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Methods of economic theory


Science subject give the answer to “What” we are studying? And method give the answer - “How”. Making a research of economic processes economic theory use most of science methods of learning. Most important of these for economic sphere are:

1. observation and collection a facts;

2. experiment;

3. modeling;

4. science abstractions method;

5. analysis and synthesis;

6. system approach;

7. induction and deduction;

8. historical and logical methods;

9. graphical method.

1. Observation and collection a facts - deliberate and purposeful perception of the economic appearances, processes in their real form (change goods prices for some period, production volumes and enterprise profits);

2. Experiment - is realization an imitation test, when the researching object putting in special making and checking conditions (for example, to test the efficiency of new wage system necessary to test some group of workers);

3. Modeling - studying the social economic appearances by model, which replace the research object (computer modeling and other);

4. Science abstraction method - especial intellectual method, which give to formulate abstract definitions named abstractions or categories (Goods definition - how to make it? Considering the goods in a shop - doesn’t give a result. Because the goods may be large and small, eatable and not eatable, colour, wage, form etc.). Only using abstractions in one moment we fixed their join signs: all of them are products of labor, which appropriate to selling.

5. Analysis - studying the social economic appearances in parts, and synthesis - in a whole. For example, the matching of economical directions of the work a concrete agricultural enterprises is the analysis, and to define branch results of Kazakhstan agricultural branch - synthesis.

6. System approach - thanks to combination of analysis and synthesis methods providing a system approach to compound objects of the researches. All economy consist from many big and small systems: national economy - from branches, branch - from enterprises, enterprise - form department, goods value - from costs elements, market-place - from different sectors etc.

7. Induction and deduction are two opposite but linked between each other method of argue. The moving of the thought from particular facts to common conclusion is induction. By F.Dostoevsky, it give us an ability “to bring together our thoughts in a point”. Deduction - is moving the thought from common to particular cases.

8. Historical and logical methods - detail studying of social economic processes in their historical chain accompanying by logical abstractions, giving a mark of these processes in a whole and by common conclusions. Detail researches concrete way and features of creating socialism in different countries – historical method. And conclusions about non-effectiveness of the social countries economy (lacking a motivation to work, good deficits etc.) - logical method.

9. Graphical method - show the economic processes using different schemes, tables, graphs, diagrams, which give to present (to show) theoretical information in a short and compact form.


Date: 2014-12-28; view: 1526

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