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UNIT 28. Must and can't 11 page

* What's wrong? Have you got something in your eye? (It seems that you have got

something in your eye and I expect you to answer 'yes'.)

We use some in questions when we offer or ask for things:

* Would you like something to eat?

* Can I have some sugar, please?

C. We often use any after if:

* If there are any letters for me, can you send them on to this address?

* If anyone has any questions, I'll be pleased to answer them.

* Let me know if you need anything.

The following sentences have the idea of if:

* I'm sorry for any trouble I've caused. (= if I have caused any trouble)

* Anyone who wants to do the exam must give me their names today. (= if there is anyone)

D. We also use any with the meaning 'it doesn't matter which':

* You can catch any bus. They all go to the centre. (= it doesn't matter which bus you catch)

* 'Sing a song.' 'Which song shall I sing?' 'Any song. I don't mind.' (= it doesn't matter which song)

* Come and see me any time you want.

* 'Let's go out somewhere.' 'Where shall we go?' 'Anywhere. I don't mind.'

* We left the door unlocked. Anybody could have come in.

Compare something and anything:

* A: I'm hungry. I want something to eat.

B: What would you like?

A: I don't mind. Anything. (= something, but it doesn't matter what)

E. Somebody/someone/anybody/anyone are singular words:

* Someone is here to see you.

But we often use they/them/their after these words:

* Someone has forgotten their umbrella. (= his or her umbrella)

* If anybody wants to leave early, they can. (= he or she can)



84.1 Complete the sentences with some or any.

1. We didn't buy _any_ flowers.

2. This evening I'm going out with --- friends of mine.

3. 'Have you seen --- good films recently?' 'No, I haven't been to the cinema for ages.'

4. I didn't have --- money, so I had to borrow ---.

5. Can I have --- milk in my coffee, please?

6. I was too tired to do --- work.

7. You can cash these traveller's cheques at --- bank.

8. Can you give me --- information about places of interest in the town?

9. With the special tourist train ticket, you can travel on --- train you like.

10. If there are --- words you don't understand, use a dictionary.

84.2 Complete the sentences with some- or any- + -body/-thing/-where.

1. I was too surprised to say _anything._

2. There's --- at the door. Can you go and see who it is?

3. Does --- mind if I open the window?

4. I wasn't feeling hungry, so I didn't eat ---.

5. You must be hungry. Would you like --- to eat?

6. Quick, let's go! There's --- coming and I don't want --- to see us.

7. Sally was upset about --- and refused to talk to ---.

8. This machine is very easy to use --- can learn to use it in a very short time.

9. There was hardly --- on the beach. It was almost deserted.

10. 'Do you live --- near Jim?' 'No, he lives in another part of town.'

11. We slept in a park because we didn't have --- to stay.

12. 'Where shall we go on holiday?' 'Let's go --- warm and sunny.'

13. They stay at home all the time. They never seem to go ---.

14. I'm going out now. If --- phones while I'm out, can you tell them I'll be back at 11.30?

15. Why are you looking under the bed? Have you lost ---?

16. --- who saw the accident should contact the police.

17. Sue is very secretive. She never tells --- (2 words)

84.3 Complete the sentences. Use any (+ noun) or anybody/anything/anywhere.

1. Which bus do I have to catch? Any bus. They all go to the centre.

2. Which day shall I come? I don't mind. ---.

3. What do you want to eat? ---. I don't mind. Whatever you have.

4. Where shall I sit? It's up to you. You can sit ---you like.

5. What sort of job are you looking for? ---. It doesn't matter.

6. What time shall I phone tomorrow? ---. I'll be in all day.

7. Who shall I invite to the party? I don't mind. --- you like.

8. Which newspaper shall I buy? ---. Whatever they have in the shop.


UNIT 85. No/none/any

A. No none nothing nobody/no one nowhere

You can use these negative words at the beginning of a sentence or alone:

* No cars are allowed in the city centre.

* None of this money is mine.

* 'What did you say?' 'Nothing.'

* Nobody (or No one) came to visit me while I was in hospital.

* 'Where are you going?' 'Nowhere. I'm staying here.'

