Choose one of the four possibilities that best complete the sentence.
1) He must be terribly strong! Look at his ……. .
a) skin b) limbs c) muscles d) nerves
2) He stood with his hands on his …… daring me to go past him.
a) ankles b) knees c) shoulders d) hips
3) Every tooth in my upper ……. seemed to be aching
a) chin b) cheek c) jaw d) forehead
4) When Mary twisted her ankle, John carried her home on his …….
a) shoulders b) knees c) hands d) arms
5) His shoes were so old that his …… were sticking out of them.
a) fingers b) thumbs c) tips d) toes
6) The blind man ran the ……. of his fingers over the box.
a) points b) edges c) tips d) ends
7) When people sweat, the liquid comes out through the …….. of the skin.
a) veins b) vents c) pores d) holes
3. Complete the sentences. The number of dashes is identical with the number of letters in the missing words.
1) We have ten __ __ __ __ __ __ __ on our hands and ten __ __ __ s on our feet.
2) The function of the heart is to enable the __ __ o __ __ to circulate.
3) The __ __ __ __ a __ __ is used for digesting food.
4) The flesh your teeth grow from is your __ __ __ .
5) Do you wear your watch on your right __ __ __ s __ because you are left-handed?
6) A bear crushed him and cracked several of his __ __ __ s.
7) With the help of our __ __ __ __ u __ we are able to speak.
8) Our __ __ __ i __ enables us to think.
9) At first she thought the boy had a high temperature, but when she put her hand on his __ __ __ e __ __ __ __ to make sure, she found it was cold.
10) I dropped a heavy box on my __ __ __ __ and broke one of my toes.
4. Each of the ten words below is regularly used to describe an action or gesture made with a part of the body. Write which. In some cases more than one answer is possible. Then make up sentences with the formed collocations.
6. stick out
5. Fill in the words from the list then explain the phrases with them.
1. Martin loves chocolate and biscuits – he’s really got a sweet ……. .
2. Thank you for listening. I needed to get that off my …….. .
3. There’s something wrong with the car, but I just can’t put my …… on what it is.
4. It's important to keep your ……… on the pulse by reading all the right magazines.
5. The brothers cut their professional ……….. at Lusardi's before starting their own restaurant.
6. I’m sure something is going to go wrong today. I can feel it in my ……… .
7. I didn’t say that. Please don’t put words into my ……… .
8. Debbie has itchy ……. – she never stays in one place for more than a year or two before she goes travelling again.
You will hear 10 people talking about their problems with body parts. Make notes what body part they mention and what happened to it.
Read the text and answer the questions. Render the text into Ukrainian.
A. If you took off your skin and laid it flat, it would cover an area of about twenty-one square feet, making it by far the body’s largest organ. Draped in place over our bodies, skin forms the barrier between what’s inside us and what’s outside. It protects us from a multitude of external forces. It serves as an avenue to our most intimate physical and psychological selves.
B. This impervious yet permeable barrier, less than a millimetre thick in places, is composed of three layers. The outermost layer is the bloodless epidermis. The dermis includes collagen, elastin, and nerve endings. The innermost layer, subcutaneous fat, contains tissue that acts as an energy source, cushion and insulator for the body.
C. From these familiar characteristics of skin emerge the profound mysteries of touch, arguably our most essential source of sensory stimulation. We can live without seeing or hearing – in fact, without any of our other senses. But babies born without effective nerve connections between skin and brain can fail to thrive and may even die.
D. Laboratory experiments decades ago, now considered unethical and inhumane, kept baby monkeys from being touched by their mothers. It made no difference that the baby could see, hear and smell their mothers; without touching, the babies became apathetic, and failed to progress.
E. For humans, insufficient touching in early years can have lifelong results. ‘In touching cultures, adult aggression is low, whereas in cultures where touch is limited, adult aggression is high,’ writes Tiffany Field, director of the Touch Research Institutes at University of Miami School of Medicine. Studies of a variety of cultures show a correspondence between high rates of physical affection in childhood and low rates of adult physical violence.
