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GRAMMAR Part I. THE ACTIVE VOICE Present Indefinite.

 

Present Indefinite (Present Simple) is used to:

1). talk about repeated actions or habits (habitual actions), examples: I have a shower every morning. Most evenings my friends stay at home and watch TV. Do you go to the cinema very often? What time does Kate finish work? How often do you go to the dentist? In summer Vasily usually plays tennis twice a week. Ann doesn’t often drink coffee;

2). talk about situations which are permanent (continuing for a long time), examples: Mr. and Mrs. Shaw live in Bristol (that is their permanent home). Yana works in a shop. She wears expensive clothes;

3). talk about general truths, examples: Summer follows spring. The River Volga flows into the Caspian See. It rains a lot in Central Russia in October and November;

4). give instructions, examples: You turn left at the corner. First you weight the goods;

5). tell a joke or a story, to describe the dramatic action of a play (dramatic use), example: The Russian goes to the Englishman and says …;

6). talk about fixed future events (timetables, calendar), examples: Our plane leaves at nine. The course ends in two weeks. The World Cup begins tomorrow. What time does the film start?

7). make commentaries, example: Becker serves to Lord Baltimore.

 

Present Simple is also used with certain verbs not normally used in the continuous forms:

1). verbs of the mind and thinking: believe, think, consider, understand, suppose, expect, agree, know, remember, forget, doubt, mean, mind. Examples: What do you think of that book? I believe you are the man I’m looking for. She knows now what she has done wrong. Paul doesn’t mind if you use his car. He feels that he is right;

2). verbs of emotion and feeling: like, dislike, hate, love, want, wish, prefer, care. Examples: I like playing basketball. I hate getting up early in the morning;

3). verbs of the senses: see, smell, taste, hear. Examples: The cake smells good. The wine tastes sweet;

4). verbs of possession: have, possess, belong to, own. Examples: I have two tickets. He owns a Rolls Royce. The book belongs to me;

5). certain other verbs: concern, depend on, include, need, owe, seem and others. Examples: I need a bath. That doesn’t concern me. A newspaper costs about 10 rub.

 

Some of these verbs can be used in the continuous tense:

1). when the verb expresses an activity, not a state. However the meaning changes slightly. Compare: I think it’s a great idea (think as opinion, i.e. a state). He’s thinking of emigrating (think as mental process, i.e. an activity). I expect you’d like something to eat (expect meaning suppose). She’s expecting a baby (she’s pregnant). Zina has a car (possession). The Yakovlevs are having dinner at the moment (an activity);

2). when they show that a process is taking place gradually, example: I’m slowly remembering all the details of the accident.

 

The Simple Present is used in a future meaning when we are talking about timetables, programs etc. for public transport, cinemas etc. Examples: What time does the film begin? The train leaves Plymouth at 10.30 and arrives in London at 13.45. The football match starts at 8 o’clock. Tomorrow is Wednesday.



 

 

CHECK WORK

 

Task 1. Write the verb to be in Present Indefinite.

1). Who … it? 2). Goods introduced into free trade zones … free from duties. 3). Where … the international arrivals gate? 4). Both … busy. 5). I … in charge of this department. 6). How … you? 7). Now it … your turn. 8). It … well that he came. 9). Here … your tickets. 10). … there a problem? 11). Where … the information counter? 12). It … on the second floor. 13). The best seats … 10 $. 14). This seat … engaged. 15). There … various reasons for believing so. 16). I … not sure I understand. 17). … you late? 18). … you hungry? 19). The news … not very bad today. 20). … that so? 21). Your money … in your handbag.

 

Task 2. Write the verbs in the correct form.

1). I don’t … to answer that question (A. to have. B. having. C. have). 2). The city of Moscow … about 60 square kilometers (A. covering. B. covers. C. is covered). 3). Man … live by bread alone (A. do not. B. does not. C. is not). 4). How much … this sweater cost? (A. is. B. does. C. do). 5). How much … this sweater? (A. is. B. does. C. do). 6). It … rainy in summer (A. don’t. B. doesn’t. C. isn’t). 7). It … often rain in summer (A. don’t. B. doesn’t. C. isn’t). 8). I … to answer that question (A. am refuse. B. doesn’t refuse. C. refuse). 9). I … at home on Sundays (A. am not. B. doesn’t. C. don’t). 10). He … have much money (A. isn’t. B. doesn’t. C. don’t). 11). He … rich (A. isn’t. B. doesn’t. C. don’t). 12). … you have anything to declare? (A. Are. B. Does. C. Do). 13). Olga … in Rome (A. isn’t. B. doesn’t. C. don’t). 14). You … ten minutes to complete your registration (A. have. B. having. C. are having). 15). … you see? (A. Have. B. Do. C. Are). 16). That hotel … expensive (A. doesn’t. B. isn’t. C. don’t). 17). Wise kings generally … wise councilors (A. to have. B. has. C. have). 18). All historical places of Moscow … in the Centre (A. had been. B. were. C. are).

 

Task 3. Write the verbs in Present Indefinite.

1). He thinks he … right. 2). I … glad to see you. 3). The sweater … nice. 4). My hair … not clean. 5). I … eighteen. 6). What … your favorite book? 7). I … an only child in the family. 8). He … four. 9). You … a happy girl. 10). … your friend live in Moscow? 11). There … a policeman at the door. 12). She … pretty and friendly. 13). Where … the nearest bus stop, please? 14). You … a customs officer, aren’t you? 15). When it … cold, we put on warm clothes. 16). … that hotel expensive? 17). Where … you from? 18). I … from Moscow.