You can also use these words after a verb, especially after be and have:

* The house is empty. There's nobody living there.

* She had no difficulty finding a job.

No/nothing/nobody etc. = not + any/anything/anybody etc.:

* We haven't got any money. (= We've got no money.)

* I didn't say anything. (= I said nothing.)

* She didn't tell anybody about her plans. (= She told nobody...)

* The station isn't anywhere near here. (= ... is nowhere near here)

When you use no/nothing/nobody etc., do not use a negative verb (isn't, didn't, can't etc.):

* I said nothing. (not 'I didn't say nothing')

* Nobody tells me anything. (not 'Nobody doesn't tell ...')

B. We also use any/anything/anybody etc. (without 'not') to mean 'it doesn't matter which/ hat/who' (see Unit 84D). Compare no- and any-:

* 'What do you want to eat?' 'Nothing. I'm not hungry.'

I'm so hungry. I could eat anything. (= it doesn't matter what)

* The exam was extremely difficult. Nobody passed. (= everybody failed)

The exam was very easy. Anybody could have passed. (= it doesn't matter who)

C. No and none

We use no + a noun. No = not a or not any:

* We had to walk home because there was no bus. (= there wasn't a bus)

* I can't talk to you now. I've got no time. (= I haven't got any time)

* There were no shops open. (= there weren't any shops open)

We use none alone (without a noun):

* 'How much money have you got?' 'None.' (= no money)

* All the tickets have been sold. There are none left. (= no tickets left)

Or we use none of ...:

none of these shops none of my money none of it/them/us/you

After none of + a plural word ('none of the shops', 'none of them' etc.) you can use a singular or a plural verb. A plural verb is more usual:

* None of the shops were (or was) open.

D. After nobody/no one you can use they/them/their:

* Nobody phoned, did they? (= did he or she)

* The party was a disaster. Nobody enjoyed themselves. (= himself or herself)

* No one in the class did their homework. (= his or her homework)



85.1 Answer these questions using none/nobody/nothing/nowhere.

1. What did you do? _Nothing._

2. Who were you talking to? ---

3. Where are you going? ---

4. How much luggage have you got? ---

5. How many children have they got? ---

6. Who did you meet? ---

7. What did you buy? ---

Now write full sentences using any/anybody/anything/anywhere.

8 (1) _I didn't do anything._

9. (2) I ---

10. (3) ---

11. (4) ---

12. (5) ---

13. (6) ---

14. (7) ---

85.2 Complete these sentences with no, none or any.

1. It was a public holiday, so there were _no_ shops open.

2. I haven't got _any_ money. Can you lend me some?

3. I couldn't make an omelette because there were --- eggs.

4. I couldn't make an omelette because there weren't --- eggs.

5. 'How many eggs have we got? --- I'll go and buy some from the shop if you like.'

6. We took a few photographs but --- of them were very good.

7. What a stupid thing to do! --- intelligent person would do such a thing.

8. I'll try and answer --- questions you ask me.

9. I couldn't answer --- of the questions they asked me.

10. We cancelled the party because --- of the people we invited were able to come.

85.3 Complete these sentences with no- or any- + -body/-thing/-where.

1. I don't want _anything_ to drink. I'm not thirsty.

2. The bus was completely empty. There was --- on it.

3. 'Where did you go for your holidays? --- I stayed at home.'

4. I went to the shops but I didn't buy ---.

5. 'What did you buy? '---. couldn't find --- I wanted.'

6. The town was still the same when I returned years later --- had changed.

7. Have you seen my watch? I've looked all over the house but I can't find it ---.

8. There was complete silence in the room. --- said ---.

85.4 Choose the right word.

1. She didn't tell _nobody/anybody_ about her plans. (anybody is correct)

2. The accident looked serious but fortunately _nobody/anybody_ was injured.

3. I looked out of the window but I couldn't see _nobody/anybody._

4. My job is very easy. _Nobody/Anybody_ could do it.

5. 'What's in that box?' _'Nothing/Anything._ It's empty.'

