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UNIT 28. Must and can't 12 page

1. It was a good party. _Everybody_ enjoyed it.

2. _All_ I've eaten today is a sandwich.

3. --- has got their faults. Nobody is perfect.

4. Nothing has changed --- is the same as it was.

5. Margaret told me --- about her new job. It sounds quite interesting.

6. Can --- write their names on a piece of paper please?

7. Why are you always thinking about money? Money isn't ---.

8. I didn't have much money with me. --- I had was ten pounds.

9. When the fire alarm rang, --- left the building immediately.

10. She didn't say where she was going. --- she said was that she was going away.

11. We have completely different opinions. I disagree with --- she says.

12. We all did well in the examination --- in our class passed.

13. We all did well in the examination --- of us passed.

14. Why are you so lazy? Why do you expect me to do --- for you?

89.2 Write sentences with whole.

1. I read the book from beginning to end. I _read the whole book._

2. Everyone in the team played well. The ---.

3. Paul opened a box of chocolates. When he finished eating, there were no chocolates left in the box. He ate ---.

4. The police came to the house. They were looking for something. They searched everywhere, every room. They ---.

5. Ann worked from early in the morning until late in the evening. ---.

6. Everyone in Dave and Judy's family plays tennis. Dave and Judy play, and so do all their children. The ---.

7. Jack and Jill went on holiday to the seaside for a week. It rained from the beginning of the week to the end. It ---.

Now write sentences 5 and 7 again using all instead of whole.

8. (5) Ann ---.

9. (7) ---.

89.3 Complete these sentences using every with one of the following:

five minutes ten minutes four hours six months four years

1, The bus service is very good. There's a bus _every ten minutes_.

2. Tom is ill. He has some medicine. He has to take it ---.

3. The Olympic Games take place ---.

4. We live near a busy airport. A plane flies over our house ---.

5. It's a good idea to have a check-up with the dentist ---.

89.4 Which is the correct alternative?

1. I've spent _the whole money/all the money_ you gave me. (all the money is correct)

2. Sue works _every day/all days_ except Sunday.

3. I'm tired. I've been working hard _all the day/all day._

4. It was a terrible fire. _Whole building/The whole building_ was destroyed.

5. I've been trying to phone her all day but _every time/all the time_ I phone her the line is engaged.

6. 1 don't like the weather here. It rains _every time/all the time._

7. When I was on holiday, _all my luggage/my whole luggage_ was stolen.


UNIT 90 Each and every

A. Each and every are similar in meaning. Often it is possible to use each or every:

* Each time (or Every time) I see you, you took different.

* There's a telephone in each room (or every room) of the house.

But each and every are not exactly the same. Study the difference:

#1 We use each when we think of things separately, one by one.

* Study each sentence carefully. (= study the sentences one by one)

Each is more usual for a small number:

* There were four books on the table.

Each book was a different colour.

* (in a card game) At the beginning of the game, each player has three cards.

#2 We use every when we think of things as a group. The meaning is similar to all.

* Every sentence must have a verb. (= all sentences in general)

Every is more usual for a large number:

* Carol loves reading. She has read every book in the library. (=all the books)

* I would like to visit every country in the world. (=all the countries)

Each (but not every) can be used for two things:

* In a football match, each team has 11 players. (not 'every team')

We use every (not each) to say how often something happens:

* 'How often do you go shopping?' 'Every day.' (not 'each day')

* There's a bus every ten minutes. (not 'each ten minutes')

B. Compare the structures we use with each and every:

#1 You can use each with a noun: each book, each student

You can use each alone (without a noun):

* None of the rooms was the same. Each was different. (= each room)

Or you can use each one:

* Each one was different.

You can say each of (the.../these... etc.):

* Read each of these sentences carefully.

* Each of the books is a different colour.

Also each of us/you/them:

* Each of them is a different colour.

#2 You can use every with a noun: every book, every student,

You can say every one (but not every alone):

* 'Have you read all these books?' 'Yes, every one.'

