a comfortable (14)____________ , and the real estate agent

received a good (15)____________ on the sale.

Chapter 5 • Review

4. Collocations

Combine a word from column A with a word from column B to form a common collocation. Then match the two-word collocation with its definition.

Column A statistical final financial legal yearly disorderly sports prime labor positive

1. 2. 3.

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Column B











sports sect/on__ tne part 0f the newspaper devoted to sports

_____________ aggressive or intoxicated behavior

_____________ money that is given or loaned

_____________ salary earned annually

_____________ a good outlook on life

_____________ a figure that cannot be divided by another figure

_____________ an organization for workers

_____________ tests taken at the end of the semester

a problem with the law information from numbers

Essential Academic Vocabulary

5. Word Parts

Complete each sentence with an appropriate word from the box. Use clues in the sentences as well as your knowledge of the meaning of prefixes, suffixes, and roots to assist you.

administrator deportation incomplete porter vegetarian

advisor evidence nonsmoking portfolio visibility

creator immature nonstop revise vision

1. Tom must____________ his paper before turning it in tomorrow.

2. At the party last Saturday, there was__________ music, and everyone danced all night long.

3. I was asked to bring a____________ of my artwork to show during my interview for a

graphic arts job.

4. In my job as a hospital____________ , I have to interact with both doctors and patients.

5. Although Mary is almost 30, her behavior is sometimes very____________

6. The____________ at the crime scene proves that the man with short, dark hair is guilty.

7. There was a terrible accident on the highway today because of poor___________ in the

foggy conditions.

8. The____________ of this technology also invented a new kind of transportation system.

9. International visitors can face___________ if they do not obey the conditions of their visa.


10. People normally wear glasses or contact lenses to correct their___________

11. I received a grade of___________ because I did not finish my research paper on time.

12. My____________ suggested that I take five academic courses next semester.

13. When Dr. Jones arrived at the airport, a____________ assisted her with her luggage.

14. I prefer to eat in the____________ section of a restaurant so that I can breathe more easily.

15. I took my cousin, who is a____________ , to a wonderful new cafe that serves food made

from the freshest vegetables and fruit.

I http://www.college.hmco.com/esl/students| >

For more activities related to this chapter, go to the Essential Academic Vocabulary website.




Noun   Verb Adjective Adverb ^
circumstance job alter considerable correspondingly

compensation lew comment constant

component location ensure dominant

constraint minority illustrate ethnic

core outcome react initial

decade philosophy intermediate

diversity proportion sufficient

emphasis reliance

framework sex

funds shift

grade task

immigrant technique

integration vision


1. What do you notice about the children in the photo- want your children to have the same experience?
graph? What special challenges might a teacher Explain why or why not.

encounter with students who come from different 4_ Describe the Qther student$ at co[[ Dq th
countnes and speak different languages? a[[ Qme from similar cultural and economk bad.

2. Why do you think there are so many students from dif- grounds? How do the students get along together? ferent cultures in U.S. schools? 5_ ^ yQU ever considered becomjng a teacher? why Qr

3. Think back to your elementary-school or high-school why not? years. Were those years happy or umappy? Would you


i Mrs. Margaret Tanner's classroom in a sunny, southern California elementary school is similar to any other fifth-grade room in communities all over the United States. The school was constructed in the 1950s, and the corenumber of students it serves has remained around 600 since its opening. Since she started teaching there in 1981, Mrs. Tanner has had as few as 19

5 students in her classroom and as many as 35, but on the average, her daily attendance is between 26 and 28 students of both sexes.

Mrs. Tanner has taught fifth grade in this classroom, in this school, in a suburb of Los Angeles, for 24 years. At the core of her philosophyof education is her emphasis on student interactionas a frameworkfor successful educational outcomesfor all students. When she

io accepted her initialteaching assignment, the dominantstudent population was middle class, white, and English speaking—the descendents of people who had emigrated to the United States from Europe during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. In short, they were very similar to Mrs. Tanner herself.

In that first decade of her professional career, however, demographic shifts took place in

15 California. Los Angeles expanded and its suburbs multiplied, and her community became a popular locationfor recently arrived Mexican immigrantsand other Spanish-speaking people coming to California from towns and cities in the southwestern United States. Correspondingly,the proportionsof white and minoritychildren in Mrs. Tanner's fifth-grade class also began to change. Her white, middle-class students were joined by African American children whose parents had relocated from the southern United States and by children who spoke Spanish in their working-class homes and commuted regularly between the United States and Mexico. The parents of these children, like the grandparents of her earlier students, had come to the United States to find employment with sufficientfinancial compensationto ensurea higher standard of living for their families.