6. The situation is uncertain. _Nothing/Anything_ could happen.

7. I don't know _nothing/anything_ about economics.


UNIT 86. Much, many, little, few, a lot, plenty

A. We use much and little with uncountable nouns:

much time much luck little energy little money

We use many and few with plural nouns:

many friends many people few cars few countries

B. We use a lot of/lots of/plenty of with uncountable and plural nouns:

a lot of luck lots of time plenty of money a lot of friends lots of people plenty of ideas

Plenty = more than enough:

* There's no need to hurry. We've got plenty of time.

* I've had plenty to eat. I don't want any more.

C. We use much/many especially in negative sentences and questions. A lot (of) is also possible:

* We didn't spend much money. (or We didn't spend a lot of money.)

* Do you know many people? (or Do you know a lot of people?)

* I don't go out much. (or I don't go out a lot.)

In positive sentences a lot (of) is more usual. Much is unusual in positive sentences in spoken English:

* We spent a lot of money. (not 'We spent much money')

* He goes out a lot. (not 'He goes out much')

You can use many in positive sentences, but a lot (of) is more usual in spoken English:

* A lot of people (or Many people) drive too fast.

But note that we use too much and so much in positive sentences:

* We spent too much money.

D. Little and few (without 'a') are negative ideas (= not much/not many):

* We must be quick. There is little time. (= not much, not enough time)

* He isn't popular. He has few friends. (= not many, not enough friends) You can say very little and very few:

* There is very little time.

* He has very few friends.

A little and a few are more positive. A little = some, a small amount:

* Let's go and have a drink. We've got a little time before the train leaves. (a little time = some time, enough time to have a drink)

* 'Do you speak English?' 'A little.' (so we can talk a bit)

A few = some, a small number:

* I enjoy my life here. I have a few friends and we meet quite often. (a few friends = not many but enough to have a good time)

* 'When did you last see Clare?' 'A few days ago.' (= some days ago)


* He spoke little English, so it was difficult to communicate with him.

He spoke a little English, so we were able to communicate with him.

* She's lucky. She has few problems. (= not many problems)

Things are not going so well for her. She has a few problems. (= some problems)

Note that 'only a little' and 'only a few' have a negative meaning:

* We must be quick. We've only got a little time.

* The village was very small. There were only a few houses.



86.1 In some of these sentences much is incorrect or unnatural. Change much to many or a lot (of) where necessary.

1. We didn't spend much money. _RIGHT_

2. Sue drinks much tea. _a lot of tea_

3. Jim always puts much salt on his food.

4. We'll have to hurry. We haven't got much time.

5. Did it cost much to repair the car?

6. It cost much to repair the car.

7. I don't know much people in this town.

8. I use the phone much at work.

9. They've got so much money they don't know what to do with it.

86.2 Complete the sentences using plenty (of) + one of the following:

hotels money room time to learn things to see

1. There's no need to hurry. _We're got of time._

2. He's got no financial problems. He's got ---.

3. Come and sit with us. There's ---.

4. She knows a lot but she still has ---.

5. It's an interesting town to visit. There ---.

6. I'm sure we'll find somewhere to stay ---.

86.3 Put in much, many, few or little.

1. He isn't very popular. He has _few_ friends.

2. Ann is very busy these days. She has --- free time.

3. Did you take --- photographs when you were on holiday?

4. I'm not very busy today. I haven't got --- to do.

5. The museum was very crowded. There were too --- people.

6. Most of the town is modern. There are --- old buildings.

7. The weather has been very dry recently. We've had --- rain.

86.4 Some of these sentences need a. Put in a where necessary. Put 'RIGHT' if the sentence is already complete.

1. She's lucky. She has _few problems._ _RIGHT_

2. Things are not going so well for her. She has _few problems._ _a few problems_

3. Can you lend me _few dollars?_

4. I can't give you a decision yet. I need _little time_ to think.

5. There was _little traffic_, so the journey didn't take very long.

6. It was a surprise that he won the match. _Few people_ expected him to win.

7. I don't know much Spanish--_only few words._

86.5 Put in little/a little/few/a few.

1. We must be quick. We have _little_ time.

2. Listen carefully. I'm going to give you --- advice.

3. Do you mind if I ask you --- questions?

4. This town is not a very interesting place to visit, so --- tourists come here.

5. I don't think Jill would be a good teacher. She's got --- patience.

6. 'Would you like milk in your coffee?' 'Yes, please ---.'