You can say every one of ... (but not 'every of ...')

* I've read every one of those books. (not 'every of those books')

* I've read every one of them.

C. You can also use each in the middle or at the end of a sentence. For example:

* The students were each given a book. (=Each student was given a book.)

* These oranges cost 25 pence each.

D. Everyone and every one

Everyone (one word) is only for people (='everybody'). Every one (two words) is for things or people, and is similar to each one (see Section B):

* Everyone enjoyed the party. (=Everybody...)

* He is invited to lots of parties and he goes to every one. (=to every party)



90.1 Look at the pictures and complete the sentences with each or every.

1. _Each_. player has three cards.

2. Carol has read --- book in the library.

3. --- side of a square is the same length.

4. --- seat in the theatre was taken.

5. --- apartment has a balcony.

6. There's a train to London --- hour.

7. She was wearing four rings-one on --- finger.

8. Our football team has been very successful. We've won --- game this season.

90.2 Put in each or every.

1. There were four books on the table. _Each_ book was a different colour.

2. The Olympic Games are held _every_ four years.

3. --- parent worries about their children.

4. In a game of tennis there are two or four players. --- player has a racket.

5. Nicola plays volleyball --- Thursday evening.

6. I understood most of what they said but not --- word.

7. The book is divided into five parts and --- of these has three sections.

8. I get paid --- four weeks.

9. We had a great weekend. I enjoyed --- minute of it.

10. I tried to phone her two or three times, but --- time there was no reply.

11. Car seat belts save lives --- driver should wear one.

12. (from an examination paper) Answer all five questions. Begin your answer to --- question on a separate sheet of paper.

90.3 Complete the sentences using each.

1. The price of one of those oranges is 25 pence. Those _orange are 25 pence each._

2. I had ten pounds and so did Sonia. Sonia and I ---.

3. One of those postcards costs 40 pence. Those ---.

4. The hotel was expensive. I paid f40 and so did you. We ---.

90.4 Put in everyone (one word) or every one (two words).

1. He's invited to a lot of parties and he goes to _every one._

2. As soon as --- had arrived, we began the meeting.

3. I asked her lots of questions and she answered --- correctly.

4. She's very popular --- likes her.

5. I dropped a tray of glasses. Unfortunately --- broke.


UNIT 91 Relative clauses (1)--clauses with who/that/which

A. Look at this example sentence:

The woman _who lives next_(relative clause) door is a doctor.

A clause is a part of a sentence. A relative clause tells us which person or thing (or what kind of person or thing) the speaker means:

* The woman who lives next door ... ('who lives next door' tells us which woman)

* People who live in London ... ('who live in London' tells us what kind of people)

We use who in a relative clause when we are talking about people (not things). We use who instead of he/she/they:

the woman--she lives next door--is a doctor

-> The woman who lives next door is a doctor.

we know a lot of people--they live in London

-> We know a lot of people who live in London.

* An architect is someone who designs buildings.

* What was the name of the man who lent you the money?

* Anyone who wants to do the exam must enter before next Friday.

You can also use that (instead of who):

* The man that lives next door is very friendly.

But sometimes you must use who (not 'that') for people - see Unit 94.

B. When we are talking about things, we use that or which(not 'who') in a relative clause:

where is the cheese? - it was in the fridge

-> Where is the cheese that was in the fridge?

-> Where is the cheese which was in the fridge?

* I don't like stories that have unhappy endings. (or ... stories which have ...)

* Barbara works for a company that makes washing machines. (or ... a company which makes...)

* The machine that broke down has now been repaired. (or The machine which broke

down ...)

That is more usual than which. But sometimes you must use which (not 'that')--see Unit 94.

C. You cannot use what in sentences like these:

*. Everything that happened was my fault. (not 'Everything what happened...')

