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GRAMMAR: Past Perfect.


We often use Past Perfect after when and after to show that something was completely finished, examples: When he had painted the kitchen and bathroom, he decided to have a rest. After I had finished the report, I realized that it was too late to post it.




Task 1. Choose the right tenses.

1). It (is, was, has been) snowing since I (have got up, got up). 2). Things (have been, were) difficult since Carol (has lost, lost) her job. 3). He (has been, was) quite different since he (has got, got) married. 4). Since she (has gone, went) to live in France we (haven’t heard, didn’t hear) anything from her.

Task 2. Present Perfect and Past Simple: revision. Which rule is true?

1). Present Perfect or Present Perfect Progressive with longer period of time; Past Simple with shorter periods. 2). Present Perfect with expressions of finished time; Past Simple with expressions of unfinished time. 3). Present Perfect with expressions of unfinished time; Past Simple with expressions of finished time. 4). Present Perfect with repeated actions; Past Simple with actions that are not repeated.

Task 3. Put in correct forms.

Deer Eileen. Hope things are OK with you. The doctor (1 > come) yesterday. He (2 > not like) my cough. I (3 > lie) in bed looking at the ceiling since Tuesday, and I can tell you. I’m fed up with it. I (4 > never be) ill like this before – don’t know what’s happening to me. And the weather’s terrible. It (5 > rain) all day, and I can’t even have a cup of tea to cheer myself up, because the milkman (6 > not come) this morning. Don’t know why – I’m sure I (7 > pay) his bill. Alice (8 > get) married last week, so now all Mary’s kids (9 > leave) home. She won’t know what to do with herself, will she? Lucy Watson (10 > move) to Doncaster. Since Fred (11 > die) she (12 > be) all alone. It (13 > be) a heart attack, apparently. I’m sorry she (14 > go) – we (15 > be) neighbours (16 > since / for) over thirty years, and she (17 > always be) friendly and ready to help out. Amy (18 > leave). My cleaning lady, you remember? I’m glad. She (19 > not be) much use, and I (20 > not trust) her since she (21 > break) all those plates and (22 > say) it (23 > be) the cat. There (24 > not be) much change in the village. Some new people (25 > take) over the shop. They seem quite nice. Hope they’re more efficient than old Joe. No more news. Write when you’ve got the time. Love. Emma.

Task 4. Put in Past Simple or Past Perfect.

1). Because he (not check) the oil for so long, the car (break) down. 2). Nobody (come) to the meeting because Angela (forget) to tell people about it. 3). I (see) her before somewhere – I (know). 4). It was a firm that I (never hear) of. 5). She couldn’t find the book that I (lend) her. 6). The lesson (already start) when I (arrive).

Task 5. Choose the correct tense (Past Simple or Past Perfect).

When I (1 > go) to Paris last spring for a job interview. I (2 > not be) there for five years. I (3 > arrive) the evening before the interview, and (4 > spend) a happy hour walking round thinking about the good times I (5 > have) there as a student.

As I strolling by the Seine, I suddenly (6 > see) a familiar face – it was Nedjma, the woman I (7 > share) a flat with when I was a student, and whose address I (8 > lose) after leaving Paris. I could tell she (9 > not see) me, so I (10 > call) her name and she (11 > look) up. As she (12 > turn) towards me, I (13 > realize) that she (14 > have) an ugly scar on the side of her face. She (15 > see) the shock in my eyes, and her hand (16 > go) up to touch the scar; she (17 > explain) that she (18 > get) it when she was a journalist reporting on a war in Africa.

She (19 > not be) uncomfortable telling me this; we (20 > feel) as if the years (21 > not pass), as if we (22 > say) goodbye the week before. She (23 > arrive) in Paris that morning, and she (24 > have) a hospital appointment the next day. The doctors (25 > think) that they could remove the scar, but she would have to stay in Paris for several months. Both of us (26 > have) the idea at the same time: if I (27 > get) the job, we could share a flat again. And we could start by having a coffee while we (28 > begin) to tell one another everything that (29 > happen) to us in the past five years.

Task 6. Join the beginnings and ends to make sensible sentences.

Beginnings: 1). After he had tried on six pairs of shoes. 2). After Mary had done all the shopping. 3). When I had washed and dried the last plate. 4). When he had finished eating lunch.