25 Since the second decade of Mrs. Tanner's teaching career, considerableshifts in the

population have continued to alter the demographics of her students. More and more, she is teaching children who speak a variety of languages in their homes and communities, including Spanish, Vietnamese, Russian, Hmong, Chinese, and Farsi. In the classroom, students' English abilities may be at the beginning, intermediate,or advanced level. The students come from

Chapter 6 • Education 55

30 families who have immigrated to the United States to seek a better standard of living, to find freedom from political or religious constraints,or to escape from dangerous circumstancesin their own countries.

Mrs. Tanner has reactedto these demographic changes by remaining constantin her enthusiasm and her visionfor her teaching job,but she is also the first to admit that the ethnic

35 diversityof her students illustratesthe challenges of her role as a teacher and of her

understanding of the tasksand techniquesnecessary to teach her students effectively. As she comments,her greatest challenge is now the cultural diversity of her students, who come from different countries, language backgrounds, and economic levels. In order to reach her diverse students while creating a positive learning environment, componentsthat address the

4o integrationof cultural and language differences must enter into her teaching strategies. At the same time, the school's relianceon state leviesfor fundsmay constrain her efforts to teach the various minority groups in her classroom in the most effective ways.

Note: Demographics refers to the characteristics of people who live in a specific area. The word is derived from the Greek words demo (people) and graph (record or write).

Adapted from Eugene Garcia, Student Cultural Diversity: Understanding and Meeting the Challenge, 3rd ed. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2002), 4-5.

1. Vocabulary in Context

Choose the best meaning according to the context in which the word is used in the reading.


a. core(line 3) apple attention heart
b. framework(line 9) attitude evidence structure
c. initial(line 10) final first writing
d. dominant(line 10) constitutional major potential
e. shifts(line 14) changes dresses jobs
f. proportions(line 18) percentage relationship size
9- sufficient (line 23) available enough specific
h. compensation (line 23) exchange insurance salary
i. alter(line 26) argue change repeat
J- constraints(line 31) behavior concepts restrictions
k. tasks(line 36) assignments duties policies
I. techniques(line 36) design science skills
m. comments(line 37) counts replies says
n. components(line 39) factors formulas functions
0. funds (line41) data money proportions

Essential Academic Vocabulary

2. Reading Comprehension

E9 Getting the Facts

Read the following statements about the reading selection. Identify which statements are true (T) and which are false (F).

a. ____ _ Mrs. Tanner has been teaching since the 1950s.

b. _____ _ Mrs. Tanner teaches sixth-grade students.

c. _____ The average number of students per day in Mrs. Tanner's class is currently 27.

d. _____ _ Mrs. Tanner has changed teaching jobs several times.

e. _____ _ Mrs. Tanner is a white, middle-class American.

f. _____ During her first years as a teacher, a minority of her students were white.

g. ____ The students in her class now come from many different countries.

h. ____ Some of Mrs. Tanners students do not speak English as their first language.

i. ____ Mrs. Tanner's teaching style has not changed during her teaching career.

j. ____ A lack of government money may influence the way Mrs. Tanner responds to the

needs of her minority students.

Q Making Inferences

M&Xfcotis Spanish tAe-Xico






1. The families of Mrs. Tanner's students have come to California from all over the world. Using information from the reading and making inferences from your own general knowledge, complete the chart about each ethnic group.

Chapter 6 • Educatios


2. Immigrants to the United States come from many other countries besides those mentioned in the reading. What other ethnic groups have immigrated in large numbers to the United States in recent years and for what reasons?

The best way to remember new words is to associ­ate them with words that you already know.

3. Dictionary Skills

Match the following common "work" expressions with their meanings.

task(ta'sk) n. 1. A piece of work assigned or done as part of one's duties: daily tasks. 2. A dif­ficult or tedious undertaking: the task of building a nation. ♦ take to task.To scold sbdy.: The teacher took all of us to task for not doing our homework.