 

Task 4. Write the verbs in the correct form.

1). He … a bad headache (A. have got. B. am. C. has got). 2). Where the Ivanovs (live)? (A. Where do the Ivanovs live? B. Where are the Ivanovs live? C. Where does the Ivanovs live?). 3). Margie and her sister … wonderful voices (A. does. B. has got. C. have got). 4). I (not understand) that man because I (not know) English (A. not understand, don’t know. B. don’t understand, not know. C. don’t understand, don’t know). 5). … Jane Smith (speak) English? (A. Is … speak. B. Does … speak. C. Do … speaks). 6). The Browns … a nice house in the country (A. has got. B. have got). 7). … you (like) swimming? (A. Do you like. B. Does you like. C. Are you like). 8). … Evgeny … any brothers or sisters? (A. Have Evgeny got. B. Does Evgeny have. C. Does Evgeny has). 9). … your sister often (go) to the theatre? (A. Is … go. B. Does … go. C. Do … goes). 10). We … a car, but we are going to buy it (A. don’t have. B. aren’t have. C. hasn’t). 11). … Bob (know) what I want? (A. Bob knows. B. Do Bob knows. C. Does Bob know). 12). They can’t go out because they … rain-coats and umbrellas (A. have got. B. aren’t have. C. don’t have). 13). Jack lives not far from us, but we (not see) him often (A. not see. B. doesn’t see. C. don’t see). 14). Can you help me? I (not know) the way to the market (A. am not know. B. not know. C. don’t know). 15). The sea … the sun’s warmth longer than the land (A. retain. B. retains. C. has retain). 16). My daughter Elena (not like) apples, but she likes oranges (A. not likes. B. doesn’t likes. C. doesn’t like). 17). What’s the mater? You (look) very happy (A. look. B. looks). 18). … you … any time to help me? / Sorry, I … (A. Do you have / don’t. B. Have you got / am not. C. Do you have / have got).

 

Task 5. Write down the correct question-word to the underlined and missed words.

1). It’s my mother’s birthday next week (A. Who. B. Whose. C. Whom). 2). My best friend Eugenia lives in Minsk (A. Whom. B. Whose. C. Who). 3). Mrs. Laura is in her office (A. When. B. Where. C. How). 4). I’ve got two bottles of lemonade at home (A. How many. B. How much. C. What). 5). Mr. Williams usually walks his dog early in the morning (A. Where. B. When. C. How often). 6). You’ve got a fine collection of coins. … coin do you like best? (A. What. B. Which. C. Whose). 7). … is the weather like today? (A. What. B. How. C. Which). 8). … money do you want? (A. How many. B. How much. C. Which). 9). … is the cheapest way to get to London: by plane or by train? (A. What. B. How. C. Which).

 

Task 6. Look at the examples of third person singular (he, she, it) forms in the brackets (catches, cooks, does, eats, enjoys, fixes, flies, goes, lives, makes, misses, passes, plays, pushes, reads, replies, says, shops, smokes, speaks, stands, teaches, thinks, tries, waits, washes, works) and answer the questions.

1). What is the most common way of making the third person singular? 2). What happens with words ending in vowel + -y? 3). What happens with words ending in consonant + -y? 4). After which consonants and groups of consonants do we add -es? 5). Which two other common words add -es?

 

Task 7. Write the third person singular of these verbs: box, brush, buy, complete, cry, defend, deny, destroy, excite, expect, fry, guess, look, pray, reach, receive, rush, spend.

 

Task 8. Complete the quotations with the verbs in the brackets (come, do ‘twice’, get, happen, hate ‘twice’, love, make, sing, start, teach, wait, wash).

<> He who can, (1). He who cannot, (2). <> It’s not that I’m afraid to die. I just don’t want to be there when it (3). <> He’s fanatically tidy. After he takes a bath, he (4) the soap. <> Opera is when a guy (5) knifed in the back and, instead of bleeding, he (6). <> Never marry a man who (7) his mother; he’ll end up hating you. <> The brain is a wonderful organ. It (8) working the moment you get up in the morning, and it (9) not stop until you get to the office. <> A man who (10) whisky and (11) kids can’t be all bad. <> The man who (12) no mistakes does not usually make anything. <> Everything (13) to him who (14).

 

LESSON TWO

 

GRAMMAR: Present Continuous.

 

Present Continuous is used to:

1). talk about something which is in progress at the moment of speaking. Examples: “Where are the children?” ~ “They’re playing in the garden”. “What are you doing at the moment?” ~ “I’m writing a letter”. You can switch off the TV. ~ I’m not watching it. Look, there Sally. ~ Who is she talking to? “Where is Margaret?” ~ “She’s having a bath”. Let’s go out now. ~ It isn’t raining any more;

2). talk about something which is in progress around the present, but not necessarily at the moment of speaking. Examples: She’s looking for a job at the moment. Please don’t take that book. ~ Ann is reading it. Andrew is spending a lot of time in the library these days, as he’s writing an article. Have you heard about Tom? ~ He’s building his own house;

3). talk about something which is in progress for a limited period around the present (temporary state, current situations). Examples: Robert is on holiday this week. ~ He’s staying with his sister in Bournemouth. “You’re working hard today”. ~ “Yes, I have a lot to do”. They are living in Hong Kong for the time being. I can’t phone Peter. ~ The phone isn’t working. Dick is a student, but he’s working as a barman during the holidays;

4). talk about situations which are changing or developing around the present, examples: Your children are growing up very quickly. Computers are becoming more and more important in our lives. The population of the world is rising very fast;

5). talk about planned future arrangements, examples: She’s arriving at the airport tomorrow at noon. I’m having lunch with Helen tomorrow. We’re spending next winter in Australia. We’re leaving at ten o’clock on Friday. I’m meeting Janet later this evening;

6). give a commentary on a performance or activity, example: She’s taking off her tracksuit and …;

7). express a habit, to talk about something that happens more often than is normal (repeated actions with adverbs like always, forever, constantly and continually). It can express a pleasant habit. Examples: I like Peter. ~ He’s always smiling.

