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Oral Health and Hygiene

 

This year is the crucial one in my life because I have left school. Before people leave school, they should understand that the time to choose their future profession has already come. It's not an easy task to make the right choice.

Someone goes further in his education and enter an institute, university or college. Others can start their working career or go into business. Usually there are a lot of universities and institutes in every big city. Our city is not an exception.

There are a huge number of professions to choose. But we should take our time while choosing our future career. Some teenagers make their choice according to their parents will, others do it in their own way and there are some boys and girls, who want nothing. Anyway it is a dilemma for all the family.

Fathers usually want their children to follow their footsteps. Mothers don't want their sons and daughters to leave the native town or city. So, sometimes they persuade their kids to enter local colleges. But only hard work and personal life experience can help us to find out the best from the best that is to separate the wheat from the chaff.

To make the right choice, we should consider our possibilities, character traits and routine aspects of the future job. To become a good doctor, you must be patient, easygoing and smart. A graduate from the Medical Academy may choose his place of work and occupation from a number of possible ones. He can be either a therapeutist or a surgeon; he can also be a dentist, a paediatrician, an emergency doctor, etc. As for me, I always wanted to become a doctor. I think it is a very prestigious and noble profession. I was good at biology and zoology at school. I want to help people, who have health problems. I know that a doctor should be kind and attentive to people, honest and prudent. A doctor who is selfish and dishonest can't be successful in his profession. So Iíll try to do my best to develop my personality this way.

More and more people realize now that every educated person should know a foreign language. That is why all students of our academy study one foreign language and Latin. For instance, I study English. I liked it from the first lesson we started learning it at school and it is still my favourite subject. English is to help us communicate with our foreign collegues and comprehend English and American professional literature. Latin is considered to be the basis of international medical terminology so its importance for future doctors can scarcely be overestimated.

As a rule, young people should study five years at universities or institutes to become specialists. If you want a bachelorís degree, you have to study four years. But medical student study six years. When your final exams have been passed, you get a diploma of a qualified specialist. Some students keep studying and enter post-graduate courses to follow an academic career. Some university graduates take up teaching and return to their Alma Mater as tutors.



So, choosing a career and then getting a job are two things any person does in his lifetime. If we don't think about the future, we won't have the one.

Task 1. Learn the following words by heart:

 

to leave school [li:v] [sku:l]
to go into business [gəu] ['ɪntə] ['bɪznɪs]
a huge number of [hju:ʤ] ['nʌmbə]
to take oneís time [teɪk] [wʌnz] [taɪm]
dilemma [dɪ'lemə]
to follow smb.ís footsteps ['fɔləu] ['futsteps]
to persuade [pə'sweɪd]
to consider [kən'sɪdə]
patient (n, adj.) ['peɪʃ(ə)nt]
easygoing ['i:zɪˌgəuɪŋ]
smart [smɑːt]
prestigious [pres'tɪʤəs]
noble ['nəubl]
attentive [ə'tentɪv]
honest ['ɔnɪst]
prudent ['pru:d(ə)nt]
selfish ['selfɪʃ]
dishonest [dɪs'ɔnɪst]
to develop [dɪ'veləp]
to comprehend [kɔmprɪ'hend]
bachelorís degree ['bæʧ(ə)lə]
post-graduate courses [pəust'græʤuət] [kɔːsəs]
to graduate from ['græʤueɪt] [frɔm]
Alma Mater [ælmə'meɪtə]
tutor (n) ['tju:tə]

 

 

Task 2. Find the following words and word-combinations in the text, reproduce the context they are used in and translate it into Russian.

1. leave school

2. to make the right choice

3. enter an institute

4. working career

5. a huge number of professions

6. make their choice

7. to follow their footsteps

8. hard work and personal life experience

9. to become a good doctor

10. I was good at

11. kind and attentive to people

12. every educated person

13. foreign colleges

14. international medical terminology

15. a diploma of a qualified specialist

 

Task 3. Answer the questions:

1. When do people understand that the time to choose future profession has already come?

2. What are the opportunities for school leavers?

3. Why should we take our time while choosing our future profession?

4. Do all teenagers choose their future professions in their own way?

5. Why do some parents persuade their kids to enter local colleges and universities or institutes?

6. What should we consider to make the right choice of profession?

7. How can we characterise a good doctor?

8. Why do we study foreign languages at universities? How can they help us?

9. How long should a person study to get a diploma of a qualified specialist?

10. What are the career opportunities?

 

Task 4. Match the English sentences to their Russian equivalents.