Ends: - he decided he liked the first ones best; - she took a short walk round the park; - he went to the cafe in the square for a cup of coffee; - Paul came in and offered to help.

Task 7. Use when or after to make one sentence for each situation.

1). I wrote to my friend. Then I watched television for an hour or so. 2). Everybody had a chance to say what they thought. Then we took a vote. 3). I posted the letter. Then I felt much better about everything. 4). She stopped trying to lose weight. She looked much healthier.



GRAMMAR: Past Perfect; Past Perfect Continuous;

past and progressive in requests etc, perfect tenses with this is the first etc.


Past Perfect → when we are talking about the past, we sometimes want to refer back to an earlier past, example: When I telephoned Sue, she had gone out. We use Past Perfect (e.g. she had gone out) to talk about something which had happened before the past time we are thinking about (e.g. when I telephoned). Compare the uses of Present Perfect and Past Perfect: I haven’t eaten all day today, so I’m very hungry now (Present Perfect). ~ I hadn’t eaten all day yesterday, so I was very hungry when I got home (Past Perfect). Compare the uses of the Past Perfect and Past Simple: We got to the station at 8.00, but the train had left at 7.30. ~ We got to the station at 7.20 and the train left at 7.30. When Sue arrived, we had had dinner (we had dinner, then Sue arrived). ~ When Sue arrived, we had dinner (Sue arrived, than we had diner).


Past Perfect Continuous → when we are talking about the past, we sometimes want to refer back to an earlier past, example: Dave had been driving for an hour when his car broke down. We use Past Perfect Continuous (e.g. Dave had been driving for an hour) to talk about something which had been in progress up to the past time we are talking about (e.g. when his car broke down): I’d been walking for about half an hour when it suddenly started to rain. Mr. Woods had been working for 50 years when he finally retired in 1985.


Past Perfect Continuous is the past form of Present Perfect Continuous. Compare: I’ve been working hard all day, so I’m very tired now (Present Perfect Continuous). ~ I’d been working hard all day, so I was very tired last night (Past Perfect Continuous). Compare the uses of Past Perfect Continuous and Past Continuous: When I looked out of the window, it had been raining (= It wasn’t raining when I looked out; it had stopped). ~ When I looked out of the window, it was raining (= Rain was falling at the time I looked out).


Past and progressive in requests etc. Past tenses can make requests, questions and suggestions more polite (they sound less direct than present tenses). Examples: I wondered if you were free this evening. How much did you want to spend, sir?

The past modal forms would, could and might are often used in this way, examples: I thought it would be nice to have a picnic. Could I ask you to translate this for me? You might see if the consulate can help you.

Past Progressive can make requests less direct, and so more polite, example: I was wondering if I might use your phone.

In other kinds of sentence, Present Progressives can sound casual and friendly, example: We’re hoping you’ll come and stay with us soon. I’m looking forward to hearing from you.

Another way of making requests less direct is to use a future verb form, examples: I’m afraid you’ll need to fill in this form. I’ll have to ask you to wait a minute.

Perfect tenses with this is the first etc. Use Present Perfect in sentences with this (it, that) is the first (second, third, only, best, worst) etc. Examples: This is the first time that I’ve heard her sing (NOT: …I hear her sing). This is the fifth time you’ve asked me the same question. That’s the third cake you’ve eaten this morning. It’s one of the most interesting books I’ve ever read.




Task 1. Put the verbs in the correct form.

1). Jill was afraid she (forget) her key at home, but she found it in her handbag. 2). Aleksandrov wasn’t at home when I came back. He (go) out twenty minutes before. 3). I wasn’t hungry because I just (have) breakfast. 4). Vasnetsov saw an urgent message on his table. Somebody (leave) it the day before. 5). I apologized I (not phone) her. 6). He told me that he (come back) a fortnight before. 7). I knew him at once though I (meet) him many years before. 8). We spent the night in Klin, a town we often (hear of) but (never see). 9). They couldn’t believe he (give up) his job in the bank. He (make) a good living there. 10). Mr. Jackson said that he already (buy) everything for lunch. 11). Alice asked her brother where he (arrange) to meet his friends. 12). We had no car at that time because we (sell) our old one. 13). They (finish) painting the ceiling by two o’clock. 14). I kept silence for a while thinking of what he (tell) me.


