Choose one suitable word underlined in each sentence.
- What is your point of view of environmental protection problem?
- Unfortunately, but today there is no clean place left.
- Yes, the more we build now factories, and try not to look after nature the more polluted places we have.
- I have no reason to oppose. Many trees are cut down now. Our towns are full of litter.
- And air leaves much to be desired.
- You must be on the safe side, when you swim in the river, or in the sea, because bottom and the water itself may be polluted.
- Environmental problem is of great importance for our health.
- Do you mean virus infection? They may be dangerous for all living livings.
- I dream that coast will be clear and we live in healthy environment.
- As far I am concerned our authorities don’t ignore this problem. They try to solve this problem.
- How is it done!
- First of all. New trees are grown, i.e. the forests are restored.
- And the factories put their wastes into environment less and.
- Glad to hear it.
- Perhaps you might consider me a bit of a fanatic about environment protection!
- I don’t think so. But you are the sort of ordinary person wants to help all of us.
- Today this problem must be in the first place. We are in search such measures which can really help to protect environment.
- I also don’t shift my ground in this question.
- The more people understand the necessity of environment protection the better results we can have.
- You quite right in your decision.
Choose one suitable word underlined in each sentence.
1. Kateryna’s Day (November 24) and Andriy’s Day (November 30) were largely feasts / sweethearts for young people.
2. Ritual feasts can be evolved / divided into two groups: family and calendar festivals.
3. Special wedding loafs (“Korovays”) were a peculiar feature of Ukrainian marriage / herding rites.
4. The New Year (Malanka) and the night and day / week of the New Year (Basil) were usually marked by lavish feasts which symbolized future harvest and the prosperity of the family.
5. The pysanka, the elaborate Ukrainian Easter egg, is one bridge between Ukraine’s Christian and pagan / national heritage.
6. The week before Easter is known in Ukraine as Sacred / Willow Sunday.
7. The Thursday before Easter is dedicated to clearness / cleanliness.
8. The Easter basket / bag includes pysanky, salt, paska (Easter bread), sausage and ham, and is held / covered with a linen cloth embroidered especially for this purpose.
9. Easter Sunday is a day of singing / crying and eating.
10. For New Year, people prepared twelve / ten Lenten dishes which included fish and mushrooms, borshch, porridge, varenyky.
Match the dishes with their descriptions.
1. kutia a) boiled stuffed dumplings
2. varenyky b) stuffed cabbage rolls
3. holubtsi c) beet-root soup
4. uzvar d) sweet drink from dried fruit
5. borshch e) boiled wheat with honey and nuts
1. Ukrainian customs and rites
wedding / birth / burial rites
omen / sign / augury / token / symbol
young / married couple / newlyweds
Lent / fasting / Lenten
to abstain(ed) from eating meat
to bless(ed) / blessed food / to bless oneself
linen / embroidered cloth
priest / rabbi / mullah
crucifixion / resurrection / purification
Easter bread / Easter egg / Easter basket / Palm (Willow) Sunday / Good Friday / Easter mass
Christianity (Orthodox, Catholic) / Muslim / Judaism / Buddhism
2. Ukrainian Religious Holidays
Christmas / X-mas / the Nativity
Purification of the Virgin Mary / Candlemas / Christ Presentation at the Temple
Passion Week (Holy Week)
Annunciation (Lady Day)
Ascension Day (40 days after Easter)
Trinity (50 days after Easter)
Shrovetide (Pancake Festival)
Holy Cross Day
to sing (sang; sung) X-mas carols
sleigh / sledge
4. Valentine’s Day
to express(ed) feelings
to exchange(d) gifts
figure of Cupid
to inspire(d) romantic love
to go (went; gone) out on date
carved pumpkin / jack-o’-lantern
ghost / ghoul / goblin / witch / warlock
to play tricks
‘trick or treat’
6. Chief Public holidays in the USA
Lincoln’s birthday / Washington birthday
Memorial Day / Veteran’s Day
7. British Holidays and Traditions
Trooping the Colour
the Opening of Parliament
1. Match the words and word combinations from the left column with the definitions from the right column.
trick or treat
a vehicle which travels on snow
a traditional Christmas drink made with milk, egg, vanilla and rum
a holiday celebrated on October 31 when people dress in scary costumes
an annual day of holiday celebrated in thanksgiving to God on the fourth Thursday of November in the United States
a traditional Christmas song
“give me candy or I will play a trick on you”
the period of forty weekdays lasting from before Holy Saturday, the time of penance and fasting commemorating Jesus' fasting in the wilderness
a plant which is often hung from the ceiling at Christmas (when two people walk under the plant, they are supposed to kiss)