 

We also use Present Continuous when there is an element of criticism, examples: She’s always grumbling (I find it annoying). You’re forever losing things (you lose things too often). He’s constantly complaining about something. The secretary is always phoning her friends during office hours (she phones her friends too often).

It is also possible to say: The secretary always phones her friends during office hours. This is more neutral comment and not necessarily a criticism. We put always, forever, constantly and continually before the main verb. Example: Jenny is constantly (always, forever, continually) arguing with her father.

 

Present Continuous with a future meaning: This is Tom’s diary for next week. → He is playing tennis on Monday afternoon. He is going to the dentist on Tuesday Morning. He is having dinner with Ann on Friday.

In all these examples, Tom has already decided and arranged to do these things. When you are talking about what you have already arranged to do, use the Present Continuous (I am doing). Examples: What are you doing tomorrow evening? ~ I’m going to the theatre. Ann is coming tomorrow? ~ What time is she arriving?

When we use the Present Continuous in this way, we often give the future time (e.g. on Saturday evening, on Monday, this afternoon, next weekend).The Present Continuous cannot be used to express an event that has not been arranged by human begins (NOT: It is snowing tomorrow).

 

CHECK WORK

 

Task 1. Write the verbs in the Present Continuous.

1). “Where are our children? It’s quiet at home”. “They (lie) on the carpet and (draw)”. 2). “What you (do) now?” “I (look for) my key. I can’t open the door”. 3). Listen! Somebody (sing) a lovely song. 4). Why you (put on) the coat? It’s sunny today. 5). Don’t make so much noise. I (try) to work. 6). Why you (cry)? Is something wrong? 7). Let’s go for a walk. It (not rain) now. 8). Why you (not hurry)? I (wait) for you. 9). I don’t speak any foreign language, but I (learn) English now. 10). We (spend) next weekend at home. 11). I (meet) Liz tonight. She (come) from Cork. 12). He (go) to speak to his parents. 13). My Dad (work) overtime this week. 14). They (live) in a rented house these days. 15). I (take) dancing lessons this winter. 16). At the moment we (fly) over the desert. 17). Have some hot tea. It (get) chilly. 18). If we (go), let’s go.

 

Task 2. Present Simple or Present Continuous?

1). It (often rain) in this part of the world (A. is often raining. B. often rains). 2). Granny is in the kitchen. She (make) a plum-cake (A. is making. B. makes). 3). My wife (often make) plum-cakes (A. is often making. B. often makes). 4). Can you phone a bit later, please? Jane (have) a bath (A. is having. B. has). 5). Run downstairs. Your sister (wait) for you (A. is waiting. B. waits). 6). I don’t know Spanish, but I (learn) it now (A. am learning. B. learn). 7). John (still work) in the garden (A. is still working. B. still works). 8). Dad (usually work) on Saturdays (A. is usually working. B. usually works). 9). Usually I (have coffee) in the morning, but now I (drink) tea (A. am having coffee. B. have coffee. C. drink. D. am drinking). 10). We (sometimes go) to the cinema (A. are sometimes going. B. sometimes go). 11). “What she (do)?” “She is a secretary at our college (A. is she doing. B. she does. C. does she do). 12). Why you (sit) at my desk? Could you take your place, please? (A. Why you are sitting? B. Why do you sit? C. Why are you sitting?). 13). We’ve got tickets, and tomorrow evening we (go) to the cinema (A. go. B. are going). 14). “… you (do) anything tomorrow afternoon?” “I (play) tennis with my friend” (A. Are you doing. B. Do you do. C. am playing. D. play). 15). Now she … difficulty in putting facts in order (A. is having. B. has been having. C. had).

 

Task 3. Present Simple or Present Continuous? (A ← right. B ← wrong. In the last case correct the sentence).

1). Peter is in his room. He plays the piano. 2). Jill is speaking five languages. 3). I am looking for my glasses. Where are they? 4). I am not understanding what he is speaking about. 5). How long do you plan to stay in the country? 6). The man in the dark grey coat is looking like Tom Smith. 7). He doesn’t like ballroom dancing. 8). I’m looking out of the window, but I’m not seeing him. 9). I am remembering that holiday we had in France a few years ago. 10). How much is it costing to sent a letter to Paris? 11). My parents are never drinking strong coffee. 12). I hate big cities. 13). The play is beginning at half past seven. 14). What are you thinking of that novel? 15). What are you thinking about? 16). I am hoping he comes out of hospital soon. 17). You’re going to be late. 18). I’m afraid I’m not following you. 19). What are you doing here? 20). Who does he look at?

 

Task 4. Here are the some sentences taken from real conversations. Put the beginnings and ends together.

Beginnings: 1). Dad is always teasing me. 2). He’s always arguing. 3). He’s always giving people. 4). I hate those cartoons. 5). Jamie is always having colds. 6). My wife’s always buying. 7). She’s always criticizing. 8). She’s always saying.