Task 2. Past Perfect or Past Simple?

1). I (wake up) early and got out of bed (A. woke up. B. had woken up). 2). I got out of bed an hour later I (wake up) (A. woke up. B. had woken up). 3). We were late. The meeting (start) an hour before (A. started. B. had started). 4). She was the most delightful person I (ever met) (A. ever met. B. had ever met). 5). That morning she (dress), (phone) somebody, and went out (A. dressed, phoned. B. had dressed, had phoned). 6). That morning she went out after she (phone) somebody (A. phoned. B. had phoned). 7). He was tired because he (work) hard in the garden all day (A. worked. B. had worked). 8). The sun (set), it (get) dark, and we went home (A. set, got. B. had set, got). 9). The Hills were in a hurry, but they (take) a taxi and managed to arrive exactly on time (A. took. B. had taken). 10). The Hills managed to arrive exactly on time because they (take) a taxi (A. took. B. had taken). 11). We asked Peter to come with us, but he (refuse) (A. refused. B. had refused). 12). I saw a nice kitten when I (open) the basket (A. opened. B. had opened). 13). After I (write) all my letters, I went to the kitchen to make coffee (A. wrote. B. had written). 14). She (hardly finish) speaking over the phone when the telephone rang again (A. hardly finished. B. had hardly finished).


Task 3. Past Perfect or Present Perfect?

1). Aunt Polly punished Tom Sawyer because he … naughty (A. has been. B. had been). 2). “Why are you looking so unhappy?” “I … my purse” (A. have lost. B. had lost). 3). Sam was upset because Judy … (A. hasn’t come. B. hadn’t come). 4). Mother asked the children if they … some biscuits for tea (A. has bought. B. had bought). 5). Marina … some photos to be developed. Are they ready? (A. has left. B. had left). 6). Tell Tommy about these wonderful islands. He … about them (A. has never heard. B. had never heard). 7). I’m so happy to see you again. I … you since I left Berks (A. haven’t seen. B. hadn’t seen). 8). She said she … him since she left Berks (A. hasn’t seen. B. hadn’t seen).


Task 4. Make these sentences less direct.

1). How many days do you intend to stay? (Past Simple). 2). I hope you can lend me $10 (Past progressive and past modal). 3). I wonder if you have two single rooms (Past Progressive and Past Simple). 4). Are you looking for anything special? (Past Progressive). 5). Can you give me a hand? (Past modal). 6). I look forward to seeing you again (Present Progressive). 7). I think I’ll borrow your bike for the afternoon, if that’s OK (Past Progressive and past modal). 8). We can ask Peter to help us (Past modal). 9). I think it will be a good idea to invite Simon (Past Simple and past modal).


Task 5. Complete the sentences correctly.

1). This is the first time I (see this film). 2). That’s the eighth time you (sing that song) today. 3). This is the only time this week I (feel happy). 4). This is the third serious mistake you (make) in this job. 5). This is the only time I (ever see) her cry. 6). That’s the tenth cup of coffee you (drink) since breakfast. 7). It’s the first time all the family (be together) since Sue’s wedding. 8). This is the best meal I (eat) this year. 9). These are the first clothes I (buy) myself since Christmas.




GRAMMAR: Past Perfect Progressive; used to; supposed to.


Past Perfect Progressive. I had been working etc, She had not been working etc, Had you been working? etc. Examples: All the roads were blocked: it had been snowing all night long. After I had been walking for an hour, I decided to have a rest. She fell ill because she had been working too hard. Mary could see that the child had been crying for some time.

Use used to + infinitive to talk about past habits which are now finished, examples: Kate used to go swimming a lot, but she never goes swimming now.

We also use used to for past states and situations which are no longer true, example: Robert used to be very slim when he was younger.

We only used to to talk about the past. The negative of used to is normally didn’t use to, example: I didn’t use to live in London.

We also use never used to e.g. You never used to like classical music. We normally form questions with did … use to...? Example: Where did you use to live?

Note: When we talk about past habits we can also use would, example: When we were children we used to (would) play cowboys and Indians together.