SYNONYMS: task, job, chore, assignment.These nouns mean a piece of work that one must do. Taskmeans a well-defined responsibility that is sometimes burdensome and is usu­ally required by sbdy. else: The receptionist's main task is to answer the telephones. Joboften means a specific short-term piece of work: We spent the day doing odd jobs around the house. Choreoften means a minor, routine, or odd job: I have to finish my chores before I'm allowed to go out. Assignmentusually means a task given to one by a person in authority: For tonight's assignment, read the first chapter.

task forcen. A temporary grouping offerees and resources for a specific goal: a military task force.

a steady job foreign assignment job description job satisfaction

job security odd jobs

on-the-job training task force

workaholic working class workload

workout workplace works of art


1. a steady job


3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

a permanent job

a group of people in a society who usually earn relatively little money in jobs that may involve physical labor

the likelihood that a job will last a long time

small tasks and repairs that need to be done around the house

the place where people perform their jobs

a group of people organized for a specific goal

getting initial experience while working

physical exercise

Essential Academic Vocabulary


9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

objects such as paintings, drawings, and statues

the amount of work to be done in a specific period of time

sent to work overseas by one's company

a list of responsibilities and tasks for a job

the positive feeling of knowing that a job is meaningful

a person who is addicted to working all the time

4. Word Forms

Complete the following chart with the different forms of each word. Note that some words do not have all forms.


Noun Verb Adjective Adverb
emphasis emphasis emphatic emphatically
  illustrate   X
location   X X
reaction     X
  comment X X


Chapter 6 • Education

Word Forms in Sentences

Use the correct word form from the chart in the previous exercise to complete the following sentences. Make sure the word you choose fits meaningfully and grammatically into the sentence.

1. initial 2. interaction 3. dominant 4. location 5. sufficient 6. comment 7. illustrate 8. emphasis 9. reaction

initially tne descendents of

Mrs. Tanner's students were immigrants from Europe.

.; she expects her students to

Mrs. Tanner's classes are_____

participate actively with her and with each other.

Over the years, the________________ ethnic groups in California have


Many immigrants prefer to_________________ their businesses in

California because they can usually make a good living there.

Some students do not have________________ English skills to participate

equally in the classroom.

Parents generally make positive_________________ on the quality of

education in Mrs. Tanner's class.

The walls of the classroom were decorated with___________________ from

magazines and newspapers.

There is_______________ agreement among teachers to utilize tasks and

techniques that address the ethnic diversity of their classes.

Many studies have shown that immigrant children___________________ well

to bilingual education.

10. correspondingly The cost of living in California is high, but the salaries for teachers are

higher than in some other states.

Essential Academic Vocabulary

5. Collocations

The following nouns are commonly found with specific verbs and adjectives.

funds task


Verbs Adjectives   Noun
place, put, give great, considerable, special, main, unnecessary emphasis
establish, set, provide, create, build basic, broad, general, theoretical, strong framework
produce, achieve, evaluate, predict possible, satisfactory, successful, disappointing outcome
obtain, raise, receive, administer, provide

(in)sufficient, public, (un)limited, special

perform, complete, cany out, avoid

challenging, routine, administrative, time-consuming, rewarding

Complete the sentences with an appropriate verb, adjective, or noun from the chart.

1. Teachers place considerable_ &Mphasis__ on successful outcomes for all students.

2. One of the tasks of government is to establish a___________ framework for public

funds to operate successfully. __ tasks such as writing reports and keeping records.

education. 3. Schools need to receive

4. School managers carry out_________

5. Most parents____________ great emphasis on a good education for their children.

6. This course provides a____________ framework for the study of psychology, but the

internship will provide practical experience.

7. My chemistry professor predicted a successful___________ for my research project.

8. Some state universities have to increase the cost of tuition because they received insufficient from the state government.

9. I thought that Dr. Niven_____________ unnecessary emphasis on the Civil War in the final

exam because she had barely mentioned it in class.

sufficient funds to cover the

10. Before we could plan our field trip, we had to expenses.

Chapter 6 • Education

6. Word Parts

mini- (small)

■Mi Each of the following words contains the word part mini-, which comes to English from Latin and means "small." In each word, notice the word part that gives a clue about the words meaning. Match each word with its meaning.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

1. _ L_ miniature (n.)

— minimum (n.)

— miniscule (adj.)

— minority (n.)

— minor (n.)

— minimize (v.) _ minus (prep.) _ minimalism (n.)

— minor (adj.)

