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The following are the principal terms for morphological studies. Study the terms and do the following tasks.

Task 1. Revision of the material previously studied. Match the terms with definitions

Classification of morphemes

1.morpheme a) the base (which may consist of one or more morphemes) on which a given morphological process acts. It always includes the root, and it may include one or more other affixes.
2.form b) affix that attaches to the end of a stem
3.allomorph c) one of a set of nondistincitve realizations of a particular morpheme that have the same function
4.bound morphemes d) what a word sounds like when spoken
5.free morphemes e) smallest unit of language that carries meaning and can exist independently
6.root f) affix that attaches to the beginning of a stem
7.affix g) bound morpheme that changes the meaning or syntactic function of the words to which it attaches.
8.prefix h) the form of a word that remains after removal of all affixes
9.suffix i) smallest meaningful units of speech
10. stem j) a unit of language that is meaningful but must be combined with a free morpheme

Task 2. a) Study the definitions of the terms

affixation - a morphological process whereby an affix is attached to a root or stem

blending (telescoping) - a process of merging parts of words into one word.

clipping - a word formation process which consists in the reduction of a word to one of its parts

compounding - a process by which new words are formed from two or more independent words e.g. "girlfriend," "air-conditioner," "life-insurance salesman"

conversion - a process that assigns an already existing word to a new word class or syntactic category

lexicon - mental list of the words in a language, including information about their meaning, grammatical function, pronunciation, and other properties that a speaker must know in order to use a word properly.

morphology - the study of word structure or word formation

Task 3.

Word formation processes: Ways of creating new words in English

a) Fill in the gaps with the terms for formation processes given below

1.________: adding a derivational suffix to a word.

2. ________: joining two or more words into one new word.

3. ________: (also called ________ or ________): Adding no affixes; simply using a word of one category as a word of another category.

4. ________: no affix is added to the base, but the stress is shifted from one syllable to the other. With the stress shift comes a change in category.

5. ________: shortening of a polysyllabic word.

6. ________ : forming words from the initials of a group of words that designate one concept. Usually, but not always, capitalized. It is pronounced as a word if the consonants and vowels line up in such a way as to make this possible, otherwise it is pronounced as a string of letter names.

7. ________: Parts (which are not morphemes!) of two already-existing words are put together to form a new word

8. ________: A suffix identifiable from other words is cut off of a base which has previously not been a word; that base then is used as a root, and becomes a word through widespread use. This differs from clipping in that, in clipping, some phonological part of the word which is not interpretable as an affix or word is cut off. Here the bit chopped off is a recognizable affix or word. ________ is the result of a false but plausible morphological analysis of the word; clipping is a strictly phonological process that is used to make the word shorter. Clipping is based on syllable structure, not morphological analysis. It is impossible for you to recognize ________ words or come up with examples from your own knowledge of English, unless you already know the history of the word.

9. ________: a brand name becomes the name for the item or process associated with the brand name. The word ceases to be capitalized and acts as a normal verb/noun (i.e. takes inflections such as plural or past tense). The companies using the names usually have copyrighted them and object to their use in public documents, so they should be avoided in formal writing (or a lawsuit could follow!)

10. ________ : words are invented which (to native speakers at least) sound like the sound they name or the entity which produces the sound.

11. ________: a word is taken from another language. It may be adapted to the ________ language's phonological system to varying degrees.

a) acronym formation

b) suffixation

c) backformation

d) backformed

e) blending

f) borrowing

g) clipping

h) compounding

i) conversion

j) folk etymology

k) functional shift

l) onomatopoeia (pronounced: [͵ɔnʊəmætə'pı:ə])

m) stress shift

n) trademarks used generically

o) zero derivation

b) Match the examples with the formation processes described above

  1. abuser, refusal, untie, inspection, pre-cook.
  2. hiss, sizzle, cuckoo, cock-a-doodle-doo, buzz, beep, ding-dong.
  3. skunk, tomato (from indigenous languages of the Americas), sushi, taboo, wok (from Pacific Rim languages), chic, shmuck, macho, spaghetti, dirndl, psychology, telephone, physician, education (from European languages), hummus, chutzpah, cipher, artichoke (from Semitic languages), yam, tote, banana (from African languages).
  4. skateboard, whitewash, cat lover, self-help, red-hot, etc.
  5. Noun-verb: comb, sand, knife, butter, referee, proposition.
Noun Verb Noun → Adjective
ábstract abstráct cómbine combíne cóncrete concréte ímplant implánt réfund refund tránsport transpórt  