Ends: - about my clothes; - and chest problems; - her family; - new products; - or fighting; - she wishes she was prettier; - small present; - where Tom is always chasing Jerry.

 

 

LESSON THREE

 

GRAMMAR: the two present tenses; Present Progressive for changes;

present tense stories; non-progressive verbs; he’s always borrowing money etc.

 

The two present tenses: 1). Simple Present: I (you, we, they) work ↔ He (she, it) woks; I (you, we, they) do not work ↔ He (she, it) does not work; Do I (you, we, they) work? ↔ Does he (she, it) work? 2). Present Progressive: I am (you are etc) working; I am not (you are not etc) working; Am I (Are you etc) working? Examples: You live in North London, don’t you? My sister’s living with me just now. Edinburgh Castle stands on a hill outside the town. Why is that girl standing on the table? Alice works for an insurance company. Phil’s working in Japan at the moment. What do you do? What are you doing?

Repeated actions not only around the moment of speaking: simple present. Repeated actions around the moment of speaking: present progressive. Examples: I go to the mountains about twice a year. Water boils at 100o Celsius. Why is he hitting the dog? Jake’s seeing a lot of Felicity these days.

 

Use the present progressive for changing and developing situations, examples: The climate is getting warmer (NOT: The climate gets warmer). That child’s growing bigger every day. The universe is expanding.

 

We often tell stories with present tenses in an informal style:

1). we use the simple present for events - things that happen one after another;

2). we use the present progressive for background - things that are already happening when the story starts, or that continue through part of the story. Examples: There’s this Scotsman, you see, and he’s walking through the jungle when he meets a gorilla. And the gorilla’s eating a snake sandwich. So the Scotsman goes up to the gorilla and says…;

3). we use the simple present to describe events that happen one after another in commentaries and demonstrations;

4). we also use simple present to ask for and give instructions. Examples: A). Calvin passes to Peters, Peters to Higgins, Higgins shoots – and it’s a goal! B). First I put a lump of butter into the frying pan and light the gas; then while the butter’s melting I break three eggs into a bowl… . C). “How do I get to the station?” - “You go straight on for half a mile, then you come to a garage, you turn left and then you take the first right.”

 

Non-progressive verbs. Some verbs are not normally used in progressive forms, examples: I know what you mean. You seem worried.

He’s always borrowing money etc. It something is always happening, it happens often, but unplanned. Examples: I’m always losing my keys. Granny’s always getting us little presents. He’s always borrowing money. Compare: When Alice comes, I always meet her at the station (planned meeting). I’m always meeting Alan Forbes in the supermarket (unplanned).

 

CHECK WORK

 

Task 1. Which of the words in the brackets (permanent, temporary, habit, just around now, always, usually, just at this moment, these days but not for very long) go best with the simple present, and which go with the present progressive?

 

Task 2. Here are some exchanges from an interview between an American journalist and a French film star. Complete them with the correct tenses.

1). “How do you start work on a film?” “I (read) the script and (make) notes.” 2). “I (make) notes of our interview. I hope you don’t mind.” “No, that’s OK.” 3). “What languages (you speak)?” “English, French and Spanish.” 4). “I’m glad we (do) this interview in English. My French isn’t very good.” 5). “Who (play) that guitar?” “My son, when he has time.” 6). “Who (play) the piano upstairs?” “My sister. She’s got a concert tomorrow.” 7).”What (she play)?” “I think it’s a piece by Mozart.” 8). “(She play) anything else?” “The violin. She’s got very musical.” 9). “Where is your daughter now?” “She (play) tennis, as usual.” 10). “What’s that delicious smell?” “My husband (cook).” 11). “What a lovely clock!” “It (not work), I’m afraid – it’s been broken for years.” 12). “Could I use your phone?” “I’m afraid it (not work) at the moment.”

 

Task 3. These verbs (believe, belong, contain, forget, hate, like, love, matter, need, own, prefer, realize, remember, suppose, understand, want) aren’t normally used in progressive forms. Use some or all of them to complete the sentences. More than one answer may be possible.

<> This book (1) to me. <> I (2) you’re right. <> His father (3) a chain of hotels. <> I (4) a drink of water. <> I (5) his face, but not his name. <> (6) you (7) this music? <> I (8) how old she is. <> She says she (9) to see Fred. <> Money doesn’t (10) to me. <> “Beer? I (11) water.” <> That bottle (12) petrol.

 

Task 4. Choose the correct form (simple present or present progressive).

1). I (have) a great time. 2). She (have) plenty of money just now. 3). She (appear) to have a problem. 4). He (appear) at the Fortune Theatre next week. 5). Why (you look) at me like that? 6). It (look) as if it’s going to rain. 7). I (see) the manager this afternoon. 8). I (see) what you’re trying to say. 9). I (think) you’re right. 10). What (you think) about? 11). I (feel) very tired today. 12). I (feel) she’s making a mistake.

 

Task 5. Revision of present tenses → put in the correct tense (simple present or present progressive).