7. This is a very boring place to live. There's --- to do.

8. 'Have you ever been to Paris?' 'Yes, I've been there --- times.'


UNIT 87. All/all of most/most of no/none of etc.

all some any most much/many little/few

A. You can use the words in the box (and also no) with a noun (some food/few books etc.):

* All cars have wheels.

* Some cars can go faster than others.

* (on a notice) NO CARS (= no cars allowed)

* Many people drive too fast.

* I don't go out very often. I'm at home most days.

You cannot say 'all of cars', 'most of people' etc. (see also Section B):

* Some people are very unfriendly. (not 'some of people')

Note that we say most (not 'the most'):

* Most tourists don't visit this part of the town. (not 'the most tourists')

B. Some of .../most of .../none of ... etc.

You can use the words in the box (also none and half) with of. You can say some of (the people), most of (my friends), none of (this money) etc.

We use some of, most of (etc.) + the/this/that/these/those/my/his/Ann's... etc.

So we say:

some of the people, some of those people (but not 'some of people')

most of my friends, most of Ann's friends (but not 'most of friends')

none of this money, none of their money (but not 'none of money')

For example:

* Some of the people I work with are very friendly.

* None of this money is mine.

* Have you read any of these books?

* I wasn't well yesterday. I spent most of the day in bed.

You don't need of after all or half. So you can say:

* All my friends live in London. or All of my friends ...

* Half this money is mine. or Half of this money ...

See also Section C.

Compare all ... and all (of) the ...:

* All flowers are beautiful. (= all flowers in general)

* All (of) the flowers in this garden are beautiful. (= a particular group of flowers)

C. You can use all of/some of/none of etc. + it/us/you/them:

* 'How many of these people do you know?' 'None of them.' /'A few of them.'

* Do any of you want to come to a party tonight?

* 'Do you like this music?' 'Some of it. Not all of it.'

Before it/us/you/them you need of after all and half (all of, half of):

all of us (not 'all us') half of them (not 'half them')

D. You can use the words in the box (and also none) alone, without a noun:

* Some cars have four doors and some have two.

* A few of the shops were open but most (of them) were closed.

* Half (of) this money Is mine, and half (of it) is yours. (not 'the half')



87.1 Put in of where necessary. Leave an empty space H if the sentence is already complete.

1. All - cars have wheels.

2. None _of_ this money is mine.

3. Some --- people get angry very easily.

4. Some --- the people I met at the party were very interesting.

5. I have lived in London most --- my life.

6. Many --- people watch too much TV.

7. Are any --- those letters for me?

8. Most --- days I get up before 7 o'clock.

9. Jim thinks that all --- museums are boring.

87.2 Choose from the list and complete the sentences. Use of (some of/most of etc.) where necessary.

accidents ears her friends the people I invited birds my dinner the houses the population these books European countries her opinions my spare time

1. I haven't read many _of these books._

2. All cars have wheels.

3. I spend most --- gardening.

4. It's a historic town. Many --- are over 400 years old.

5. Many --- are caused by bad driving.

6. When she got married, she kept it a secret. She didn't tell any ---.

7. Not many people live in the north of the country. Most --- live in the south,

8. Not all --- can fly. For example, the penguin can't fly.

9. None --- to the party could come, so I cancelled it.

10. Julia and I have very different ideas. I don't agree with many ---.

11. Sarah travels a lot. She has been to most ---.

12. I had no appetite. I could only eat half ---.

87.3 Complete the sentences using the words in brackets. Sometimes no other words are necessary. Sometimes you need the or of the.