  1. bro (< brother), pro (< professional), prof (< professor), math (< mathematics), veg (< 'vegetate', as in veg out in front of the TV), sub (< substitute or submarine).
  2. NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization), AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome), scuba (self-contained underwater breathing apparatus), radar (radio detecting and ranging), NFL (National Football League), AFL-CIO (American Federation of Labor-Congress of Industrial Organizations).
  3. motel (motor hotel) brunch (breakfast & lunch), smog (smoke & fog), telethon (television & marathon), modem (modulator & demodulator), Spanglish (Spanish & English).
  4. pronunciate (< pronunciation < pronounce), resurrect (< resurrection), enthuse (< enthusiasm), self-destruct (< self-destruction < destroy), burgle (< burglar), attrit (< attrition), burger (< hamburger).
  5. xerox, kleenex, scotch tape, spandex, teflon



Task 4. a) Study the definitions of the terms


agglutination a grammatical process in which words are composed of a sequence of morphemes (meaningful word elements), each of which represents not more than a single grammatical category //http://www.britannica.com

alternations - a morphological process that uses morpheme-internal modifications to make new words or morphological distinctions e.g. goose -> geese, ring -> rang -> rung, teeth -> teethe

circumfixation a morphological process characterized by simultaneous suffixing and affixing

incorporation - a morphological process by which several distinct semantic components are combined into a single word in a polysynthetic language

infixation a morphological process whereby a bound morpheme attaches within a root or stem

inflection - the creation of different grammatical forms of words

reduplication - a morphological process of forming new words either by doubling an entire free (total reduplication) morpheme, or part of it (partial reduplication)

suffixation - a morphological process whereby a bound morpheme is attached to the end of a stem

suppletion - a morphological process between forms of a word wherein one form cannot be phonologically or morphologically derived from the other. e.g. is -> was, go -> went; good -> better -> best

inner inflection a morphological process when different forms of the word share only consonants and alternating vowels represent a grammatical category


b) Study examples from different languages and match them with morphological processes from 4 (a).


(1) Turkish



You (all) are among those who will not be able to be caused to become like Europeans.'


(2) Chichewa (the national language of Malawi)

Mkángo s-u-na-ka-ngo-wa-phwanya maûngu.

lion NEG-3SUBJ-PAST-go-just-6OBJ-smash pumpkins

The lion did not just go smash them, the pumpkins.'


(3) Tagalog (the national language of the Philippines)

tulong 'help' t-um-ulong 'helped
bili 'buy' b-um-ili 'bought'
hanap 'search' h-um-anap 'searched'


(4) German

ge-kann-t 'known'

ge-läute-t 'rung'

ge-schüttel-t 'shaken'

ge-zeig-t 'shown'

(5) Arabic

katab 'to write'

kataba 'he wrote'

kutib 'has been written'

aktub 'be writing'

(6) Tagalog (the national language of the Philippines)


tawag 'call' ta-tawag 'will call'

takbo 'run' ta-takbo 'will run'

bisita 'visit' bi-bisita 'will visit'

bili 'buy' bi-bili 'will buy'


(7) English

fall fell

slide slid

strike struck

take took

give gave

swear swore

ride rode

(8) Somali

árday 'student' ardáy 'students
díbi bull' dibí 'bulls'
mádax 'head' madáx 'heads'
túug 'thief tuúg 'thieves'





Subtechnical vocabulary



ampere (noun)

a unit for measuring electric current

An electrician should use 3 ampere fuse.

ohm (noun)

the standard unit of electrical resistance

Ohm allows one ampere to flow under pressure of one volt.

velocity (noun)

the speed at which something moves in a particular direction

Scientists study the velocity of light.

volt (noun)

a unit for measuring of electric current force

Electric current force is measured in volts.

dimension (noun)

a measurement in space, for example ,length, height, etc.

A diagram represents things only in two dimensions- in length and in width.

mercury (noun)

a heavy silver white metal that is liquid at ordinary temperatures

Mercury is always used in thermometers.

provide (verb)

to produce a useful result

The hotel provides a shoe cleaning service for guests.

melt (verb)

if something solid becomes soft or liquid under heating

Many metals and alloys melt under high temperature.

permeability (noun)

an ability of something to enter something, to spread through every part of something

Toxic chemicals may permeate the soil, threatening the environment.

centimeter (noun)

a unit for measuring length

There are 100 centimeters in one meter.

gram (noun)

the basic unit for measuring weight in the metric system

1 ounce is equal to about 29 grams.

meter (noun)

the basic unit for measuring length in the metric system

1 meter is equal to 37 inches. (inch is equal to 2.54 centimeters)

kilogram (noun)

a unit for measuring weight in 1000 grams

The permitted weight of this load is 1.000 kg.

second (noun)

a unit for measuring time that is equal to 1/60 of a minute

Hold your breath for 20 seconds.