1). Vegetarians are people who (don’t eat, are not eating) meat. 2). Look out, my husband (comes, is coming). 3). What (happens, is happening) in golf if you lose the ball? 4). I (play, ‘m playing) tennis every weekend. 5). “What (are you looking, do you look) at.” “A strange bird”. 6). Some people still think the sun (goes, is going) round the earth. 7). An alcoholic is a person who (drinks, is drinking) too much and can’t stop. 8). Who (sits, ‘s sitting) in my chair? 9). I (stay, ‘m staying) with John for a few weeks until my flat’s ready. 10). We (usually stay, ‘re usually staying) with Peggy when we go to Chicago. 11). Can you explain why water always (run, is running) downhill? 12). What (do you do, are you doing) with my coat? 13). Nobody (gets, is getting) up early for fun. 14). Not many passenger planes (fly, are flying) faster that sound.

 

Task 6. Revision of present tenses → math the questions and answers.

1). What do you do? 2). What are you doing? 3). Where do you work? 4). Where are you working? 5). Does your son play the violin? 6). Is your son playing the violin? 7). What language does she speak? 8). What language is she speaking? 9). Who drinks champagne? 10). Who’s drinking champagne?

a). Actually, that’s the radio. b). French – she’s from Belgium. c). I want to get this car started. d). I’m an architect. e). I’m in Cardiff this week. f). In a big insurance company. g). it sounds like Russian. h). Me – can I have some more? i). Me, when I can afford it. j). No, the piano.

 

Task 7. Revision of present tenses → put in the correct tense (simple present or present progressive).

1). I (think) he’s away. 2). You (know) what I (mean). 3). She (always complain). 4). We (always start) at nine. 5). I (think) about your father. 6). While the butter (melt), you (take) three eggs and (break) them into a bowl. 7). Scientists (believe) the weather (change). 8). I (not see) what the problem is. 9). Why (you look) at the like that?

LESSON FOUR

 

GRAMMAR: Present Perfect; Present Perfect and Past Simple:

news; Present Perfect and Past Simple: time words.

 

Present Perfect: connects the past and the present. We use it especially for finished actions that are important now. They have results now, or they are news: a). I can’t walk – I’ve hurt my leg. Look – he hasn’t drunk his tea (results now); b). Have you heard? He’s arrived! You’ve passed your exam (news)!

Compare: Brutus killed Caesar (NOT has killed ← no present meaning).

You can change Present Perfect into Present Simple with more or less the same meaning, examples: I’ve hurt my leg. = I have a bad leg. He’s lost his keys. = He can’t find them. Sue’s come back. = Sue is home. He’s gone. = He isn’t here.

 

Present Perfect and Past Simple: news.

1). We often announce a piece of news with the Present Perfect. We can use just to say that something has happened very recently. Examples: A light passenger plane has crashed in Surrey. Andy’s just found a flat!

2). When we give more details, we usually change to the Past Simple. Note that we use the Past Simple to talk about the origin of something present, examples: Who wrote that? (NOT: Who has written?). Bill gave me this necklace. Did you put this here? Whose idea was it to come here on holiday?

 

- Present Perfect: I have seen etc, I have not seen etc, Have I seen? Etc. - Past Simple: I saw etc, I did not see etc, Did I see? Etc.

 

Present Perfect and Past Simple: time words. To talk about finished actions, we can use Present Perfect or Past Simple. It often depends on the kind of time expression that is used. We do not normally use the Present Perfect with expressions which refer to a finished time, like yesterday, last week, three years ago, then, when. We normally use the Present Perfect with expressions which refer to ‘any time up to now’, like ever, never, before, recently, often, already, yet. Compare: I saw Kate yesterday. Have you seen Rob recently? You were here last week, weren’t you? You’ve been here before, haven’t you? She studied Chinese when she was at university. He’s never studied any foreign languages.

Just now (meaning ‘a moment ago’) is used with the Past Simple. Compare: She has just phoned. She phoned just now.

We can think of a finished time even without using a time expression. We can think of ‘any time up to now’ even if we don’t say so. Examples: Did you see ’Hamlet’? (It was on TV last night). Have you seen ‘Hamlet’? (= Have you ever seen ‘Hamlet’?).

 

CHECK WORK

 

Task 1. Join the beginnings and ends to make piece of news.

Beginnings: 1). A parachutist has just. 2). The film has. 3). Lucy has had. 4). My neighbor has. 5). Somebody has just crashed. 6). Polly and Simon have. 7). Some people have bought.

Ends: - a baby girl; - gone into hospital again; - into our garden gate; - just got married; - landed on the roof; - lost ˆ30 million this year; - the house next door.

 

Task 2. Choose the right tenses and put the sentences in pairs to make news items.

1). A light passenger plane (crash) in Surrey. 2). Five thousand fans (be) at the airport. 3). Anna Gomez, of Peru, (set) a new record for the marathon. 4). He (say) I was just the person he needed. 5). Novelist Maria Santiago (marry) actor Tony Delaney. 6). Peter (just offer) me a new job! 7). Police (find) missing schoolgirl Karen Allen. 8). She (cover) the 42 km in just over 2 hours and 16 minutes. 9). She (be) at a friend’s house in Birmingham. 10). The World Cup team (arrive) home. 11). They (meet) while working on the screenplay for the film Sun in the Morning. 12). According to eyewitnesses, the aircraft (hit) a tree while coming in to land.

 

Task 3. Finished or unfinished time? Put the expressions in the brackets in two lists (a long time ago, before I was born, in 1991, in my life, just after I got up, last year, lately, this year, today, when I was nine).

 

Task 4. Choose the correct tense.

1). I (haven’t seen / didn’t see) him lately. 2). “Who is she?” “I (‘ve never seen / never saw) her before.” 3). I (‘ve done / did) a lot of stupid things in my life. 4). She (has left / left) school last year. 5). When (have you got / did you get) married? 6). He (has caught / caught) the plane at eight this morning. 7). I (‘ve read / read) a lot of her books when I was at school. 8). (Have you seen / Did you see) any good films recently?

