GRAMMAR: Future Indefinite, going to, will and going to, when and if sentences, Future Continuous.
Future Indefinite (Simple Future):
1). will (as an auxiliary of the future) is used to predict the future or to say what we think will happen, examples: Tomorrow will be another cold day in all parts of the country. We won’t arrive home before midnight tonight;
2). when we predict the future, we often use will with the following verbs and expressions: think, expect, believe, be sure, be afraid, examples: I don’t think I’ll go out tonight. I expect they’ll be here at around 10 o’clock tomorrow morning. I believe that inflation will fall to 3 per cent next year. I’m sure you’ll enjoy the film if you decide to go;
3). we also use will in this way with adverbs of probability, e.g. probably, perhaps, certainly, examples: Martin will probably phone us this evening. Perhaps I’ll see you tomorrow;
4). will is also common when there is another clause with if, when, until, assoon as, unless, before and after. Examples: If you hurry you’ll catch the 4 o’clock train. He will come home as soon as the meeting is over. She will stay here until Jack returns;
5). will (as a modal auxiliary) is used to express decision or intention often made at the moment of speaking, that is, not planned or premeditated. Examples: “Would you like something to drink?” ~ “Oh, thanks, I’ll have some orange juice”. “There’s someone at the door”. ~ “Oh, I’ll see who it is”. “I’m going shopping”. ~ ”Oh, I’ll come with you, then”;
6). according to the context, this use of will can express willingness, intention, promise, offer, request, examples: I’ll help you if I can (= I’m willing to help you). I’ll lend you money you need (offer). I’ll pay you back on Friday (promise). Will you shut the door, please? (request);
7). shall (as a modal auxiliary) is used to ask for advice e.g. What shall I do? and to make offers e.g. Shall I help you? and suggestions e.g. Shall we go out thisevening?
8). Will is also used to make statements of fact about the future, example: I’ll be forty next month;
9). in formal English, will can be used to speak about definite future plans, examples: The government will lower all taxes, and I will ensure that every family in this country will benefit;
10). in everyday English we do not normally announce future arrangements about ourselves with will. The Present Continuous sounds more natural, examples: I will leave England in June (formal). I’m Leaving England in June (more natural);
11). however, in announcement of timetables, schedules and other programmes will can be used: The wedding will take place at St. Andrew’s on June 27th.
Going to is used when we say what we have already decided to do, what we intend to do in the future, it expresses a premeditated intention. The going to the future shows that we have a clear plan in our mind. Examples: He’s going to buy a new car. She’s going to travel round the world. What are you going to do?
Going to can also express a prediction, especially when it is based on a present fact. There is evidence now that something is certain to happen. Example: It’s going to rain (I see it).
Will and going to:
1). we use both will and going to in predictions about the future, but there is a difference: We use will to talk about what we think or believe will happen in the future. ~ We use going to when there is something in the present situation that shows what will happen in the future, the speaker feels sure about what will happen because of the situation now. Examples: He’ll be here in Monday morning. ~ It’s going to rain (the clouds are there in the sky);
2). we use both will and going to express intention, to talk what we intend to do but there is a difference here: Will is used to express a decision or intention made at the moment of speaking. ~ Going to is used to express a future plan, decision or intention made before the moment of speaking. Examples: “Oh, my God! I’ve spilt some juice on the suit” “Don’t worry I’ll clean it”. ~ “Why have you moved all the furniture out of the room?” “I’m going to clean the carpet”;
3). Present Continuous is more natural when you are talking about planned arrangements, going to is preferable when you are talking about planned intentions. Notice the difference in meaning between Present Continuous and going to: I’m buying a new car (it’s already decided and organized). ~ I am going to buy a new car (I only think about it);
4). there is often little difference between a future intention and a future arrangement, and often going to and the Present Continuous are interchangeable: We’re going to see (We’re seeing) Hamlet at the Royal Theatre tonight.
When and if sentences (when I do …/ if I do …, etc). Use the present tense (usually Present Simple) to refer to the future in clauses of time and condition after when, while, as soon as, after, before, until/till, if, unless, provided/providing (that). Examples: I’ll buy a newspaper when I go out. We won’t go out until it stops raining. We’ll go to the beach if the weather is nice. I’ll go to the party provided you go too. Before you leave you must visit the museum. Can you look after the children while I am out? I’ll buy a new car as soon as I have enough money. The door will not open unless you push it hard. I’ll lend you the money providing that you pay me back tomorrow. If he is sleeping when I come, I won’t wake him up.
But we use if … will to say ‘if this will happen as a result’, example: All right. I’ll do that if it will make you happy.
1). use Future Continuous (will be doing) to talk about something which will be in progress at a time in the future, examples: I’ll be having dinner at 7.00. What will you be doing this time next week? I’ll be waiting at the station when your train arrives;
2). we also use Future Continuous for planned actions. The meaning will be doing is similar with the meaning am doing. We often use will be –ing to ask about people’s plans, especially when we want something or want someone to do something, example: “Will you be using the bicycle tonight?” When we use will be doing form in this way, it often suggests that we do not want to change the other person’s plans;
3). Future Continuous also expresses an action that will occur in the natural course of events, independently of the will or intention of anyone directly concerned. Examples: In a few minutes we will be landing at Heathrow Airport. Hurry up1 ~ The bus will be leaving any minute.
Task 1. Put in the correct verb form (present tense or will …).
<> If you (1) there first, keep a seat for me (get). <> I’ll see you again when I (2) next in London (be). <> I don’t know when I (3) a job (find). <> Give her some more chocolate if it (4) her quiet (keep). <> I’ll open the window when it (5) raining (stop). <> You can borrow my cat if you (6) it back (bring). <> All right. I’ll apologize if it (7) you feel better (make). <> Can you tell me when Mr. Ellis (8) here next (be)?