F. While the effects of touching are easy to understand, the mechanics of it are less so. ‘Your skin has million of nerve cells of various shapes at different depths,’ explains Stanley Bolanowski, a neuroscientist and associate director of the Institute for Sensory Research at Syracuse University. ‘When the nerve cells are stimulated, physical energy is transformed into energy used by the nervous system and passed from the skin to the spinal cord and brain. It’s called transduction, and no one knows exactly how it takes places.’ Suffice it to say that the process involves the intricate, split-second operation of a complex system of signals between neurons in the skin and brain.
G. This is starting to sound very confusing until Bolanowski says: ‘In simple terms people perceive three basic things via skin: pressure, temperature, and pain.’ And then I’m sure he’s wrong. ‘When I get wet, my skin feels wet,’ I protect. ‘Close your eyes and lean back,’ says Bolanowski.
H. Something cold and wet is on my forehead – so wet, in fact, that I wait for water to start dripping down my cheeks. ‘Open your eyes.’ Bolanowski says, showing me that the sensation comes from a chilled, but dry, metal cylinder. The combination of pressure and cold, he explains, is what makes my skin perceive wetness. He gives me a surgical glove to put on and has me put a finger in a glass of cold water. My finger feels wet, even though I have visual proof that it’s not touching water. My skin, which seemed so reliable, has been deceiving me my entire life. When I shower or wash my hands, I now realize, my skin feels pressure and temperature. It’s my brain that says I feel wet.
I. Perceptions of pressure, temperature and pain manifest themselves in many different ways. Gentle stimulation of pressure receptors can result in ticklishness; gentle stimulation of pain receptors, in itching. Both sensations arise from a neurological transmission, not from something that physically exists. Skin, I’m realizing, is under constant assault, both from within the body and from forces outside. Repairs occur with varying success.
J. Take the spot where I nicked myself with a knife while slicing fruit. I have a crusty scab surrounded by pink tissue about a quarter inch long on my right palm. Under the scab, epidermal cells are migrating into the wound to close it up. When the process is complete, the scab will fall off to reveal new epidermis. It’s only been a few days, but my little self-repair is almost complete. Likewise, we recover quickly from slight burns. If you ever happen to touch a hot burner, just put your finger in cold water. The chances are you will have no blister, little pain and no scar. Severe burns, though, are a different matter.
Which paragraph contains the following information?
1. the features of human skin, on and below the surface
2. an experiment in which the writer can see what is happening
3. advice on how you can avoid damage to the skin
4. cruel research methods used in the past
Choose the correct letter A, B, C or D.
5. How does a lack of affectionate touching affect children?
A. It makes them apathetic.
B. They are more likely to become violent adults.
C. They will be less aggressive when they grow up.
D. We do not really know.
6. After the ‘wetness’ experiments, the writer says that
A. his skin is not normal.
B. his skin was wet when it felt wet.
C. he knew why it felt wet when it was dry.
D. the experiments taught him nothing new.
Complete each sentence with the correct ending A-I from the box below
7. Touch is unique among the five senses
8. A substance may feel wet
9. Something may tickle
10. The skin may itch
11. A small cut heals up quickly
A. because it is both cold and painful
B. because the outer layer of the skin can mend itself
C. because it can be extremely thin
D. because there is light pressure on the skin
E. because we do not need the others to survive
F. because there is a good blood supply to the skin
G. because of a small amount of pain
H. because there is a low temperature and pressure
I. because it is hurting a lot
J. because all humans are capable of experiencing it.
Do the following statements agree with the information given in the text? Write true, false or not given.
12. Even scientists have difficulty understanding how our sense of touch works.
13. The skin is more sensitive to pressure than to temperature or pain.
14. The human skin is always good at repairing itself.