a traditional symbol of Easter
cut out pumpkins with a candle inside
2. Choose the correct variant.
1. Easter is a Christian feast that ________ the resurrection of Jesus Christ.
a) commemorate b) commemorates c) will commemorate d) has to commemorate
2. It is one of __________ holy days in the calendar of Christian churches.
a) most b) the more c) more d) the most
3. Easter symbolizes God's promise that ___________ soul is immortal.
a) man b) men c) man’s d) mans’
4. Easter was _________ a pagan festival.
a) original b) originally c) origin d) originated
5. The symbol of the Easter rabbit __________ by the Germans to America.
a) was brought b) had brought c) was bought d) brought
6. At Easter, it’s a custom for children to hunt colored eggs and place ___ in an Easter basket.
a) their b) it c) them d) its
7. Rabbits are also associated _________ Easter.
a) to b) upon c) within d) with
8. The Easter Bunny is a symbol of ________ and new life.
a) fertilization b) fertility c) fertile d) fertilized
9. The egg is a symbol of _________ in many cultures, thus it’s associated with Easter.
a) rebirth b) birthday c) birthing d) born
3. Choose the correct response out of two. If both responses are acceptable, choose the one that sounds more natural.
1. New Year’s Day (January 1st) is the first day of the year in the Gregorian schedule / calendar.
2. New Year’s Eve (December 31) is a time for party / parties and celebrations. These celebrations culminate with the ringing / calling in of the New Year at midnight.
3. Many cities around the world have spectacular / spectacled fireworks displays at midnight on New Year’s Eve. Some of the best known are in Sydney, New York, and London.
4. In New York City, a lot of people gather / collect on Times Square to watch the traditional “ball-dropping” ceremony right / correct before midnight.
5. A New Year’s resolution / resolve is a decision one makes to change something in the New Year, for example – quitting smoking, losing weight, etc.
6. Many people don’t follow through / around on these resolutions / resolves.
7. It is quite common to test / toast the New Year with champagne.
8. New Year’s Day is an official holiday in many countries. People are most likely given the day off work to recover / review from the previous night's parties.
9. In the time before (and after) New Year’s Day, many radio and TV stations broadcast / publish various ‘best of the year’ lists. Numerous magazines and newspapers broadcast / publish the same types of lists.
4. Read the text. Use the word given in brackets changing its form as in the example.
April Fools’ Day is an unofficial (unofficially) holiday celebrated by many people around the world on April 1st. It’s a day where people revel in playing all kinds of tricks on friends or family. Another name for April Fools’ Day is All Fools’ Day.
No one really knows where or when the holiday began. It seems most _______ (like) that the holiday has _______ (slow) evolved into its present form over hundreds of years. Both the Romans and the Hindus had holidays around the vernal equinox (āåńķ˙ķå š³āķīäåķķ˙). In ages past, people often considered this as the New Year, because it marked a change in seasons.
________ (history) believe we have the French to thank for _______ (practice) jokes on April 1st. Although most of Europe already celebrated New Year’s in January, France was one of the first countries to ________ (official) declare January 1st as New Year’s Day. _______ (tradition) gifts, greetings, and visits to welcome the New Year also switched days. But quite a few people resisted the change, while others hadn’t heard of the ________ (declare). Both were ridiculed as fools, and people played pranks (ęąšņč) on them. The _______ (traditional) continued, and eventually spread to the rest of ________ (European), and then the world.
Have you ever heard of these April Fools’ Day classics?
In 1965, the BBC TV announced the _________ (create) of “smellovision.” Aromas from the TV studio would be broadcast to TV sets across the nation.
In 1980, the BBC said that Big Ben would go ______ (digit). People ________ (angry) complained about changing the world-renown English landmark. The BBC service in Japanese even announced that the hands would be sold to the first four people to call the station.
Again, the BBC announced that an ________ (astronomy) event would precisely align Pluto and Jupiter. The result would lesson the Earth’s gravity. If anyone jumped in the air at _______ (exact) 9:47 a.m. on April 1st, they would feel a strange, floating feeling. The BBC received hundreds of phone calls. One woman even said that she and her eleven friends had floated around the room!
And last, in 1998, Burger King in America advertised a “left handed Whopper” hamburger. It had been designed for left-handed customers, and all the ingredients were rotated 180 degrees. Thousands of people rushed to the restaurant to try the new sandwich, and many more ordered the _______ (originally) “right-handed” version.
1. Read the dialogues.
Jeremy: Janet, are the eggs boiled yet?