 

Task 5. Put in the most suitable tense (Past Simple or Present Perfect).

1). My great-grandmother (live) in Glasgow. 2). I (not read) her latest book. 3). (you visit) India? 4). You (be) a beautiful baby. 5). How many time (you be) in love? 6). “(you hear) the thunder?” “No, nothing wakes me up.” 7). Amazing news! Scientists (discover) a new planet! 8). Who (give) Shakespeare his first job. 9). I (never enjoy) a holiday as much as this one.

 

Task 6. Read the sentences and answer the questions.

1). “How long has Ann lived in Spain?” → Does Ann still live in Spain? 2). “How long did Bill live in Italy” → Does Bill still live in Italy? 3). “Joe worked with me for two years.” → Does Joe still work with the speaker? 4). “Sue has worked with me for two years.” → Does Sue still work with the speaker? 5). “I’ve had a headache all day.” → Has the speaker got a headache? 6). “I had a headache all day.” → Has the speaker got a headache?

 

LESSON FIVE

 

GRAMMAR: Present Perfect: situations ‘up to now’;

Present Perfect and Past Simple; when and if sentences.

 

Past ― s-i-t-u-a-t-i-o-n → Present

 

Use Present Perfect to talk about situations continuing up to now, especially when we say how long they have lasted. Examples: Alex has worked with children all her life. He went to Rome on holiday ten years ago, and he’s lived there ever since. She’s always wanted to go to Australia, but she’s never had time.

We do not use a present tense to say how long something has lasted. Examples: I’ve known Joe for years. How long have you been here for? (= Since when?). Compare: How long are you here for? (= Until when?).

We often use Present Perfect for actions repeated up to now. Compare: Benjamin’s been to Africa several times this year (‘up to now’). I went to Africa three times last year (not ‘up to now’). I’ve climbed a lot of mountains, but I’ve never been up Mont Blanc. In 1861 he climbed most of the highest mountains in France.

With most verbs, we can also use the Present Perfect Progressive to talk about situations continuing up to now, example: Have you been waiting long?

 

Present Perfect has three main uses:

1). it expresses an action which began in the past and still continues, example: She has worked in London for six months (= she still works in London now). Note the time expressions that are common with this use. We use for with a period of time, and since with a point in time, examples: for (two years, a month, a few minutes, half an hour, ages), since (1970, the end of the lesson, August, 8.00, Christmas);

2). it expresses an experience that happened at some time in one’s life. The action is in the past and finished, but the effects of the action are still felt. When the action happened is not important. Example: I’ve been to the States. Note the adverbs that are common with this use, example: Have you ever been to Australia? ~ No, I have never been there. Note that questions and answers about definite times are expressed in the Past Simple, example: When did you go to the States? ~ I went there two weeks ago;

3). it expresses a past action that has a present result. The action is usually in the recent past, example: I’ve lost my wallet (I haven’t got it now). We often announce “news” in the Present Perfect, because the speaker is emphasizing the event as a present fact, example: Have you heard? ~ The Prime Minister has resigned. Note the adverbs that are common with this use, example: I haven’t done my homework yet (negative). Has the postman been yet? (question). I’ve already done my homework. I’ve just seen some scissors.

 

Present Perfect and Past Simple:

1). the Present Perfect always connects the past and the present; the Past Simple tells us only about the past. We use the Present Perfect to talk about something which started in the past and continues up to the present and Past Simple to talk about something which started and finished in the past. Examples: I’ve lived in London for ten years (= I still live in London now). ~ I lived in Manchester for ten years (= I do not live in Manchester now). He has worked in a shop for five years (= He still works in the shop now). ~ He worked in a factory for ten years (= He does not work in the factory now). How long have you been here? (= You are still here now). ~ How long were you there? (= You are not there now);

2). we also use the Present Perfect when the result of a past action is connected to the present and the Past Simple (PS) when the result of a past action is not connected to the present. Examples: I’ve lost my wallet (= I have not got the wallet now). ~ I lost my wallet, but I’ve got it back again now;

3). we often use the Present Perfect to announce ‘news’. We use the past to give details of the news. Examples: Someone has stolen my motorbike (PP). ~ I left the bike outside for a few minutes and when I came back, it wasn’t there (PS);

4). when we say a definite past time e.g. yesterday, last week, six weeks ago, we always use the Past Simple, never the Present Perfect. Example: I lost my wallet yesterday (NOT: I’ve lost …);

5). we use the Present Perfect to talk about an indefinite time up to the present e.g. ever, never, recently. Compare: I’ve never been to New York (PP). ~ I went to London last week (PS). I’ve started talking driving lessons recently (PP). ~ I started taking driving lessons six weeks ago (PS);

6). in conversations, we often begin indefinitely, with the Present Perfect, then we use the Past Simple when we think about the definite time that something happened. Examples: “Have you ever been to the United States?” ~ “Yes, I went there in 1985. I’ve seen that film, I enjoyed it very much;

7). we can use today, this morning, this afternoon etc: a). with the Present Perfect when these periods of time are not finished, example: I’ve spoken to Peter this morning (it is still morning); b). with the past when these periods of time are finished, example: I spoke to Peter this morning (it is now afternoon, evening, or night time);

8). we normally use a past tense, not the Present Perfect, to ask when something happened, example; When did you arrive home last night?