What = 'the thing(s) that';

* What happened was my fault. (=the thing that happened)

D. Remember that in relative clauses we use who/that/which instead of he/she/they/it. So we say:

* Do you know the woman who lives next door? (not '...the woman she lives next door')



91.1 In this exercise you have to explain what some words mean. Choose the right meaning from the box and then write a sentence with who. Use a dictionary if necessary.

he/she steals from a shop

he/she designs buildings

he/she doesn't believe in God

he/she is not brave

he/she buys something from a shop

he/she pays rent to live in a house or flat

he/she breaks into a house to steal things

he/she no longer works and gets money from the state

1. (an architect) _Architect is someone who designs buildings._

2. (a burglar) _A burglar is someone ---.

3. (a customer) ---.

4. (a shoplifter) ---.

5. (a coward) ---.

6. (an atheist) ---.

7. (a pensioner) ---.

8. (a tenant) ---.

91.2 Make one sentence from two. Use who/that/which.

1. A girl was injured in the accident. She is now in hospital.

_The girl who was injured in the accident is now in. hospital._

2. A man answered the phone. He told me you were away.

The man ---.

3. A waitress served us. She was very impolite and impatient.

The ---.

4. A building was destroyed in the fire. It has now been rebuilt.


5. Some people were arrested. They have now been released.

The ---.

6. A bus goes to the airport. It runs every half hour.


91.3 Complete the sentences. Choose the most suitable ending from the box and make it into a relative clause.

he invented the telephone

she runs away from home

hey are never on time

they were on the wall

it makes washing machines

it gives you the meaning of words

it won the race

they stole my car

it can support life

it cannot be explained

1. Barbara works for a company _that makes washing machines._

2. The book is about a girl ---.

3. What was the name of the horse ---.

4. The police have caught the men ---.

5. Alexander Bell was the man ---.

6. What's happened to the pictures ---.

7. A mystery is something ---.

8. A dictionary is a book ---.

9. I don't like people ---.

10. It seems that Earth is the only planet ---.


UNIT 92 Relative clauses (2)--clauses with or without who/that/which

A. Look again at these example sentences from Unit 91:

* The woman [who] lives next door is a doctor. (or The woman that lives...)

[The woman] lives next door. who(= the woman) is the subject

* Where is the cheese [that] was in the fridge? (or ... the cheese which was...)

[The cheese] was in the fridge. that(= the cheese) is the subject

You must use who/that/which when it is the subject of the relative clause. You cannot say 'The woman lives next door is a doctor' or 'Where is the cheese was in the fridge?'

B. Sometimes who/that/which is the object of the verb. For example:

*. The woman [who] I wanted to see was away on holiday.

I wanted to see [the woman]. who(= the woman) is the object. I is the subject

* Have you found the keys [that] you lost?

You lost [the keys]. that(= the keys) is the object. you is the subject

When who/that/which is the object, you can leave it out. So you can say:

* The woman I wanted to see was away. or The woman who I wanted to see...

* Have you found the keys you lost? or ... the keys that you lost?

* The dress Ann bought doesn't fit her very well. or The dress that Ann bought...

* Is there anything I can do? or ... anything that I can do?

Note that we say:

the keys you lost (not 'the keys you lost them')

the dress Ann bought (not 'bought it')

C. Notice the position of prepositions(in/at/with etc.) in relative clauses:

do you know the woman?--Tom is talking [to] her

-> Do you know the woman (who/that) Tom is talking [to]?

the bed--I slept [in] it last night - wasn't very comfortable

-> The bed (that/which) I slept in last night wasn't very comfortable.

* Are these the keys (that/which) you were looking for?

* The woman (who/that) he fell in love with left him after a few weeks.

* The man (who/that) I was sitting next to on the plane talked all the time.

In all these examples, you can leave out who/that/which.

Note that we say:

the books you were looking for (not 'the books you were looking for them')

D. You cannot use what in sentences like these:

* Everything (that) they said was true. (not 'Everything what they said ...')