1. I wasn't well yesterday. I spent _most of the day_ in bed. (most/day)

2. _Some cars_ can go faster than others. (some/cars)

3. --- drive too fast. (many/people)

4. --- you took on holiday were very good. (some/photographs)

5. --- learn more quickly than others. (some/people)

6. We've eaten --- we bought. There's very little left. (most/food)

7. Have you spent --- you borrowed? (all)money)

8. Peter can't stop talking. He talks ---. (all/time)

9. We had a lazy holiday. We spent --- on the beach. (most/time)

10. George is easy to get on with --- like him. (most/people)

11. The exam was difficult. I could only answer ---. (half/questions)

87.4 Complete the sentences. Use all/some/none + it/them/us (all of it/some of them etc.).

1. These books are all Jane's. None of them belong to me.

2. 'How many of these books have you read? --- Every one.'

3. We all got wet in the rain because --- had an umbrella.

4. Some of this money is yours and --- is mine.

5. I asked some people for directions but --- were able to help me.

6. She made up the whole story from beginning to end --- was true.

7. Not all the tourists in the group were Spanish --- were French.

8. I watched most of the film but not ---.


UNIT 88. Both/both of neither/neither of either/either of

A. We use both/neither/either for two things. You can use these words with a noun (both books, neither book etc.)

For example, you are talking about going out to eat this evening. There are two restaurants where you can go. You say:

* Both restaurants are very good. (not 'the both restaurants')

* Neither restaurant is expensive.

* We can go to either restaurant. I don't mind. (either = one or the other, it doesn't matter which one)

B. Both of .../neither of .../either of ...

When you use both/neither/either + of, you always need the .../these/those .../my/your/his/ Tom's... (etc.). You cannot say 'both of restaurants'. You have to say 'both of the restaurants', 'both of those restaurants' etc.:

* Both of these restaurants are very good.

* Neither of the restaurants we went to was (or were) expensive.

* I haven't been to either of those restaurants. (= I haven't been to one or the other)

You don't need of after both. So you can say:

* Both my parents are from London. or Both of my parents...

You can use both of/neither of/either of + us/you/them:

* (talking to two people) Can either of you speak Spanish?

* I asked two people the way to the station but neither of them knew.

You must say 'both of' before us/you/them (of is necessary):

* Both of us were very tired. (not 'Both us were ...')

After neither of ... a singular or a plural verb is possible:

* Neither of the children wants (or want) to go to bed.

C. You can also use both/neither/either alone:

* I couldn't decide which of the two shirts to buy. I liked both. (or I liked both of them.)

* 'Is your friend British or American?' 'Neither. She's Australian.'

* 'Do you want tea or coffee?' 'Either. I don't mind.'

D. You can say:

both ... and ...: * Both Ann and Tom were late.

* I was both tired and hungry when I arrived home.

neither ... nor ...: * Neither Liz nor Robin came to the party.

* She said she would contact me but she neither wrote nor phoned.

either ... or ...: * I'm not sure where he's from. He's either Spanish or Italian.

* Either you apologize or I'll never speak to you again.

E. Compare either/neither/both (two things) and any/none/all (more than two):

* There are two good hotels in the town.

You can stay at either of them.

* We tried two hotels. Neither of them had any rooms./Both of them were full.

* There are many good hotels in the town. You can stay at any of them.

* We tried a lot of hotels. None of them had any rooms./All of them were full.



88.1 Complete the sentences with both/neither/either.

1. 'Do you want tea or coffee?' '_Either._ of them I really don't mind.'

2. 'What day is it today--the I 8th or the 19th? '---. It's the 20th.'

3. 'There are two sandwiches here. Do you mind which I take?' 'No, take ---.'

4. A: Where did you go for your holidays - Scotland or Ireland?

B: We went to --- A week in Scotland and a week in Ireland.

5. 'When shall I phone you, morning or afternoon? '---. I'll be in all day.'

6. 'Where's Kate? Is she at work or at home?' '---. She's away on holiday.'

88,2 Complete the sentences with both/neither/either. Use of where necessary.

1. _Both (of)_ my parents are from London.

2. To get to the town centre, you can go along the footpath by the river or you can go along the road. You can go --- way.

3. I tried twice to phone George but --- times he was out.

4. --- Tom's parents is English. His father is Polish and his mother is Italian.

5. I saw an accident this morning. One car drove into the back of another. Fortunately --- driver was injured but --- cars were quite badly damaged.