A. Complete the following sentences with words from the list.


volt second ohm

ampere dimension mercury

centimeter velocity kilogram


  1. The standard unit of electric resistance is .. .
  2. A unit for measuring electric current is .
  3. A unit for measuring the force of electric current is .. .
  4. A heavy silver white metal that is liquid at ordinary temperatures, and is used in thermometers is . .
  5. The basic unit for measuring length in the metric system is .
  6. A unit for measuring time that is equal to 1/60 of a minute is .
  7. A unit for measuring weight that is equal to 1000 grams is .
  8. The speed at which something moves in a particular direction is .
  9. A measurement in space, for example length, height, etc. is .



B. Translate the following sentences from English into Russian.


1. George Simon Ohm was German physicist who determined the Ohms law in 1826 and

created many works on acoustics and crystal optics.

2. Ohm is a unit of electric resistance, the resistance of a conductor between ends of which

under the power of current in 1 A, voltage in 1 V occurs.

  1. Ohmmeter is a device for direct measuring of electric (ohm) resistance.
  2. Volt is a unit of electric charge, differences of electric potentials, electromotive force.
  3. Alessandro Volta (1745-1825) was Italian physicist and physiologist, founder of electricity.
  4. He created the first chemical source of current in 1800.
  5. Volta discovered the contact difference of potentials.
  6. Gilbert William (1544-1603) was English physician and doctor.
  7. He wrote the treatise About magnet, magnetic bodies and about large magnet Earth, in 1600, in which he had a look at the magnetic and electric phenomena.
  8. Gilbert proved that the Earth itself was a great magnet.
  9. Ampere Andre Mari (1735-1836) was a French scientist, he was one of the founders of electrodynamics.
  10. In 1820 Ampere discovered the mechanical interaction of currents and determined

the law of their interaction (Amperes law).

13. Ampere created the first theory of magnetism.



C. Form words in the column B and match them with their definitions in the column A.



watt yrgene

volt eprema

current resuresp

energy tinu

ampere ytictricele

second urrcnet

electricity tawt

unit tovl

pressure denocs



D. Study the ways of mathematical expressions reading.


+ plus 12+13=25 Twelve plus thirteen equals twenty five

- minus 71-24=47 Seventy one minus twenty four equals forty = equal seven

> is greater than 8x 6=48 Six times (multiplied by) eight is forty eight

< is less than 90:9=10 Ninety divided by nine is ten

: divided by



addend - , sum - , multiplicand - , multiplier( factor) ,

product - , minuend - ,subtrahend - , remainder-oc, difference - , dividend - , divisor .


Fractions ( ) Decimal fractions ( )

1 0.4. nought point four

2 a half (one second) 0.07 nought point nought seven

1.15 one point one five

3 65.247 sixty five point two hundred forty seven

7 three seventh


Power ()

In the second power

In the third power

107 ten to the seventh power

10-7 - ten to the minus seventh power


E. Read and translate the following sentences paying attention to the above mentioned

mathematical expressions.


  1. 1 Ohm equals 1.11 *10-12 SM (the system of measurements).
  2. 1 Ampere equals 3*10 9 SM or 1 Am makes 0, 4 Gilbert ,as a unit of electromotive force.
  3. Gilbert is a unit of electromotive force (EMF), 1 G equals 0.795775 Am.
  4. The Sun supplies the Earth with 16*10 1 kilowatt - hours of radiant energy.



F. Read and translate the texts.




The three practical units: ohm, ampere and volt provide standards for comparison.

They are defined as follows:

The ohm is the first primary unit, and the international ohm is defined as the resistance

offered to an unvarying electric current by a column of mercury at the temperature of melting ice,14.4521 gram.

The ampere is the second primary unit .The international ampere is the unvarying electric current which, when passed through a solution of nitrate of silver in water, in accordance with a specification, deposits silver at the rate of 0.00111800 gm. per second.

The volt is the third primary unit and is the electric pressure which, when applied steadily to a conductor whose resistance is one ohm, will produce current of one ampere.

The watt is the energy expended per second, it is when 1 ampere under electric pressure of 1 volt.


Date: 2014-12-28; view: 1000

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