* I gave her all the money (that) I had. (not '... all the money what I had')

What = the thing(s) that:

* Did you hear what they said? (= the things that they said)



92.1 In some of these sentences you don't need who or that. If you don't need these words, put them in brackets like this: (who) (that).

1. The woman who lives next door is a doctor. ('who' is necessary in this sentence)

2. Have you found the keys (that) you lost. (in this sentence you don't need 'that')

3. The people who we met at the party were very friendly.

4. The people who work in the office are very friendly.

5. The people who I talked to were very friendly.

6. What have you done with the money that I gave you?

7. What happened to the money that was on the table? Did you take it?

8. It was an awful film. It was the worst film that I've ever seen.

9. It was an awful experience. It was the worst thing that has ever happened to me.

92.2 Complete these sentences with a relative clause. Use the sentences in the box to make your relative clauses.

we hired a car

you're going to see a film

I invited some people to the par쇼

Ann is wearing a dress

you had to do some work

Tom recommended a hotel to us

you lost Same keys

we wanted to visit a museum

1. Have you found the keys _you lost ?_

2. 1 like the dress --- was shut when we got there.

3. The museum ---?

4. What's the name of the film --- couldn't come.

5. Some of the people ---?

6. Have you finished the work ---?

7. The car --- broke down after a few miles.

8. We stayed at a hotel ---.

92.3 Complete these sentences using a relative clause with a preposition.

we went to a party last night

you can rely on George

we were invited to a wedding

I work with a number of people

I applied for a job

you told me about a hotel

you were looking for some keys

I saw you with a man

1. Are these the keys _you were looking for?_

2. Unfortunately we couldn't go to the wedding ---.

3. I enjoy my job. I like the people ---.

4. What's the name of that hotel ---?

5. The party --- wasn't very enjoyable.

6. I didn't get the job ---.

7. George is a good person to know. He's somebody ---.

8. Who was that man --- in the restaurant?

92.4 Put in that or what. If the sentence is complete with or without that, write (that)--in brackets.

1. I gave her all the money _that_ I had.

2. They give their children everything --- they want.

3. Tell me --- you want and I'll try to get it for you.

4. Why do you blame me for everything --- goes wrong?

5. I won't be able to do much but I'll do the best --- I can.

6. I can only lend you ten pounds. It's all --- I've got.

7. I don't agree with --- you've just said.

8. I don't trust him. I don't believe anything --- he says.


UNIT 93 Relative clauses (3)--whose/whom/where

A. Whose

We use whose in relative clauses instead of his/her/their:

we saw some people - [their] car had broken down

-> We saw some people [whose] car had broken down.

We use whose mostly for people:

* A widow is a woman whose husband is dead. (her husband is dead)

* What's the name of the man whose car you borrowed? (you borrowed his car)

* A few days ago I met someone whose brother I went to school with. J went to school with his/her brother)

Compare who and whose:

* I met a man who knows you. (be knows you)

* I met a man whose sister knows you. (his sister knows you)

B. Whom

Whom is possible instead of who when it is the object of the verb in the relative clause (like the sentences in Unit 92B):

* The woman whom I wanted to see was away on holiday. (I wanted to see her)

You can also use whom with a preposition (to whom/from whom/with whom etc.):

* The woman with whom he fell in love left him after a few weeks. (he fell in love with her)

But we do not often use whom. In spoken English we usually prefer who or that, or nothing (see Unit 92). So we usually say:

* The man I saw. or The man who/that I saw.

* The woman he fell in love with. or The woman who/that he fell in love with.

For whom see also Units 94-95.

C. Where

You can use where in a relative clause to talk about a place:

the hotel--we stayed [there]--wasn't very clean

-> The hotel [there] we stayed wasn't very clean.

* I recently went back to the town where I was born. (or ... the town I was born in. or ... the town that I was born in.)

* I would like to live in a country where there is plenty of sunshine.