9). to say how long something has continued, we can use the Present Perfect, examples: She has been waiting for an hour. I’ve lived here since last year.

 

When and if sentences (When I do … / If I do … etc):

1). use the Present Perfect (I have done) after when, after, until etc to show that the first action will be finished before the second, examples: When I’ve read this book, you can have it. Wait here until he has gone;

2). it is often possible to use the Simple Present or Present Perfect, examples: I’ll come as soon as I finish. ~ I’ll come as soon as I’ve finished. You’ll feel better after you have something to eat. ~ You’ll feel better after you’ve had something to eat.

 

 

CHECK WORK

 

 

Task 1. Choose the correct tenses.

1). I’m sorry for her, she (have) bad luck all her life. 2). I (want) to be a doctor until I was fifteen. 3). He (be) unemployed ever since he left school. 4). How long (you live) in this town? 5). I (not work) very hard when I was at university. 6). He was ill before Christmas, but he (be) fine since then.7). I (have) trouble sleeping all this week. 8). I (learn) a lot in this job. 9). I (have) trouble sleeping all last week. 10). I (not learn) much in that job. 11). My boyfriend and I (know) each other for ages. 12). He (live) in Durban for a year before he got married.

 

Task 2. Complete the sentences with Present Perfect or Past Simple.

1). I (play) a lot of tennis this year. 2). She (have) six different jobs since she left school. 3). He (run) away from school three times when he was fourteen. 4). How many cups of coffee (you drink) today? 5). In those days, Andrew (come) to stay with us most weekends. 6). Shakespeare (write) poems as well as plays. 7). Since my brother lost his job, he (write) two books. 8). Would you believe I (make) twenty-three phone calls today? 9). Our team (just lose) eight games one after the other.

 

Task 3. Write the verbs in Present Perfect.

1). I’m afraid I (forget) my book at home. 2). … the secretary (yet come)? 3). I (learn) the rhyme. Could you listen to me? 4). They (already inform) me about the accident. 5). He is the most handsome man I (ever know). 6). Galina (already leave for) Manchester. 7). He (not receive) any letters from her this week. 8). I (not hear) from him since he left Paris. 9). I (not see) Golitsyn for ages. 10). … you (have) a holiday this year? 11). We (see) some good films recently. 12). They (wait) for you for half an hour. 13). Ludmila (have) a headache since she came from the theatre. 14). Ilya (work) in the bank for a year. 15). Yelena (be) ill for a fortnight. 16). … you (ever ride) a horse? 17). … you (ever be) to Italy?

 

Task 4. Present Perfect or Past Simple?

1). We (not have) a holiday last year (A. didn’t have. B. haven’t had. C. hadn’t have). 2). The Tretyakovs (be) to the USA many times (A. have been. B. were. C. have being). 3). I (buy) a new dress last week, but I (not wear) it yet (A. have bought. B. bought. C. had bought. D. haven’t worn. E. wore. F. didn’t wear). 4). … it (stop) raining yet? (A. Did it stop. B. Is it stopped. C. Has it stopped). 5). Don’t worry about your letter. I (sent) it the day before yesterday (A. sented. B. have sent. C. sent). 6). I (lose) my glasses. I (have) them when I came to the college this morning (A. losed. B. have lost. C. lost. D. have had. E. had. F. have). 7). When Mikhail (finish) school? (A. When had Mikhail finished school? B. When has Mikhail finished school? C. When did Mikhail finish school?). 8). When I was a child, I (always be) late for school (A. have always been. B. was always late. C. had always been). 9). I can’t find my umbrella. I think somebody (take) by mistake (A. took. B. taken. C. has taken). 10). “Are you tired?” “Yes, a little. I (paint) the ceiling today (A. have painted. B. painted. C. paint). 11). We (not see) Victor this week, but we (see) him a couple of weeks ago (A. didn’t see. B. haven’t saw. C. haven’t seen. D. saw. E. have saw. F. have seen). 12). “Have you got any money?” “Yes, I (borrow) it from my brother (A. borrowed. B. have borrowed. C. did borrow). 13). “Where is Tatyana?” “She (go) the shops. She’ll be back soon (A. went. B. has gone to. C. has been to). 14). Vasilyev (work) in the bank for three years since 1990 to 1993 (A. has worked. B. had worked. C. worked). 15). Viktor (lose) his car keys, so we have to open the door by force (A. has lost. B. lost. C. losed). 16). One of the passengers (die) in that accident (A. has died. B. died). 17). Vladimir and Maria (be married) since last Christmas (A. were married. B. have married. C. have been married). 18). … the post (come) today? (A. Did the post come today? B. Has the post come today? C. Has the post came today?).

 

LESSON SIX

 

GRAMMAR: Past Indefinite and Past Continuous.

 

Past Indefinite (Past Simple) is used to:

1). talk about a past event which took place at a definite point in time, examples: We went to the theatre last night. Shakespeare died in 1616. Did you have a good time on holiday? When did she come? Who saw Peter yesterday? What did you do at the weekend? Why didn’t you phone me on Tuesday? Why were you so angry? Was Tom at work on Friday?

2). describe past states and habits, examples: I smoked forty cigarettes a day till I gave up. He lived in Rome for ten years (but not now);

3). narrate events in sequence, examples: we got home, opened the door and found the house empty. He left the hotel, took a taxi and drove to the theatre. The manager entered the office, sat down at the desk and began to look through the morning mail. When I arrived at the railway station I went to the booking office and bought a ticket;

4). report statements and questions, examples: He said that he was a stranger. She asked if I knew her brother;

5). tell a story, examples: There was once a man who lived in a small house in the country. One day he left his house and went into town.

