Student: But I don’t think I deserve an absolute zero.
Professor: Neither do I, but it is the lowest mark that I’m allowed to give.
* * * *
Voice on the phone: John Smith is sick and can’t attend classes today. He requested me to notify (óâåäîìëÿòü) you.
Professor: All right. Who is this speaking?
Voice: This is my room-mate.
* * * *
Professor: What do you know about the great philosophers of the eighteenth century?
Student: They are all dead, sir
* * * *
Cliff’s marks were poor. Father said, “I’ll give you my car if you do better.”
“All right,” Cliff said, “I’ll learn better.”
A month later his father said, “Again no progress? What did you do all this time?”
“I was learning to drive a car,” was the answer.
* * * *
No Use Trying
Uncle James: Well, Bobby, have you gained any prizes at school?
Bobby: No, sir, the other boys have got them all.
Uncle James: But you’ll keep on trying, my boy, won’t you?
Bobby: What’s the use of trying when the other boys keep on doing the same!
* * * *
At the end of his university studies when he was leaving for his first job at a boys’ school, John went to say good-bye to his favourite teacher and to ask for his advice.
“I can give you no theoretical advice,” the old man said, “but I’ll tell you one thing from experience. It will often happen when you are teaching, that some boy will disagree with you. He will probably shake his head to show it, and you will probably want to make him stop shaking his head because you will be angry that a pupil disagrees with his teacher. Well, don’t be angry with him because he’s the only one in the class who is listening to you.”
Exercise 1. Read the words, then match the suffixes and prefixes with their meanings from the list below:
a) native of -an, having the nature of -al;
b) later than or after something -post; before someone or something -pre.
Exercise 2. Learn the following words and expressions:
conduct v. (classes,
fail (at) v.
~ in maths
Exercise 3. Guess the meaning of the following words.
Institution [,ɪnstɪ'tju:ʃən], academy [ә′kædәmı], examination [ıg,zæmı′neıʃən], subject [′sʌbdʒıkt], physiology [,fızı′ɔlәdʒı], chemistry [′kemıstrı], physic [′fızık], laboratory [lә′bɔrәtәrı], qualified [′kwɔlıfaıd], specialize [′speʃәlaız], perfumery [pә′fju:mәrı], cosmetic [kɔz′metık], assistant [ә′sıstәnt], faculty [′fækәltı], specialist [′speʃәlıst], problem [′prɔblәm], train [treın], professional [prә′feʃәnl], pharmacognosy [,fɑ:mə′kɔgnəsɪ], pharmacokinetics [,fɑ:mə′kɔkaı´netıks], organize [ɔ:gәnaız], doctor [′dɔktә], professor [prә′fesә], qualified [′kwɔlıfaıd], biology [baı:ɔlәdʒı], botany [′bɔtәnı], pharmacology [,fɑ:mə′kɔləʤɪ], organic [ɔ:′gænɪk], toxicological [,tɔksı′kɔlәdʒıkl], analytical [,ænə′lɪtɪk(əl)], special ['speʃəl], technology [tekı′nɔlәdʒı], pharmacy [ı′fα:məsı], management [´mænıdʒmənt], marketing [ı′mα:kıtıŋ], department [dı′pα:tmənt], period [′pıərıəd], pathology [pəı′θɔlәdʒı], mechanism [ı′mekənızm], molecular [məuı′lekjulə], radiation [,reıdı´eıʃәn], clinic [´klınık].
Exercise 4. Match the words with the definitions.
a) to continue for a particular length of time;
b) to start working in a particular field or organization or to start studying at a school or university;
c) the level that is considered acceptable, or the level that someone or something has achieved;
d) an organization or institution, especially a business, shop, etc.
e) someone who is studying at a university to get a Master’s Degree or a PhD (Doctor of Philosophy) Degree;
f) someone who has formally asked, usually in writing, for a job, university place, etc.
g) a job that someone, who has almost finished training as a doctor, does in a hospital;
h) a period of study in a particular subject, especially at university;
i) in or to a foreign country.
Exercise 5. Find the synonyms.