D. We say:

the day/the year/the time(etc.) something happens or the day/the year/the time(etc.) that something happens

* Do you still remember the day (that) we first met?

* The last time (that) I saw her, she looked very well.

* I haven't seen them since the year (that) they got married.

E. We say:

the reason something happens or the reason that/why something happens

* The reason I'm phoning you is to invite you to a party. (or The reason that I'm phoning .../The reason why I'm phoning ...)



93.1 You met these people at a party:

My mother writes detective stories.

My wife is an English teacher.

I won a restaurant.

My ambition is to limb Everest.

We've just I got married.

My parents used to work in a circus.

Later you tell a friend about the people you met. Complete the sentences using who ... or whose ...

1. I met somebody _whose mother writes detective stories.

2. I met a man ---.

3. I met a woman ---.

4. I met somebody ---.

5. I met a couple ---.

6. I met somebody ---.

93.2 Complete the sentences. Use the sentences in the box to make relative clauses with where.

I can buy some postcards there

Ann bought a dress there

John is staying there

I was born there

we can have a really good meal there

we had the car repaired there

1. I recently went back to the town _where I was born._

2. Do you know a restaurant ---?

3. Is there a shop near here ---?

4. I can't remember the name of the garage ---.

5. Do you know the name of the hotel ---?

6. Ann bought a dress which didn't fit her, so she took it back to the shop ---.

93.3 Complete each sentence using who/whom/whose/where.

1. What's the name of the man _who_ car you borrowed?

2. A cemetery is a place --- people are buried.

3. A pacifist is a person --- believes that all wars are wrong.

4. An orphan is a child --- parents are dead.

5. The place --- we spent our holidays was really beautiful.

6. This school is only for children --- first language is not English.

7. 1 don't know the name of the woman to --- I spoke on the phone.

93.4 Use your own ideas to complete these sentences. They are like the ones in Sections D and E.

1. I'll always remember the day _I first met you._

2. I'll never forget the time ---.

3. The reason --- was that I didn't know your address.

4. Unfortunately I wasn't at home the evening ---.

5. The reason --- is that they don't need one.

6. 1989 was the year ---.


Unit 94 Relative clauses(4)--'extra information' clauses (1)

A. There are two types of relative clause. In these examples, the relative clauses are underlined. Compare:

#1 Type 1

* The woman _who lives next door_ is a doctor.

* Barbara works for a company _that makes washing machines._

* We stayed at the hotel _(that) Ann recommended to us._

In these examples, the relative clause tells you which person or thing (or what kind of person or thing) the speaker means:

'The woman who lives next door' tells us which woman.

'A company that makes washing machines' tells us what kind of company.

'The hotel (that) Ann recommended tells us which hotel.

We do not use commas (,) with these clauses:

* We know a lot of people _who live in London._ (what kind of people)

#2 Type 2

* My brother Jim, _who lives in London_, is a doctor.

* Colin told me about his new job, _which he's enjoying very much._

* We stayed at the Grand Hotel, _which Ann recommended to us._

In these examples, the relative clauses do not tell you which person or thing the speaker means. We already know which thing or person is meant: 'My brother Jim', 'Colin's new job' and 'the Grand Hotel'. The relative clauses in these sentences give us extra information about the person or thing.

We use commas (,) in these clauses:

* My brother Jim, _who lives in London_, is a doctor. (extra information about Jim)

B. In both types of relative clause we use who for people and which for things. But:

#1 Type 1

You can use that:

* Do you know anyone who/that speaks French and Italian?

* Barbara works for a company which/that makes washing machines.

You can leave out that/who/which when it is the object (see Unit 92):

* We stayed at the hotel (that/which) Ann recommended.

* This morning I met somebody (that/who) I hadn't seen for ages.

We do not often use whom in this type of clause (see Unit 93B).

#2 Type 2

You cannot use that:

* John, who (not 'that') speaks French and Italian, works as a tourist guide.

* Colin told me about his new job, which (not 'that') he's enjoying very much.