6. I've got two sisters and a brother. My brother is working but --- my sisters are still at school.

88.3 Complete the sentences with both/neither/either of us/them.

1. I asked two people the way to the station but _neither of them_ could help me.

2. I was invited to two parties last week but I didn't go to ---.

3. There were two windows in the room. It was very warm, so I opened ---.

4. Sarah and I play tennis together regularly but --- can play very well.

5. I tried two bookshops for the book I wanted but --- had it.

88.4 Write sentences with both ... and .../neither ... nor .../either ... or ...

1. Tom was late. So was Ann. Both Tom and Ann were later.

2. She didn't write and she didn't phone. She neither wrote nor phoned.

3. Jim is on holiday and so is Carol. Both ---

4. George doesn't smoke and he doesn't drink ---

5. Jim hasn't got a car. Carol hasn't got a car either ---

6. It was a very boring film. It was very long too. The film ---

7. Is that man's name Richard? Or is it Robert? It's one of the two.

That man's name ---

8. I haven't got time to go on holiday. And I haven't got the money.

I've got ---

9. We can leave today or we can leave tomorrow - whichever you prefer.

We ---

88.5 Complete the sentences with neither/either/none/any.

1. We tried a lot of hotels but none of them had any rooms.

2. I took two books with me on holiday but I didn't read --- of them.

3. I took five books with me on holiday but I didn't read ---them.

4. There are a few shops at the end of the street but --- of them sell newspapers.

5. You can phone me at --- time during the evening. I'm always at home.

6. I can meet you on the 6th or 7th. Would --- of those days be convenient for you?

7. John and I couldn't get into the house because --- of us had a key.

8. There were a few letters this morning but --- of them were for me.


UNIT 89. All, every and whole

A. All and everybody/everyone

We do not normally use all to mean everybody/everyone:

* Everybody enjoyed the party. (not 'All enjoyed...')

But note that we say all of us/you/them, not 'everybody of...':

* All of us enjoyed the party. (not 'everybody of us')

B. All and everything

Sometimes you can use all or everything:

* I'll do all I can to help. or I'll do everything I can to help.

You can say 'all I can'/'all you need' etc. but we do not normally use all alone:

* He thinks he knows everything. (not 'he knows all')

* Our holiday was a disaster. Everything went wrong. (not 'All went wrong')

We use all in the expression all about:

* They told us all about their holiday.

We also use all (not 'everything') to mean the only thing(s):

* All I've eaten today is a sandwich. (= the only thing I've eaten today)

C. Every/everybody/everyone/everything are singular words, so we use a singular verb:

* Every seat in the theatre was taken.

* Everybody has arrived. (not 'have arrived')

But we often use they/them/their after everybody/everyone:

* Everybody said they enjoyed themselves. (= he or she enjoyed himself or herself)

D. All and whole

Whole = complete, entire. Most often we use whole with singular nouns:

* Did you read the whole book? (= all the book, not just a part of it)

* She has lived her whole life in Scotland.

We normally use the/my/her etc. before whole. Compare whole and all:

the whole book/all the book her whole life/all her life

You can also use: a whole ....

* Jack was so hungry, he ate a whole packet of biscuits. (= a complete packet)

We do not normally use whole with uncountable nouns. We say:

* I've spent all the money you gave me. (not 'the whole money')

E. Every/all/whole with time words

We use every to say how often something happens. So we say every day/every Monday/every ten minutes/every three weeks etc.:

* When we were on holiday, we went to the beach every day. (not 'all days')

* The bus service is very good. There's a bus every ten minutes.

* Ann gets paid every four weeks.

All day/the whole day = the complete day from beginning to end:

* We spent all day/the whole day on the beach.

* He was very quiet. He didn't say a word all evening/the whole evening.

Note that we say all day (not 'all the day'), all week (not 'all the week') etc.

Compare all the time and every time:

* They never go out. They are at home all the time. (= always--not 'every time')

* Every time I see you, you look different. (= each time, on every occasion)



89.1 Complete these sentences with all, everything or everybody/everyone.

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