1. to acquire
2. to complete
b) to edit
4. to master
d) a drugstore
5. to do
e) to obtain a degree
6. to enter
7. to found
g) to major
h) to make
9. to work as
10. to be engaged in
11. every year
k) to finish (graduate from)
12. to publish
l) to act as
13. to specialize
m) to establish
14. to get a degree
n) to get
o) to take part in
p) to be involved in
17. a chemist’s shop
q) to be admitted to
r) to learn
Exercise 6. Translate the following word combinations.
to acquire practical skills, to do research, to take exams, to pass credit-tests, to have practical classes, to defend a graduation thesis, to be engaged in social activities, scientific research work, after graduation, extra-mural department, to attend lectures (classes) to participate in seminars, to fail at exam(s), to fail in Chemistry (Biology), to conduct exams, to give advice, to master English.
Exercise 7. Translate the following sentences into Russian.
1. The committee is assessing the standard of care in local hospitals.
2. She often goes abroad on business.
3. People know many herbs with healing properties.
4. Each lesson lasts for 45 minutes.
5. To enter a university applicants take entrance tests.
6. He was one of 30 applicants for the manager’s job.
7. The course of study at the pharmaceutical faculty lasts for 5 years.
8. The course of compulsory education in Belarus makes 9 years.
9. People keep medicines out of the reach of children.
10. He takes this medicine twice a day.
11. Postgraduate students do research for their theses.
12. Teachers help students in their research.
13. There is an extramural department at our university.
14. Languages are an essential part of a school curriculum.
Using “shall” to ask someone’s opinion, to make an offer or a suggestion:
Shall I take a message?
Shall I open the window?
Shall we consult a dictionary?
If we accept, we respond saying:
Yes, please. Do please/Please do.
I think so./Why not?
It we do not accept, we respond saying:
No, you needn’t. Please, don’t.
Exercise 1. Make up short dialogues combining the following utterances or using your own ones:
- Shall I speak English?
- As you like.
- Shall I answer the phone?
- Yes, please.
- Shall we discuss the plan?
- No, you needn’t right now?
- Shall we cancel the meeting this afternoon?
- Shall I use my own car?
- Shall I hand in my paper in a month?
- Shall I fulfill my project by the end of the month?
- Shall we plan our campaign now?
- Shall I do it by myself?
- Shall I make a report?
Exercise 2. Translate from Russian into English.
- Ïðèíåñòè êíèãè? – Íåçà÷åì.
- Ïîñëàòü ïèñüìî? – Ïîæàëóéñòà, ïîøëèòå.
- Îòêðûòü îêíî? – Íå îòêðûâàéòå, ïîæàëóéñòà.
- Çàêðûòü äâåðü? – Ïîæàëóéñòà.
- Ìíå ãîâîðèòü ïî-àíãëèéñêè? – Êàê õîòèòå.
- Ãîòîâèòü ýòî çàäàíèå ïèñüìåííî? – Íåò, íå íàäî.
Study the following responses.
You have been most helpful.
You have been most polite.
You have been most kind.
You have been most curious.
You have been most careless.
Pharmaceutical Education in Belarus
In our country there are two institutions of higher medical education, which train pharmacists: Vitebsk Medical University and, since 2011, Minsk Medical University. The pharmaceutical faculty of the VSMU was founded in 1959, and now it is the basis of Belarusian pharmaceutical education. Every year, more than 300 applicants enter both day-time and correspondence (extra-mural) department of the faculty.
To enter a pharmaceutical faculty applicants take written entrance tests in chemistry, biology, and Russian or Belarusian languages. The course of study lasts for five years. During the first two years pharmacy students study general subjects, such as botany, physiology, general chemistry, physics, etc. During the third, fourth, and fifth years they have classes in special sciences, like pharmacology, pharmacognosy, pharmaceutical chemistry, etc. Six special chairs function at the faculty: pharmacognosy and botany chair, practical pharmacy chair, organization and economy of pharmacy chair, pharmaceutical technology chair, toxicological and analytical chemistry chair and pharmaceutical chemistry chair.
Since 1999 12 optional courses have been introduced in the curriculum which contains all the basic and practical subjects necessary for the training of highly skilled pharmacists.