When we talk about past states, we can use used to, but not would, example: My grandfather used to be a policeman.

Use used + infinitive to talk about past habits and long-lasting situations which are now finished or different, examples: I used to smoke like a chimney. She used to live in Liverpool.

Used to… is only past. For present habits, we use the simple present tense, example: My sister smokes occasionally. In an informal style, questions and negatives are generally made with do, examples: Did you use to collect stamps? I didn’t use to like her. I used not to like her (more formal).

Supposed + infinitive can be used if we want to talk about what is generally believed, examples: He’s supposed to be rich. This stuff is supposed to kill flies.

Another meaning is: what people are expected to do or what is intended: examples: You’re supposed to start work at 8.30 in the morning. She was supposed to be here on an hour ago. – Where is she? That’s a strange picture. – What’s it supposed to be?




Task 1. Complete the text with past perfect progressive: choose verbs in the brackets (drive, lie, repair, work).

John Latton, 39, an engineer at Felton Plastics in Upton, had a lucky escape after an accident on the A 34 in the early hours of the morning. Mr Latton fell asleep while driving and crashed into a pile of sand left by workers who (1) the road. When he left Felton Plastics at 3.00 this morning, Mr Latton (2) for 72 hours without any sleep. A passing motorist discovered the accident after the engineer (3) in his car with a broken leg for half an hour. Ambulance workers said that if Mr Latton (4) any faster his injuries might have been much worse.

Task 2. Read the story: “On Tuesday afternoon, everyone in my family was very busy – except me. During the afternoon Helen repaired her car; John practiced his karate; Kate did some gardening; Stephanie played tennis; Roger swam for half an hour: Pam went horse-riding; Philip painted the ceiling in his room light blue. I spent the afternoon sitting reading.” Answer the questions like in example: Who had black grease on her hands at teatime? Why? → Helen, because she had been repairing her car.

1). Who had dirt on her hands and knees? Why? 2). Who was wearing a short white skirt? Why? 3). Who was wearing a white jacket and trousers and a black belt? Why? 4). Who was wearing high boots and a hard hat? Why? 5). Whose hair had light blue streaks in it? Why? 6). Whose hair was all wet? Why?

Task 3. Past Perfect or Past Perfect Continuous?

1). The main ideas were set forth in the statement which … in the press the day before (A. had been appearing. B. had appeared. C. has appeared). 2). By the sixteenth century a new economic system … feudalism (A. had been replacing. B. was replacing. C. had replaced). 3). The Treaty of Paris was signed in September 1783. The colonies were now free but they … yet … a united nation (A. had not … formed. B. did not … form. C. had not … been forming). 4). The war broke out in 1914. The European ruling classes … for it for twenty years (A. prepared. B. had prepared. C. had been preparing). 5). The European experts … long … that the arms race would lead to war (A. had … warned. B. had … been warning. C. would … be warning). 6). It was pointed out that the patient … treatment for heart problems for a year (A. had been having. B. had have. C. would have been having). 7). It was reported that a plane from the air field … since the previous morning (A. had missed. B. had been missing. C. has been missing).

Task 4. Past Simple, Past Continuous, Past Perfect or Past Perfect Continuous?

1). I was talking over the phone when they brought me the letter (A. talked. B. had talked. C. had been talking. D. was talking). 2). They (sit) in the room when the taxi arrived (A. sat. B. had sat. C. had been sitting. D. were sitting). 3). He quickly forgot everything he (learn) at school (A. learnt. B. had learnt. C. had been learning. D. was learning). 4). I visited Brazil in April. I (stay) at a nice hotel for a fortnight (A. stayed. B. had stayed. C. had been staying. D. was staying). 5). I (stay) at the hotel for a fortnight when I received your letter (A. stayed. B. had stayed. C. had been staying. D. was staying). 6). The musician (play) the piano for a whole hour when we came in (A. played. B. had played. C. had been playing. D. was playing). 7). Jane closed the magazine and rose from the sofa on which she (lie) for more than two hours (A. lay. B. had lain. C. had been lying. D. was lying). 8). A man (be) unconscious for a few minutes when an ambulance arrived (A. was. B. had been. C. had being). 9). We (walk) along a forest road for two hours when we saw a house (A. walked. B. had walked. C. had been walking. D. were walking). 10). I (talk) over the phone for a whole hour when the porter knocked at the door (A. talked. B. had talked. C. had been talking. D. was talking). 11). I hardly (finish) speaking with a porter when the phone rang again (A. finished. B. had hardly finished. C. had been finishing. D. was finishing). 12). First I (answer) the phone, and then I read your letter (A. answered. B. had answered. C. had been answering. D. was answering).