You cannot leave out who or which:

* We stayed at the Grand Hotel, which Ann recommended to us.

You can use whom (when it is the object):

* This morning I met Diane, whom (or who) I hadn't seen for ages.

In both types of relative clause you can use whose and where:

* We met some people whose car had broken down.

* What's the name of the place where you spent your holiday?

* Amy, whose car had broken down, was in a very bad mood.

* Mrs Bond is going to spend a few weeks in Sweden, where her daughter lives.



94.1 Make one sentence from two. Use the sentence in brackets to make a relative clause (Type 2). Sometimes the clause goes in the middle of the sentence, sometimes at the end. You will need to use who(m)/whose/which/where.

1. Ann is very friendly. (She lives next door.) _Ann, who lives next door, is very friendly._

2. We stayed at the Grand Hotel. (Ann recommended it to us.) _We stayed at the Grand Hotel, which Ann recommended to us._

3. We went to Sandra's party. (We enjoyed it very much.) We went to Sandra's party ---.

4. 1 went to see the doctor. (He told me to rest for a few days.) ---.

5. John is one of my closest friends. (I have known him for a very long time.) John ---.

6. Sheila is away from home a lot. (Her job involves a lot of travelling.) ---.

7. The new stadium will be opened next month. (It can hold 90,000 people.) The ---.

8. We often go to visit our friends in Bristol. (It is only 30 miles away.) ---.

9. Glasgow is the largest city in Scotland. (My brother lives there.) ---.

94.2 Read the information and complete the sentences. Use a relative clause. Sometimes the clause tells us which thing or person (Type 1); sometimes it only gives us extra information (Type 2). Use commas where necessary.

1. There's a woman living next door. She's a doctor.

The woman _who lives next door is a doctor._

2. I've got a brother called Jim. He lives in London. He's a doctor.

My brother Jim, _who lives in London, is a doctor._

3. There was a strike at the car factory. It lasted ten days. It is now over.

The strike at the car factory ---.

4. I was looking for a book this morning. I've found it now.

I've found ---.

5. London was once the largest city in the world, but the population is now falling.

The population of London ---.

6. A job was advertised. A lot of people applied for it. Few of them had the necessary qualifications. Few of ---.

7. Margaret has a son. She showed me a photograph of him. He's a policeman.

Margaret showed me ---.

94.3 In some of these sentences you can use which or that; in others, only which is possible. Cross out that if only which is possible. Also, put commas(,) where necessary.

1. Jane works for a company _which/that_ makes shoes. (both possible, no commas)

2. Colin told me about his new job, _which/that_ he's enjoying very much. (only which is possible; comma necessary)

3. My office _which/that_ is on the second floor of the building is very small.

4. The office _which/that_ I'm using at the moment is very small.

5. She told me her address _which/that_ I wrote down on a piece of paper.

6. There are some words _which/that_ are very difficult to translate.

7. The sun _which/that_ is one of millions of stars in the universe provides us with heat and light.



Relative clauses (5)--'extra information' clauses (2)

A. Prepositions + whom/which

In 'extra information' clauses (see Unit 94-Type 2) you can use a preposition before whom (for people) and which (for things). So you can say:

to whom/with whom/about which/for which etc.:

* Mr Carter, to whom I spoke on the phone last night, is very interested in our plan.

* Fortunately we had a map, without which we would have got lost.

In spoken English we often keep the preposition after the verb in the relative clause. When we do this, we normally use who (not 'whom') for people:

* This is Mr Carter, who I was telling you about.

* Yesterday we visited the City Museum, which I'd never been to before.

B. All of/most of etc. + whom/which

Study these examples:

Mary has three brothers. All of them are married. (2 sentences)

-> Mary has three brothers, all of whom are married. (1 sentence)

They asked me a lot of questions. I couldn't answer most of them. (2 sentences)

-> They asked me a lot of questions, most of which I couldn't answer. (1 sentence)

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