The students also have practical classes in laboratories, where they study physical and chemical properties of medicines. They acquire practical skills in botany and pharmacognosy at a large Botanical Station. Pharmaceutical students have practical training at chemist’s shops, where they learn to work as pharmacists. In the 5-th year the students defend a graduation thesis and take final state examinations consisting of a) test control, b) practical skills control, c) personal interview on theoretical problems.
80% of students are engaged in social activities and scientific research work. The students’ scientific societies play an important role in the training of young specialists. Every year joint conferences of young scientists and members of students’ scientific societies take place, collections of papers being published.
After graduation all pharmaceutical students have a period of internship, which lasts for one year. Here they specialize in the following pharmaceutical specialties: “pharmacy”, “clinical pharmacy”, “technology of pharmaceutical preparations”, and “organization and economy of pharmacy”.
At higher medical institutions of Belarus there is also postgraduate study as a form of training scientific and teaching specialists. Postgraduate education is not compulsory. The students study and write a thesis to get the Master’s Degree or the Candidate of Science Degree.
After completing the course of study at the pharmaceutical faculty graduates can work as managers, assistants, dispensing pharmacists or chemists-analysts at chemist’s shops, pharmaceutical plants or chemical laboratories.
Exercise 1. Fill in the gaps with the words and word combinations from the list.
the degree, take, specialize, higher medical institutions, completing, practical training, pharmaceutical plants, outlook, need, management, period of time, curriculum, influence
1. In our country there are … , which train pharmacists.
2. Pharmaceutical students have … at chemist’s shops.
3. Students … in four pharmaceutical specialties.
4. Applicants … written entrance tests in chemistry, biology and Russian or Belarusian.
5. Postgraduate students get the … of Candidate of Science.
6. After … the course of study graduates can work as managers, assistants or dispensing pharmacists.
7. The urgent … for pharmaceutical specialists led to the organization of the faculty.
8. The faculty trains professionals for chemist’s shops and ….
9. The … at the faculty consists of general and special subjects.
10. For a relatively short … all the necessary scientific and research facilities were created at the faculty.
11. The VSMU trains a new generation of pharmacists, with wide university … and knowledge of clinical presentation and pathology of the human body.
12. They master the mechanisms of drug … on the body.
13. Senior students study … and marketing of pharmacy.
Exercise 2. Fill in prepositions where necessary.
1. Organization and economy ... pharmacy is one of the subjects in the curriculum.
2. ... present there are six special chairs at the pharmaceutical faculty.
3. The course of study lasts ... five years.
4. The curriculum at the faculty consists ... many subjects.
5. The faculty trains students ... different countries of the world.
6. The students master the mechanisms of drug influence ... the body.
7. Radiation pharmacology is of primary significance ... our country today.
8. During the third, fourth, and fifth years students have classes ... special sciences.
9. ... graduation all pharmaceutical students have a period of internship, which lasts for one year.
10. Here students specialize ... several pharmaceutical specialties.
11. Half ... all the foreign students getting education in our country study medicine.
12. Nearly 300 applicants enter both day-time and correspondence department … the faculty each year.
13. ... higher medical institutions of Belarus there is also postgraduate study as a form of training scientific and teaching specialists.
Exercise 3. Replace the underlined words with their synonyms:
1. The urgent need for specialists, who can solve the most important social problems of providing the people of Belarus with medicines, led to the organization of the pharmaceutical faculty at our university.
2. The faculty trains professionals for chemist’s shops and pharmaceutical plants as well as scientists of different branches.
3. The curriculum at the faculty consists of many subjects.
4. For a relatively short period of time all the necessary scientific and research facilities were created at the faculty.
5. The course of study lasts for five years.
6. The VSMU trains a new generation of pharmacists, with wide university outlook and knowledge of clinical presentation (äåìîíñòðàöèÿ ñëó÷àÿ) and pathologies of the human body.
7. The students master the mechanisms of drug influence on the body.
8. There is a wide network of medical institutions, which train pharmacists.
9. During the first two years students study general subjects.
10. Students study physical and medical properties of medicines.
11. After completing the course of study graduates work as managers, assistants, dispensing pharmacists.
12. Pharmaceutical students have practical training at chemist’sshops.
13. Postgraduate study is not compulsory.
Exercise 4. Match each word from column A with its opposite from column B.