Task 5. Complete the text with words in the brackets (buy, go, have, keep, look after, look at, live, play, stand, take).

Recently we took out 15-year-old son Joe to the place in Paris where we (1) when he was a baby. We showed him the house, which the balcony where he (2) and make speeches to imaginary crowds. Then we went inside, and believe it or not, there was Mme Duchene, who (3) Joe when we were working. She didn’t look a day older. We couldn’t get into the flat, but we saw the garden where Joe (4). Then we visited the park where we (5) him for walks, the zoo where he (6) the lions and tiger, and the lake where we (7) boating. Not much had changed in the area: most of the shops were still there, including the wonderful old grocer’s where we (8) delicacies like cherries in brandy. But the friendly butcher who (9) the best pieces of meat for us was gone, and so was the restaurant with the bad-tempered old waitress where we (10) Sunday lunch. I found it strange to go back: it made me feel happy and sad at the same time. But Joe was delighted, with the trip.

Task 6. Put the beginnings and ends together.

Beginnings: 1). Aspirins are supposed. 2). Catholics are supposed. 3). You were supposed. 4). It’s supposed to have instructions with it. 5). Wasn’t my computer magazine. 6). What am I supposed to do. 7). You’re not supposed to go into.

Ends: - but I can’t find them; - supposed to come today? – the shower with shoes on; - to cure headaches; - to go to church on Sundays; - to come and see me yesterday; - with all this chicken salad?

Task 7. Make these sentences less direct.

1). I hope you can lend me £10 (Past Progressive and Past modal). 2). I wonder if you have two single rooms (Past Progressive and Past Simple). 3). Are you looking for anything special? (Past Progressive). 4). I think I’ll borrow your bike for the afternoon, if that’s OK (Past Progressive and Past modal).




GRAMMAR: future: will and shall; going to. Present Progressive;

comparison of structures; Present Simple; tenses after if and when.


Use will (shall) to give or ask for information about the future, in cases where there is no reason to use a present verb-form. Examples: We will need the money on the 15th. Will all the family be at the wedding? It will be spring soon. She’ll be here in a few minutes.

We often use will (shall) to predict the future - to say what we think, guess or calculate will happen. Examples: Tomorrow will be warm, with some cloud in the afternoon. Who do you think will win? You’ll never finish that book.


We often use present verb-forms to talk about the future. For example, we say that something is going to happen. This is common when we talk about plans, decisions and firm intentions, especially in an informal style. Examples: We’re going to get a new car soon. When are you going to get your hair cut? I’m going to keep asking her out until she says “Yes”.

Going to is common when we predict the future by using present evidence – when we can see that a future event is on the way, or starting to happen, examples: Look – it’s going to rain. Look out – we’re going to crash!

Present Progressive is common when we talk about future personal arrangements and fixed plans; we often give the time, date and place. Examples: “What are you doing this evening?” – “I’m washing my hair.” My car’s having a service next week. We’re going to Spain in June. Did you know I’m getting a new Job? What are we having for dinner?


Future: comparison of structures. We can often use more than one structure to talk about the same future event. Present forms emphasize present ideas like intention, certainty and plans. Prefer will (shall) when you are not emphasizing present ideas. Compare: Next year is going to be different – I promise (present intention). Next year will probably be different. What are you doing next year? – You haven’t told me your plans. What will you do next year – do you know?

Prefer present forms when you are talking about future events that have some present reality. Compare: I’m seeing Pete on Tuesday (there is an arrangement now). I wonder if he’ll recognize me (no present idea).

In predictions, you’d prefer present forms when there is outside evidence for what will happen – when you can see something coming. Prefer will when you are talking more about what is inside your heads: your beliefs, guesses, knowledge etc. Examples: Look out – we’re going to crash (I can see it coming). Don’t lend him your car – he’ll crash it (I know him).