Task 2. Write the verbs in the Future Indefinite.
1). I’m tired. I (go) to bed. 2). It’s late. I think I (take) a taxi. 3). … I (answer) the question? 4). We don’t know their address. What (we do)? 5). Our test (not take) long. 6). I’m afraid they (not wait) for us. 7). Diana (come) to the party tomorrow? 8). You (arrive) in Paris tomorrow evening. 9). The boy (remember) this day all his life. 10). Perhaps they (buy) a new house this year. 11). He (be) fourteen next year. 12). I’m not sure I (find) Jim at the hotel. 13). We (not book) the tickets in advance. 14). Do you think it (rain)? 15). Everybody thinks they (not get) married. 16). There (not be) any wars in the world. 17). Dad (present) Meg a personal computer, … he? 18). … there (be) drugs for every kind of disease in 50 years’ time?
Task 3. Put the verb in the correct form (present tense, will or going to).
1). “Tim has broken his leg and stays at home”. “Sorry to hear that. I (visit) him tomorrow” (A. will visit. B. am going to visit). 2). The match (finish) at half past nine, so I will be at home by ten o’clock (A. will finish. B. finishes. C. is finishing). 3). My elder sister (finish) school in June (A. will finish. B. finishes. C. is finishing). 4). It’s Julia’s birthday today. She’s bought much food. She (cook) a lot (A. will cook. B. is going to cook). 5). “Do you know Kate’s phone number?” “I’ve bad memory for phone number, but I (look) for it in my note-book (A. will look. B. am going to look). 6). My uncle has bought bricks. He (build) a house in the country (A. will build. B. is going to build). 7). “Has he decided how to spend the money?” “Yes, he (buy) a car” (A. will buy. B. is going to buy). 8). What time the next bus (leave) for Bristol? (A. does the next bus leave. B. will the next bus leave. C. is the next bus going to leave). 9). “Haven’t you taken my key? I can’t find it”. “Just a minute. I (look) for it” (A. will look. B. am going to look). 10). “Jack didn’t pass his exam yesterday”. “Oh, what he (do)?” (A. will he do. B. is he going to do). 11). There is somebody at the door. I … open (A. will. B. am going to). 12). The population of our city (reach) one million by 2000 (A. reaches. B. will reach. C. is reaching). 13). Our next lesson (be) on Monday (A. is going to be. B. will be. C. is). 14). The phone is ringing. I … answer (A. will. B. am going to). 15). I think I (do) it (A. will do. B. do. C. am going to do). 16). Tomorrow (be) Friday (A. will be. B. is). 17). Sam’s plane (arrive) at midnight (A. will arrive. B. is going to arrive. C. arrives). 18). Why have you brought your guitar? … you (sing) at the party? (A. Will you sing. B. Are you going to sing). 19). I’m sure we (enjoy) our visit to the Zoo (A. will enjoy. B. are going to enjoy). 20). The student … as an apprentice to a trained worker next week (A. shall work. B. will work. C. would work). 21). We … take a vacation this month (A. is not. B. did not. C. shall not).
Task 4. Write the verbs in the correct form.
1). I can give Bob the message if I (see) him (A. will see. B. see). 2). If I (hear) any news, I (phone) you (A. will hear, will phone. B. will hear, phone. C. hear, will phone). 3). If the weather (be) fine tomorrow, we are going to have a picnic (A. is. B. will be). 4). Hurry up! If you (catch) a taxi, you (meet) Mary at the station (A. catch, will meet. B. will catch, meet. C. will catch, will meet). 5). When I (arrive) in Manchester next week, I (phone) you (A. will arrive, will phone. B. will arrive, phone. C. arrive, will phone). 6). Call for an ambulance if he (feel) worse (A. will feel. B. feels. C. feel). 7). Mrs. Clay (go) shopping today if she (finish) her work earlier than usual (A. goes, will finish. B. will go, will finish. C. will go, finishes). 8). Watch the football match on TV at 11 p.m. if you (stay) at home tonight (A. will stay. B. stay. C. would stay). 9). I’m tired, but if you (make) me strong coffee, I (go on) working (A. will make, go on. B. will make, will go on. C. make, will go on). 10). If Dad (buy) a new car, we (go) to the sea-side by car next summer (A. buy, will go. B. buys, will go. C. will buy, go). 11). If they (want) your advice, they (get) in touch with you (A. will want, will get. B. want, will get. C. want, get). 12). We (have) time for tea if he (be) in time (A. will have, will be. B. have, will be. C. will have, is). 13). If you (be) late, I can walk your dog (A. will be. B. are). 14). If you (eat) less bread, you (lose) weight (A. eat, will lose. B. will eat, will lose. C. will eat, lose). 15). If Pete (go jogging), he (forget) about his health problems (A. goes jogging, will forget. B. will go jogging, forgets. C. go jogging, will forget). 16). Could you ask Bob to phone me if you (see) her tomorrow? (A. see. B. will see). 17). If our team (work) hard, we (not lose) the next game (A. will work, won’t lose. B. works, won’t lose. C. work, won’t lose). 18). Your parents (worry), if you (be) late in the evening (A. will worry, will be. B. are worry, will be. C. will worry, are).
Task 5. Write the verbs in the correct form.
1). Don’t ring her up at 12 o’clock, she (get) ready for her exam. 2). They (play) football at this time tomorrow. 3). When we come to Astrakhan they (meet) us at the bus station. 4). We (travel) at this time next week. 5). She (have) her English from 9 to 11? 6). “We (come) at 5 o’clock”. “Well, I (wait) for you”. 7). “What the children (do) when we come home?” “They (have) dinner”. 8). He (come) to our place this week. 9). You (see) them during your holiday? 10). You still (have) classes if I come at 5?