1. to create;
2. to organize;
4. to last;
d) to destroy;
f) to stop;
g) to disorganize;
9. to complete;
i) to begin;
10. to enter;
11. to last;
l) in our country;
m) to leave;
o) to relax;
16. to work.
p) to cease.
Exercise 6. Answer the following questions.
1. What higher medical institutions of our country train pharmacists?
2. What entrance tests do the applicants take?
3. Where do the students have practical training?
4. Where do the students have practical classes?
5. What is internship?
6. What pharmaceutical specialties do you know?
7. What does the final state examination consist of?
8. What is postgraduate study?
9. Where can graduates work after completing their study?
Exercise 7. Correct the statements below.
1. Applicants take oral exams to enter pharmaceutical faculties.
2. Students have practical classes at chemist’s shops.
3. Students study pharmacology and pharmacognosy during the second year of study.
4. Students specialize in pharmaceutical specialties during the last year of study.
5. In laboratories students study pharmacy, clinical pharmacy, and technology of pharmaceutical preparations.
6. Every student of pharmacy takes a postgraduate course.
Exercise 8. Read the text and say about: a) the semester system; b) the examination period; c) the subjects studied in the first and second years; d) practical training. Retell this text.
The University training course for full-time students lasts for 5 years. The semester system divides the academic year into two almost equal terms of approximately 18 weeks each. During a semester students must attend lectures and practical classes and prepare for them regularly, participate actively in seminars, fulfill written assignments, do laboratory works. At the end of each semester students take examinations. The examinations period lasts approximately for 3 weeks.
The first two years of University studies are to give students a sound background for obtaining their professional knowledge. So, first- and second-year students take classes in a number of general and basic subjects. They also study social sciences and foreign languages. Later, usually beginning with the third year, students take classes in their special subjects and are engaged in practical training in the field of their specialization. Professional skills are acquired at the laboratories and the practical work at the chemists’ of Vitebsk and other towns.
Pharmaceutical Education in Great Britain
The history of pharmaceutical education has closely followed that of medical education. As the training of the physician underwent changes from the apprenticeship system to formal educational courses, so did the training of the pharmacist. The first pharmaceutical colleges in Great Britain were founded at the beginning of the nineteenth century.
The course of instruction leading to a degree in pharmacy was extended from four to five years in 1960. The first and frequently the second year of training, embracing general education subjects, are often provided by a school of arts and sciences. Many institutions, in addition, offer graduate courses in pharmacy and cognate sciences* leading to the degrees of Master of Science* and Doctor of Philosophy in pharmacy, pharmacology, or related disciplines. These advanced courses are intended especially for those, who are preparing for careers in research, manufacturing, or teaching in the field of pharmacy.
Several schools of pharmacy have now adopted a six-year professional course leading to the degree of Doctor of Pharmacy. This professional training includes many subjects common to the medical curriculum and involves training in hospital wards. In this service a professionally trained pharmacist is expected to give advice to the physician in the techniques of administering medication and possible interaction of drugs in the patient, along with expected side effects.
Since the treatment of the sick with drugs encompasses a wide field of knowledge in the biological and physical sciences, it is obvious that understanding of these sciences is necessary for adequate pharmaceutical training. The basic five-year curriculum in British colleges of pharmacy embraces physics, chemistry, biology, bacteriology, physiology, pharmacology, and many other specialized courses such as dispensing pharmacy. As the pharmacist is engaged in business as well, special training is provided in merchandising, accounting, computer techniques, and pharmaceutical jurisprudence. All other countries requiring licenses to practice offer the same basic curriculum with minor variations.
Before one is permitted to practice pharmacy in Great Britain as well as in other countries, in which a license is required, an applicant must be qualified by graduation from a recognized college of pharmacy, meet specific requirements for experience, and pass an examination conducted by a board of pharmacy appointed by the government. The passing of this board examination carries with it the legal right to practice pharmacy. The holder is then designated a registered or licensed pharmacist.
* cognate sciences − ñõîäíûå íàóêè;
* Master of Science − Ìàãèñòð íàóê.
Exercise 3. Match each word from column A with its opposite from column B.
b) to deprive;
c) to reduce;
4. to permit;
5. to provide;
6. to extend;
7. to qualify;
h) to forbid;
i) to disqualify.