We sometimes use Present Simple to talk about the future. This happens mostly when we talk about timetables, routines and schedules. Examples: Next term starts on 6 April. My train leaves at 3.17. What time does the bus arrive in York? Do you have classes next Saturday?

Present Simple can also be used to give and ask for instructions, examples: When you get to the office you go up to the first floor, you knock on the first door on the right and you ask for Mrs. Alstone, OK? What do we do now? Where do I play?

In other cases you don’t use Present Simple in main clauses to talk about the future, examples: Lusy’s coming for drink evening (NOT: Lusy comes…). I’ll phone you – I promise (NOT: I phone you…). There’s the doorbell. I’ll go (NOT: I go).


After if and when, we normally use present tenses to talk about the future, examples: If I’m there tomorrow, I’ll phone you. When it’s ready I’ll give it to you.

If and when can be followed by will in indirect and direct questions. Examples: I don’t know if I’ll be there. They haven’t said when it’ll be ready. When will I see you again?

You can also use will after if in polite requests. Example: If you will just come this way…).

And we use if…will to say “if this happen as a result”. Examples: All right. I’ll give up smoking if it will make you happy. We can come tomorrow evening if it won’t upset your plans.




Task 1. Here are some sentences taken from recorded conversations. Put the beginning and ends together.

Beginnings: 1). Buy the cat food here. 2). Don’t give her your keys. 3). Get John to have a look at the TV. 4). ‘He’ll grow up one day.’ 5). He’ll need somebody. 6). ‘How’s June?’ 7). If you put lemon in it. 8). She’ll be fourteen. 9). She’ll forget.

Ends: - about you; - He’ll fix it; - he’ll drink it; - ‘I hope you’re right’; - It’ll be cheaper; - on May 12th; - ‘She’ll be OK’; - She’ll only lose them; - to help him.


Task 2. Here are some of the plans of various members of a family. Put the sentences together, using going to. Example: Jane is going to study music in Vienna.

Beginnings: 1). She / try to become. 2). But first, she / spend. 3). Then he / train. 4). And the next she says she. 5). This summer, Jane. 6). Max / spend. 7). Their parents / spend. 8). Then they.

Ends: - a professional pianist; - a year learning German; - as a pilot; - decorate the house; - the summer learning to fly; - start her own business; - stay with her aunt in America; - two weeks walking in Scotland.


Task 3. Which form do you feel is best?

1). Here’s the builder’s estimate. It (will cost / is going to cost) £7,000 to repair the roof. 2). I think it (will cost / is going to cost) about £3,000 to rebuild the garage. 3). Alice (will have / is going to have) a baby. 4). With a bit of luck, the baby (will have / is going to have) Alice’s eyes. 5). (I will play / I’m playing) tennis with Stan an Sunday. 6). (He’ll win. / He’s winning) He always does. 7). Don’t tell her. (She’ll tell / She’s going to tell everybody else. 8). What’s happening? The train (won’t stop / isn’t going to stop)! 9). One day everybody (will have / is going to have) proper housing. 10). (She’ll get married / She’s getting married) on Friday at the local church. 11). (It will rain / It’s going to rain) – look at those clouds. 12). If it gets any colder, (it will snow / it’s going to snow).


Task 4. Choose the best tense.

1). When (does / will) school start? 2). The plane (arrives / will arrive) at 10.00. 3). I (write / will write) soon. 4). We (go / are going) to Spain some time soon. 5). You (go / will go) next door for the tickets. 6). How (do / will) I switch this on? 7). The exams (are / will be) in June. 8). I (have / will have) a lecture at 9.00 tomorrow. 9). The train (won’t stop / doesn’t stop) at Oxford. 10). Where (do / will) I go for my interview? 11). What time (does / will) the concert end? 12). I (post / will post) your letters.


Task 5. Put in if or when with the present tense of a verb in the brackets (be, come, not find, grown up, pass, rain, not want).

What are you going to be (1) you (2)? We won’t play (3) it (4). I’ll try again (5) I (6) older. I’ll be surprised (7) she (8) the exam. (9) you (10) your keys, you can use mine. Pete will take the job (11) Ann (12) it. We’ll all be happy (13) the weekend (14).



Date: 2014-12-28; view: 3784

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