Past Continuous is used to:

1). talk about something which was in progress at a past time. The action had started but it had not finished at that time, examples: “What were you doing at 6 o’clock last night?” “I was watching the news on television.” Between 10 and 11 this morning I was reading. I saw you yesterday evening. You were waiting for a bus. Was Sue working at ten o’clock yesterday morning?

2). talk about temporary actions in progress in the past, examples: I was living abroad in 1987. It was raining all night;

3). talk about actions which were in progress when something else happened, examples: When I was leaving, the phone rang. There are often introduced by conjunctions like when, as, just as, while, but the shorter action can be introduced by when. Example: We were having supper when the phone rang;

4). talk about actions in progress at the same time, example: While I was reading, Joan was playing the piano;

5). give background to an event, examples: I looked out of the window, it was raining. It was a warm summer day, the sun was shining and the birds were singing;

6). talk about arrangements in the past, examples: Everybody was excited because they were leaving for Paris the next day;

7). talk about repeated actions that happened too often, examples: When I worked here I was always making mistakes. She was constantly breaking the dishes.

Past Continuous is also used in polite inquiries, example: I was wondering if you could give me a lift.

Was (were) going to is used to say what someone intended to do in the past, but didn’t do, example: We were going to travel by train but then we decided to go by car.

 

CHECK WORK

 

Task 1. Write the verbs in the Past Indefinite.

1). There isn’t a cloud in the sky, but it (be) cloudy in the morning. 2). Mrs. Clay usually finishes her work at half past three, but she (finish) it later yesterday afternoon. 3). Every day I help Mom about the house, but last week I was very busy with my exam. So I (not help) her much. 4). Ted isn’t playing tennis tomorrow afternoon, he (not play) tennis yesterday. 5). We generally have lunch at 12.30, but yesterday we (have lunch) later. 6). Oleg (to write) an interesting article last month. 7). The Ivanovs live in a four-room apartment, but last year they (live) in a small house in the country. 8). I don’t eat meat at all, but the other day I visited my friends and (eat) pork there. 9). Anatoly always goes to work by car, but last week he (go) to work on foot. 10). The weather is nice today, but it (be) bad yesterday. 11). We rarely watch television, but last week we (watch) a lot of interesting programmes. 12). “Do you often see Andrei?” “Not often, but I (see) him at the party the other day”. 13). I (get) to the market myself last time, but now I don’t remember how to get there. 14). I sleep well, but last night I (not sleep) at all. 15). I usually come home from school at 2.00 p.m., but last week I was on duty and (come) home a little later. 16). It seemed impossible for him to win, but he (win). 17). I walked quickly because I (feel) cold. 18). It ( take) him two hours to get to London. 19). Irina (prefer) tea to coffee. 20). My husband (speak) to his boss last week. 21). Five years ago Valuev (sell) his farm and (buy) a business in a small town. 22). He (meet) Nataliya and (fall) in love with her at first sight. 23). As soon as the bus (stop), Sergei (get off). 24). Three weeks later I (leave) for Moscow. 25). Dmitri (try) to remember what he had done last April. 26). How you (cut) your finger? 27). Ten minutes ago I (hear) a strange noise. 28). Looking through the paper, the teacher (find) several mistakes. 29). Julius Caesar (found) the Tower of London.

Task 2. Write the verbs in the correct form.

1). Sir Walter was a proud knight, and … to think that he had to submit to the commands of a tyrant lord (A. had hated. B. was hating. C. hated). 2). Dinosaurs … millions of years ago (A. died out. B. had died out. C. were died out). 3). In the year 1620, a ship named the “Mayflower” … 120 Englishmen to the rocky coast of America (A. has brought. B. brought. C. had brought). 4). It was late in the year when the Pilgrims … and founded a colony (A. were landing. B. had landed. C. landed). 5). Her face … familiar to me (A. seemed. B. seem. C. was seeming)

Task 3. Write the verbs in the correct form.

1). “How well Fyodor (to speak) English?” “ He (to speak) it badly.” 2). “What language you (to learn) five years ago?” “I ( to learn) French”. 3). I (to live) near my office last year. I always ( to walk) there. 4). I (not to work) at this office three years ago. 5). “What language he (to learn) now?” “He (to learn) German. 6). “How long your class usually ( to last)?” “It usually (to last) two hours”. 7). “How long your class (to last) on Wednesday morning?” “It only (to last) an hour”. 8). “Who you (to discuss) this question with last night?” “I (to discuss) it with my friends”. 9). “Who you usually (to go) home with?” “I (to go) home with my friends”. 10). How well he usually (to know) his lessons? 11). You (to work) there now? 12). “How long you (to stay) in Kiev last year?” “I (to stay) there a month”.

Task 4. Put in the correct tenses.

1). At six o’clock this morning I (have) a wonderful dream, but then the alarm (go) off. 2). He (break) his leg while he (play) football. 3). When I walked in they (all talk) about babies. 4). I saw Sid when I (come) to work this morning. He (shop). 5). She (meet) her husband while she (travel) in Egypt. 6). I (go) to see how she (be) and found she (cry). 7). When Jake (come) in everybody (stop) talking. 8). I (look) out of the window and (see) that we (fly) over the mountains. 9). This time yesterday I (lie) on the beach.

 


Date: 2014-12-28; view: 1238


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