Exercise 4. Fill in the words from the list, then make sentences using the completed phrases.
1. The course of instruction leading to a degree in pharmacy was extended from four to five years in 1960.
2. The first and frequently the second year of training, embracing general education subjects, are often provided by a school of arts and sciences.
3. Many institutions, in addition, offer graduate courses in pharmacy and cognate sciences leading to the degrees of Master of Science and Doctor of Philosophy in pharmacy, pharmacology, or related disciplines.
4. Several schools of pharmacy have now adopted a six-year professional course leading to the degree of Doctor of Pharmacy.
5. In this service the professionally trained pharmacist is expected to give advice to the physician in the techniques of administering medication and possible interaction of drugs in the patient, along with expected side effects.
6. Since the treatment of the sick with drugs encompasses a wide field of knowledge in the biological and physical sciences, it is obvious that understanding of these sciences is necessary for adequate pharmaceutical training.
Exercise 8. Answer the following questions.
1. What changes did the training of the pharmacist undergo?
2. When were the first pharmaceutical colleges founded in Great Britain?
3. When was the course of instruction extended?
4. Which years of training are provided by a school of arts and sciences?
5. What additional graduate courses do many institutions offer?
6. What professional training includes medical subjects and training in hospital wards?
7. What is the professionally trained pharmacist expected to do?
8. What sciences does the basic five-year curriculum embrace?
9. What curriculum do other countries offer?
10. What is required to be permitted to practice pharmacy in Great Britain?
Exercise 9. Correct the statements below.
1. The history of pharmaceutical education is not connected with the history of medical education.
2. A four-year instruction course was adopted in 1960.
3. All pharmaceutical institutions offer courses leading to the degrees of Master of Science and Doctor of Philosophy.
4. The compulsory professional course in pharmacy is 6 years.
5. Different countries offer different curricula in pharmaceutical education.
6. Before one is permitted to practice pharmacy in Great Britain he must pass an examination conducted by a board of pharmacy appointed by his college.
Read the text and be ready for a comprehension check-up.
THE DEVELOPMENT OF PHARMACY
Pharmacy is defined as the art and science of recognizing, identifying, collecting, selecting, preparing, storing, testing, compounding and dispensing all substances used in preventive or in curative medicine for treating people. The word “pharmacy” comes from the Greek word pharmakon, which in the modern language means “a drug”. To the Greeks it was associated with a god or higher being who had the power of affecting people with herbs, infusions, etc.
Pharmacy was born in old time when human being started to search for remedies for treatment of the ailments. First pharmacies in Europe appeared in 1100 in monasteries. Monks* prepared remedies and supplied them to all needy free of charge. At the same time first prescriptions* were created and they were started with the words “Good luck”. 100 years later first city pharmacies were opened in Venice. Specialists for those pharmacies were prepared in accordance to widely acceptable methods of those times: pupil – apprentice* – master. This preparation chain took 10-15 years (depending on the abilities of each person). The monks created schools and laboratories in monasteries. The earliest ever found Pharmacopoeia Articles* for different medicines were created by monasteries scientists. So, European pharmaceutical School’s roots go to the pharmacists in monk’s cassocks*. But Monk’s schools were unable to reach scientific opportunities proposed by popular universities in Oxford, Salamanca, Prague and other European cities. So, peak of prime of those universities fell on the 13-th century.
Pharmacy, as an independent branch of medicine was appeared in Europe in 1240 when the Emperor of Holy Rome* separated pharmacy from medicine. However, there was no special pharmaceutical training at that time. The duty of a pharmacist was to prepare and sell medicines and to help the doctor. In Great Britain assistants to the physicians were called apothecaries.
In the 15-th century first appeared the term “provisor” (from Latin foreseeing, predicting), that explains the importance of the role of the pharmacists in treatment process. The doctor establishes diagnosis and the pharmacist foresees the tendency of the disease and with the aid of proper medicines corrects and predetermines its course and further development. First proper Pharmacopoeia was launched in 1581 in Spain.
Much time went till pharmacy became a profession and creation of special medical establishments were found necessary. Hundreds of private schools were opened throughout Europe that often were headed or owned by the pharmacists. First educational establishments with proper course for pharmacists were opened in Montpelier (France), Padua, Barcelona in the middle of the 16-th century.