Young people should understand that the time to choose their future profession has already come.
Someone goes further in his education and enter an institute, university or college.
There are a huge number of professions to choose.
But only hard work and personal life experience can help us to find out the best from the best.
We should consider our possibilities, character traits and routine aspects of the future job.
He can be either a therapeutist or a surgeon; he can also be a dentist, a paediatrician, an emergency doctor, etc.  
I want to help people, who have health problems.
Latin is considered to be the basis of international medical terminology so its importance for future doctors can scarcely be overestimated.  
Young people should study five years at universities or institutes to become specialists.
Some students keep studying and enter post-graduate courses to follow an academic career.

 

Task 5. Translate the given sentences into Russian, close your book and translate them back into English.

1. This year is the crucial one in my life because I have left school. It's not an easy task to make the right choice.

2. Someone goes further in his education and enter an institute, university or college. Others can start their working career or go into business.

3. There are a huge number of professions to choose. But we should take our time while choosing our future career.

4. To become a good doctor, you must be patient, easygoing and smart. A graduate from the Medical Academy may choose his place of work and occupation from a number of possible ones.

5. I want to help people, who have health problems. I know that a doctor should be kind and attentive to people, honest and prudent. So Iíll try to do my best to develop my personality this way.

6. All students of our academy study one foreign language and Latin. English is to help us communicate with our foreign colleges and comprehend English and American professional literature. Latin is considered to be the basis of international medical terminology.

7. Medical student study six years. When your final exams have been passed, you get a diploma of a qualified specialist.

8. Some students keep studying and enter post-graduate courses to follow an academic career.

9. Choosing a career and getting a job are two things any person does in his lifetime.

 

Task 6. Retell the text.

 

Oral Health and Hygiene

Good oral health is important not only for our appearance but also for our overall health. Cavities and gum diseases may influence many serious conditions, including heart disease, diabetes, respiratory diseases, etc. Untreated cavities can also be painful and lead to serious infections. Proper oral hygiene is the practice of keeping the mouth and teeth clean in order to prevent dental problems and bad breath. Good oral health should be a priority at all life stages, in order to keep the teeth till old age. Smoking is a major risk factor for oral and dental disease; it may cause oral cavity cancer.

There are 5 steps to keep oral health:

∑ see your dentist regularly; some pre cancerous lesions often are detected by dentist when the patient comes for check up.

∑ clean your teeth twice a day. Use a soft-bristle toothbrush and fluoride toothpaste to remove plaque and bacteria causing cavities, periodontal and gum diseases. Fluoride makes the surface of teeth more resistant to acids during the process of demineralization. The use of dental floss is an important element of the oral hygiene, since it removes the plaque between teeth. Make flossing your habit and do it regularly.

∑ eat a well-balanced diet. Healthy food is good for your general health and your oral health. Bread and cereals are rich in vitamin B while fruits and vegetables contain vitamin C, both of which contribute to healthy gum tissue. Lean meat, fish, and poultry provide magnesium and zinc for teeth. Drink fluoridated water.

∑ check your mouth regularly. Be aware of warning signs of periodontal disease. Gum disease is one of the main reasons why adults lose their teeth.

∑ donít smoke or chew tobacco.

Dental caries is another name for tooth decay where bacterial infection affects the hard outer layer lining of the teeth which consists of enamel, cementum and dentin. The bacteria live in plaque and break down sugars from diet to produce acid. Diagnosis for tooth caries is quite simple. Less obvious decays can only be detected by an X-ray test. The decayed part of the tooth is removed using a dentistís drill and is filled in with paste. If the decay is beyond repair, the tooth will be extracted.

Periodontal disease also called Periodontitis or Gum Disease is a bacterial infection that destroys the supporting structures holding the teeth in their place. The main etiologic agent is bacterial plaque. Left untreated, this disease can lead to bone grafts, gum grafts, and ultimately tooth loss. Some of the early warning signs are slight bleeding when you brush, gums are getting softer and are changing their colour from pink to red.

Thrush of mouth is a yeast infection that may appear in an individualís mouth that is caused by uncontrollable growth of an organism known as Candida albicans. One of the leading and primary reasons of oral thrush is gorge of antibiotics. Candidiasis is not generally a critical condition. The exception is that it enters the blood and then multiplies in organs particularly in people with weakened immune systems. For this reason an antifungal prescription can be administered.

