The following are the principal terms for morphological studies. Study the terms and do the following tasks.
Task 1. Revision of the material previously studied. Match the terms with definitions
Classification of morphemes
a) the base (which may consist of one or more morphemes) on which a given morphological process acts. It always includes the root, and it may include one or more other affixes.
b) affix that attaches to the end of a stem
c) one of a set of nondistincitve realizations of a particular morpheme that have the same function
d) what a word sounds like when spoken
e) smallest unit of language that carries meaning and can exist independently
f) affix that attaches to the beginning of a stem
g) bound morpheme that changes the meaning or syntactic function of the words to which it attaches.
h) the form of a word that remains after removal of all affixes
i) smallest meaningful units of speech
j) a unit of language that is meaningful but must be combined with a free morpheme
Task 2. a) Study the definitions of the terms
affixation - a morphological process whereby an affix is attached to a root or stem
blending (telescoping) - a process of merging parts of words into one word.
clipping - a word formation process which consists in the reduction of a word to one of its parts
compounding - a process by which new words are formed from two or more independent words e.g. "girlfriend," "air-conditioner," "life-insurance salesman"
conversion - a process that assigns an already existing word to a new word class or syntactic category
lexicon - mental list of the words in a language, including information about their meaning, grammatical function, pronunciation, and other properties that a speaker must know in order to use a word properly.
morphology - the study of word structure or word formation
Word formation processes: Ways of creating new words in English
a) Fill in the gaps with the terms for formation processes given below
1.________: adding a derivational suffix to a word.
2. ________: joining two or more words into one new word.
3. ________: (also called ________ or ________): Adding no affixes; simply using a word of one category as a word of another category.
4. ________: no affix is added to the base, but the stress is shifted from one syllable to the other. With the stress shift comes a change in category.
5. ________: shortening of a polysyllabic word.
6. ________ : forming words from the initials of a group of words that designate one concept. Usually, but not always, capitalized. It is pronounced as a word if the consonants and vowels line up in such a way as to make this possible, otherwise it is pronounced as a string of letter names.
7. ________: Parts (which are not morphemes!) of two already-existing words are put together to form a new word
8. ________: A suffix identifiable from other words is cut off of a base which has previously not been a word; that base then is used as a root, and becomes a word through widespread use. This differs from clipping in that, in clipping, some phonological part of the word which is not interpretable as an affix or word is cut off. Here the bit chopped off is a recognizable affix or word. ________ is the result of a false but plausible morphological analysis of the word; clipping is a strictly phonological process that is used to make the word shorter. Clipping is based on syllable structure, not morphological analysis. It is impossible for you to recognize ________ words or come up with examples from your own knowledge of English, unless you already know the history of the word.
9. ________: a brand name becomes the name for the item or process associated with the brand name. The word ceases to be capitalized and acts as a normal verb/noun (i.e. takes inflections such as plural or past tense). The companies using the names usually have copyrighted them and object to their use in public documents, so they should be avoided in formal writing (or a lawsuit could follow!)
10. ________ : words are invented which (to native speakers at least) sound like the sound they name or the entity which produces the sound.
11. ________: a word is taken from another language. It may be adapted to the ________ language's phonological system to varying degrees.
a) acronym formation
j) folk etymology
k) functional shift
l) onomatopoeia (pronounced: [͵ɔnʊəmætə'pı:ə])
m) stress shift
n) trademarks used generically
o) zero derivation
b) Match the examples with the formation processes described above
bro (< brother), pro (< professional), prof (< professor), math (< mathematics), veg (< 'vegetate', as in veg out in front of the TV), sub (< substitute or submarine).
NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization), AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome), scuba (self-contained underwater breathing apparatus), radar (radio detecting and ranging), NFL (National Football League), AFL-CIO (American Federation of Labor-Congress of Industrial Organizations).
agglutination Ц a grammatical process in which words are composed of a sequence of morphemes (meaningful word elements), each of which represents not more than a single grammatical category //http://www.britannica.com
alternations - a morphological process that uses morpheme-internal modifications to make new words or morphological distinctions e.g. goose -> geese, ring -> rang -> rung, teeth -> teethe
circumfixation Ц a morphological process characterized by simultaneous suffixing and affixing
incorporation - a morphological process by which several distinct semantic components are combined into a single word in a polysynthetic language
infixation Ц a morphological process whereby a bound morpheme attaches within a root or stem
inflection - the creation of different grammatical forms of words
reduplication - a morphological process of forming new words either by doubling an entire free (total reduplication) morpheme, or part of it (partial reduplication)
suffixation - a morphological process whereby a bound morpheme is attached to the end of a stem
suppletion - a morphological process between forms of a word wherein one form cannot be phonologically or morphologically derived from the other. e.g. is -> was, go -> went; good -> better -> best
inner inflection Ц a morphological process when different forms of the word share only consonants and alternating vowels represent a grammatical category
b) Study examples from different languages and match them with morphological processes from 4 (a).
2 a half (one second) 0.07 nought point nought seven
1.15 one point one five
3 65.247 sixty five point two hundred forty seven
7 three seventh
In the second power
In the third power
107 Ц ten to the seventh power
10-7 - ten to the minus seventh power
E. Read and translate the following sentences paying attention to the above mentioned
1 Ohm equals 1.11 *10-12 SM (the system of measurements).
1 Ampere equals 3*10 9 SM or 1 Am makes 0, 4 Gilbert ,as a unit of electromotive force.
Gilbert is a unit of electromotive force (EMF), 1 G equals 0.795775 Am.
The Sun supplies the Earth with 16*10 1 kilowatt - hours of radiant energy.
F. Read and translate the texts.
PRACTICAL ELECTRICAL UNITS
The three practical units: ohm, ampere and volt provide standards for comparison.
They are defined as follows:
The ohm is the first primary unit, and the international ohm is defined as the resistance
offered to an unvarying electric current by a column of mercury at the temperature of melting ice,14.4521 gram.
The ampere is the second primary unit .The international ampere is the unvarying electric current which, when passed through a solution of nitrate of silver in water, in accordance with a specification, deposits silver at the rate of 0.00111800 gm. per second.
The volt is the third primary unit and is the electric pressure which, when applied steadily to a conductor whose resistance is one ohm, will produce current of one ampere.
The watt is the energy expended per second, it is when 1 ampere under electric pressure of 1 volt.