In 1623 the apothecaries opened a manufacturing laboratory which produced galenical preparations. This was necessary, in their opinion, because the drugs sold were often adulterated. The laboratory was a great success, and, by 1671, it developed into a real chemical plant. The apothecaries had the right to dispense medicines.
Practices of giving education to the pharmacists within Universities were first introduced in France and England at the beginning of the 19-th century. The education was oriented on gaining knowledge and practical skills in manufacture and use of the medicines. But later educational courses started to include more theoretical subjects. It was connected to the fact that during following decades pharmacies gradually lost manufacturing functions and were more concentrated on sales of the medicines and advises to the patients.
In Russia, pharmacy as a branch of science started its development since the decree of Peter I* in the 18-th century. According to the decree pharmacists got special training at the hospital chemists’* and private chemists’. Some of them had practice at the chemists’ orchards (gardens). The pupils studied botany and had practice of pharmacy at the hospital chemists’. At the end of their study they had an examination for the title of a pharmacist and chemist assistant.
Pharmacy is now made possible by organized pharmaceutical education, pharmaceutical research and pharmaceutical industry.
Exercise 1. Discuss the text, answering the questions.
1. What new facts have you found out about your future speciality? 2. When pharmacy was born? 3. How can you define “pharmacy” now? 4. Is pharmacy an ancient science? Prove it. 5. Who were the first “pharmacists”? 6. How were the pharmacists prepared at that time? 7. What did you learn about the word “provisor”? 8. When were the first educational establishments for pharmacists opened? 9. What was the education of pharmacist oriented on? 10. Why was it necessary to open a manufacturing laboratory? 11. What can you say about the development of pharmacy in Russia?
Exercise 2. Look through the text and find the degrees of comparison of adjectives.
Exercise 3. Finish the sentences according to the text:
1. First pharmacies in Europe… 2. First prescriptions were created and… 3. Monks prepared remedies and … 4. European pharmaceutical School’s roots … . 5. The duty of a pharmacist was … 6. The doctor establishes diagnosis and the pharmacist … . 7. First proper Pharmacopoeia … . 8. In 1623 the apothecaries opened … . 9. Practices of giving education to the pharmacists within Universities … 10. According to the decree pharmacists got special training … .
Exercise 4. Read and say what statement corresponds to the main idea of the text.
1. Pharmacy has developed independently of medicine since early time. 2. Pharmacy has developed independently since the act of the Emperor of Rome. 3. Pharmacy had developed independently of medicine till late seventeenth century. 4. Pharmacy developed independently of medicine because the Medical Act of 1540 permitted practice of medicine to apothecaries.
Exercise 5. Look through the text again and note the differences of pharmacy development in Europe and Russia.
Exercise 1. Read and reproduce the following situational dialogues.
־ We’ve got a new philosophy lecturer this term.
־ How do you like him?
־ He makes an impression of a highly qualified teacher. Besides, he is very strict. And I think it’s good.
־ As for me, I prefer not very strict teachers.
־ Excuse me, are you from the Pharmaceutical faculty?
־ Yes, I am.
־ And from what group?
־ Fine. I am to speak to your monitor*. Is he here?
־ Yes, there he is standing. Let’s come up to him.
* monitor – ñòàðîñòà.
What foreign language do you study?
־ English. And I like it very much.
־ Do you? Then you must be good at languages*. As for me, I have a lot of trouble with it. I’m afraid I have no abilities for languages* …
־ Sorry, but do you work at your English regularly?
־ To tell the truth, I don’t. Perhaps, I got a little too interested in sports.
־ I see. It’s not easy for you to keep up* both sports and studies. And what are you going to do about it?
־ I really don’t know. Maybe, I have to change something in my daily routine.
* to be
־ You wouldn’t like to fail* in your physics exam tomorrow, would you?
־ Of course, I wouldn’t. Who would?
־ But you haven’t been working at all these days. Perhaps, you think you are clever enough to pass the exam without any efforts…
־ No fear. I’m quite at home in physics*. I’ve been studying it properly during the term.