— minibus (n.)

a. extremely small

b. a term used in subtraction

c. a person under the legal age

d. a style of art using the smallest range of colors or materials

e. a small bus or van

f. a very small copy of an object

g. a small group in society that is different because of race,
religion, or beliefs

h. having little importance

i. the smallest amount or number possible

j. reduce to the least possible amount

*■! With a partner, discuss the meaning of the following collocations. Then write five sentences to illustrate the meaning of five collocations of your choosing.

a minimalist painting a miniseries

a minor traffic violation minimum qualifications minor adjustment

minor injuries minority opinions minus numbers the minimum age the minimum wage

1 Mu friend suffered minor injuries in a traffic accident yesterday, but she did not have to
stay in the hospital overnight.




Essential Academic Vocabulary


7. Writing

3 Paraphrasing

See Appendix III for additional information on paraphrasing.

Rewrite the following sentences in your own words. You can use synonyms, change the grammar structure, and/or change the order of ideas. However, the overall meaning of the sentence should remain the same.

1. At the core of Mrs. Tanners philosophy of education is her emphasis on student interaction. Actm student participation is at -the, center of Mrs, Tanner s beliefs and values as an educator._______

2. In the first decade of Mrs. Tanner's professional career, demographic shifts took place in the state.

3. Mexicans came to the United States to find employment with sufficient financial compensation to ensure a higher standard of living for their families.

4. Current immigrants come to the United States to seek a better standard of living, to find freedom from political or religious constraints, or to escape from dangerous circumstances in their own countries.

5. The school's reliance on levies for state funds may constrain Mrs. Tanner's efforts to teach the various minority groups in her classroom in the most effective ways.

Chapter 6 • Education

Paragraph Writing

Write a response to oneof the following topics. Include at least six to eight vocabulary wordsin your paragraph.

1. Who was your favorite teacher in elementary school or high school? What do you remember about this teacher? What special personal qualities did this person possess? What made this teacher different from other teachers? What special teaching strategies did this teacher use to motivate students? Can you identify the teacher's philosophy of education?

2. Testing is widely used to evaluate learning in individual classes and to assess students for college admission. Testing methods may include writing an essay, answering multiple-choice questions, or writing short answers. Which kind of test do you prefer? Do you think that these tests accurately assess your strengths and weaknesses? Why or why not? What other methods could be used to evaluate your academic performance?

8. Speaking

Discuss with your partner the following questions about your partner's experience in high school. Write your notes in the space provided.





What do you think are the components of a good education?

2. What is your philosophy of education?

3. Were sufficient funds available for educational activities in your school?

4. What were the core subjects that you had to study in high school?

5. What kinds of effective techniques did your teachers use?

Essential Academic Vocabulary





6. What kind of interaction was expected between students and the teacher?

What was the proportion of students who went to college in your graduating class?

Which minority groups were represented in your school?

What kinds of cultural issues were emphasized in your school?

10. What comments do you have about the educational system as a whole?

Using your notes, orally summarize your partner's ideas and experiences back to your partner. Remember to use as many words as possible from Chapter 6. Your partner should monitor the oral summary carefully for accuracy.

In small groups, discuss and write down the pros and cons (advantages and disadvantages) of becoming a teacher. Consider such factors as status, compensation, benefits, vacation time, classroom management, student motivation, and school environment. When you have finished, summarize your notes orally to another group or the whole class.


Chapter 6 • Education

The following polite expressions may be useful in your discussion: Giving opinions

> I think/believe/feel that . . .

• As far as I'm concerned . . .

• In my opinion . . .

Expressing agreement

• I agree with what you said.

• Right/Exactly/True. f I think so, too.

• You may be right about that.

Expressing disagreement

• I don't really agree with you on that point.

• That might be true, but . . .

• That's a good point, but in my opinion . . .

• I have to disagree with you about that.


___ _ .. _ _ .

For more activities related to this chapter, go to the Essential Academic Vocabulary website.




Noun Verb Adjective Adverb Preposition^
commodity access annual approximately despite
corporation contribute domestic subsequently  
document coordinate innovative    
justification demonstrate negative    
military implement      
partnership impose      
professional link      
promotion maximize      
resolve phase out      
scheme publish      
series register      
volume undergo      


(riAPtn 7 • Business 67


1. How would you define the term business? 5. What do you know about Procter & Gamble? What

„ .... . , , , . . kinds of procucts does the company sell?

2. What factors are necessary to make a business

successful? 6. What innovative products have you seen advertised

„ .... . . ,. . , j .• i r recently? What company produces them? Are you

3. What might be some advantages and disadvantages of •',,•, . .u~ rA +,o u/u \ «

. .. 3 .. , - -, interested in buying these products? Why or why not?

starting your own small business?

4. Have you ever worked for a large company? How do
you think it is different from working for a small


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