The best way to prevent dental diseases is to practice good oral and to make your check up regularly.

 

Task 1. Learn the following words by heart:

acid ['æsɪd]
appearance [ə'pɪər(ə)ns]
caries=tooth decay ['kɛəri:z] [tu:θ] [dɪ'keɪ]
untreated [ʌn'tri:tɪd]
resistant to [rɪ'zɪst(ə)nt]
cavity ['kævətɪ]
plaque [plɑːk]
dental floss ['dent(ə)l] [flɔs]
enamel [ɪ'næm(ə)l]
fluoride [ˈflʊərʌɪd]
filling ['fɪlɪŋ]
hygiene ['haɪʤi:n]
inflammation [ֽɪnflə'meɪʃ(ə)n]
thrush of mouth [θrʌʃ] [əv] [mauθ]
oral diseases ['ɔːr(ə)l] [dɪ'zi:zəz]
periodontal disease [ˌpɛrɪəˈdɒntəl] [dɪ'zi:z]
periodontitis [ˌpɛrɪədɒnˈtʌɪtɪs]

 

Task 2. Find the following words and word-combinations in the text, reproduce the context they are used in and translate it into Russian.

1. oral health,

2. untreated cavities,

3. proper oral hygiene,

4. to keep the teeth till old age,

5. a major risk factor,

6. to brush teeth,

7. dental floss,

8. contribute to healthy gum tissue,

9. fluoridated water,

10. dental caries,

11. an X-ray test,

12. is filled in with paste,

13. gum disease,

14. bacteria infection,

15. leading to inflammation,

16. an antifungal prescription,

17. way to prevent dental diseases.

 

Task 3. Answer the questions:

1. Why is good oral health important?

2. What serious conditions of health can cavities and gum diseases influence?

3. How can we define a proper oral hygiene?

4. What should people do to practice proper oral hygiene?

5. Can you name bad habits being risk factors for oral diseases?

6. What causes dental caries?

7. Which sings are the early warnings of periodontitis?

8. What is oral thrush caused by?

9. What is the main reason of oral thrush?

10. What is the best way to prevent dental diseases

 

Task 4. Match the English sentences to their Russian equivalents.

 

1. Most dental disorders arise directly or indirectly from two basic diseases of the teeth and their supporting tissues Ėcaries and periodontal diseases.
2. Oral thrush is a kind of yeast infection that is caused by uncontrollable growth of an organism known as Candida albicans.
3. Good oral health should be a priority in all stages of life, in order to sustain the teeth till old age.
4. The main etiologic agent is bacterial plaque.
5. Unremoved plaque forms a porous deposit that is called tartar.
6. An antifungal prescription can be administered to treat candidiasis.
7. Dentists state tooth decay or caries to be probably the commonest disease of civilization.
8. Oral hygiene consists simply of keeping the teeth free of food debris, thus preventing plague formation which leads to dental diseases.
9. As a general rule, the earlier a decaying tooth is detected, the easier the treatment would be to fix it.
10. Healthy food is good for your general health and your oral health.

 

Task 5. Translate the given sentences into Russian, close your book and translate them back into English.

1. Dental caries is characterized by demineralization of the mineral portion of enamel and dentine followed by disintegration of their organic material.

2. In order to maintain a good oral hygiene you need to keep the teeth free of plaque.

3. Some pre cancerous lesions often are found by dentist when a patient comes for checking up.

4. You can use a soft-bristle toothbrush to brush your teeth and brush at least twice a day with fluoride toothpaste to remove plaque and bacteria.

5. Make flossing your habit and do it regularly.

6. A proper nutrition is important for strong teeth and gums that can resist diseases.

7. Smoking is a major risk factor for oral and dental disease, it may even cause oral cancer.

8. Dental caries is another name for tooth decay where bacterial infection affects the hard outer layer of the teeth.

9. Periodontal disease is a bacterial infection that destroys the supporting structures holding the teeth in their place.

10. Tobacco reduces blood flow to the gums therefore, the gums are deprived of proper oxygen supply and nutrients needed to stay healthy and prevent bacterial infections.

 

Task 6. Retell the text.

 


Date: 2014-12-28; view: 1177


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