־ Can you help me with these formulas? I’m so poor at chemistry* now…
־ Are you? It’s hard to believe. You were at the top of the class at school, as far as I remember.
־ It was at school… And here I haven’t got a single good mark in chemistry yet. You see, I’ve missed rather many classes*. Though it isn’t my fault. I’ve been ill for nearly a month and now I can’t keep up with* the group.
־ I see. Certainly, I’ll help you. Come to me any time you like.
־ Thank you. See you tomorrow then, if you don’t mind.
־ Till tomorrow.
Have you written your term-paper?
־ Certainly. I already handed it in* to the teacher a couple of days ago. And what about you?
־ I only started it the day before yesterday. I didn’t think the work would be so difficult. And now I see I won’t manage it on time*.
־ Well, it’ll teach you a lesson*. You are in the habit of putting off* everything till the last moment.
־ Are you going back to the hostel? What’s happened? Classes are beginning in some 5 minutes. You may be late.
־ I hope I won’t. I’ve forgotten to take my notes and I’ll need them at the seminar. I’m going to give a talk.
־ Can’t you speak without any notes?
־ Oh, no. I don’t feel very sure of myself* yet…
־ Then hurry up. Good luck! Bye.
־ Bye. See you later.
* feel very sure of myself –
Exercise 1. Agree or disagree to the statements given below. Use the following expressions:
Yes, you are right; No, you are not right; Sorry, you are wrong; Yes, indeed; Quite so; I don’t agree with you.
1. To enter a pharmaceutical faculty applicants take oral examinations.
2. Pharmacy is a modern science.
3. Scientific research work helps the student to understand better some scientific problems.
4. Postgraduate education is compulsory.
5. It is necessary to write thesis to get the Master’s degree.
6. During the period of internship pharmaceutical graduates specialize in some pharmaceutical specialties.
7. Understanding of the biological and physical sciences is necessary for adequate pharmaceutical training.
Exercise 2. Discuss the following talking-points:
1. The conditions of taking entrance to your University.
2. The course of study.
3. Practical training.
4. Postgraduate study.
Exercise 3. Compare the British pharmaceutical education with that in our country.
Exercise 4. An acquaintance of yours is interested in your profession, he is going to make a career in the same field. He tries to find out some information about it. Answer his questions.
Exercise 5. Make a presentation of pharmaceutical education in Great Britain to your group mates.
Exercise 6. Get ready to speak on the topic “Pharmaceutical education in Belarus”. Use ex.2.
Read the following statements. Discuss them with your partners. Ask for opinions, express your own opinion or try to change someone else’s.
Education is what survives when what has been learnt has been forgotten.
If a man empties his purse into his head, no one can take it from him.
If you think education is expensive – try ignorance.
The Romans would never have had time to conquer the world if they had been obliged to learn Latin first of all.
The specialist is a man who fears the other subjects.
Martin H. Fisher.
Soon learnt, soon forgotten.
Whatever is good to know is difficult to learn.
As we acquire more knowledge, things do not become more comprehensive, but more mysterious.
I hear and I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I understand.
Research is to see what everybody has seen, and to think what nobody else has thought.
The first term
Part I. THE ACTIVE VOICE. Present Indefinite.
The two present tenses; Present Progressive for changes; present tense stories; non-progressive verbs; he’s always borrowing money etc.
Present Perfect; Present Perfect and Past Simple: news; Present Perfect and Past Simple: time words.
Present Perfect: situations ‘up to now’; Present Perfect and Past Simple; when and if sentences.
Test 1: “Present Perfect and Present Perfect Continuous.”
Past Indefinite and Past Continuous.
Tenses with since and for; Past Progressive.
Past Perfect. Past Perfect Continuous. Pastand progressive in requests etc, perfect tenses with this is the first etc.
Past Perfect Progressive. Used to. Supposed to.
Test 2: “Present and Past Tenses.”
Future: will and shall; going to. Present Progressive; comparison of structures; Present Simple; tenses after if and when.
Future Indefinite, going to, will and going to, when and if sentences, Future Continuous.
Future Continuous, Future Perfect.
Future Perfect Continuous, I am to, Future in the Past.”
Part II. THE PASSIVE VOICE.
Test 3: “Reasons for using passives, verbs with two objects, complex structures.”