Janet: Yes, and the dyes are ready, too. Look at the beautiful colors I mixed. Let’s get busy!
Jeremy: Tell the kids it’s time. They’ve been waiting so long.
Janet: After the eggs are dyed then we can hide them in the grass for tomorrow.
Jeremy: We’d better count them so we don’t lose any.
Janet: Did you find the Easter basket from last year? Each child will need one.
Jeremy: They are all waiting for the Easter Bunny to fill them with candies and eggs.
Janet: Tomorrow the children will be dressed in their best clothes so I hope the weather is nice and they won’t get dirty before church.
Jeremy: Well, you can be sure they will be into the chocolate eggs before church. It’s all fun for them, so a little dirt can’t hurt.
Janet: I’m going to be busy preparing dinner for the relatives, so it will be up to you, Dad, to entertain the children.
Jeremy: We might even take care of our garden before the spring season. That would be a great place to hide some of the eggs.
Jerry: Look, Fei! I got a Christmas card from my sister.
Fei: It’s very beautiful. Why are the words “Happy Holidays” written on the card? Christmas is only one holiday. Shouldn’t it be “Happy Holiday”, without the “s”?
Jerry: We don’t just celebrate Christmas during this season. We also celebrate the coming of the New Year.
Fei: Oh, I never thought about that before. There’s more than one holiday at the end of the year.
Jerry: Now that I’m in China, I want to celebrate the holidays Chinese-style. What do you and your family do for Christmas?
Fei: Actually, we don’t do much at Christmas. It’s not really a big family holiday. Young people in China would rather spend Christmas Eve with their boyfriends or girlfriends.
Jerry: So is it something like a date night?
Fei: Yes, I guess you could say that. Christmas Eve is special, but we don’t usually have any special plans for Christmas Day.
Jerry: Don’t people give gifts to each other like they do in the U.S. and Europe?
Fei: Many parents do give gifts to their kids. But more important, boyfriends give wonderful, special, romantic gifts to their girlfriends!
Jerry: I see. How about the New Year in China? Is it a bigger holiday than Christmas?
Fei: Not really. The Spring Festival is much more important to us here in China.
Jerry: The Spring Festival is known around the world as “Chinese New Year”. It’s the beginning of the year according to the traditional lunar calendar, isn’t it?
Fei: That’s right. The Spring Festival is the biggest family holiday in China, so we don't celebrate the western New Year. How about in New York? Do people celebrate New Year’s Eve more or New Year’s Day?
Jerry: Single people, or couples without children, often go out late on New Year’s Eve. They drink and party after the clock strikes midnight. There are big parties all over, but the biggest is in Times Square in Manhattan.
Fei: I guess they won’t have much energy left over to do anything on New Year’s Day, then.
Jerry: Right. But there are families who don’t do anything special on New Year’s Eve. Instead, they celebrate with their families on New Year’s Day.
Grandpa: I love parades. The Thanksgiving Day parade is always such a great fun. (Pointing to the TV screen.) Look at that Superman balloon just floating along high above Central Park West. Don’t you just love it? Oh, and the bands and the music... I love this music. Look at the decorations, Robbie. Look at those funny-looking clowns.
Robbie: It’s for kids.
Grandpa: Maybe so, but parades always make me feel like a kid. Remember when you and your dad and I went to the Thanksgiving Day parade? You were four or five years old, I think.
2. Read the text, putting the verbs in the proper tense form.
The Pilgrims (to be) a group of English settlers who (to come) to Massachusetts in 1620. They (to come) to America because they (to want) religious freedom. They (to arrive) at Plymouth, Massachusetts, on a ship called the Mayflower. Their first winter (to be) difficult, and many of the Pilgrims (to die). But the following year, the corn harvest (to be) good, and there (to be) a celebration for three days. That (to be) the first Thanksgiving.
It (to fall) on the fourth of November. This (to be) a day which (to honour) the memory of the first settlers who (to come) to America. It (to be) also associated with the end of the harvest season.
Each Thanksgiving, Macy’s department store (to organize) a parade in New York City. In the parade there (to be) large floats, balloons of popular cartoon characters, famous television stars, and bands from all over the United States. The Thanksgiving Day Parade (to begin) on Central Park West, a street on the west side of Manhattan. Each year, more than 55 million people (to watch) this parade on television. Many other large American cities also (to have) Thanksgiving Day parades. Macy’s (to start) this tradition in 1924.
3. Work in pairs. Make up the dialogues on the following situations:
a) you were lucky to see Thanksgiving Day parade during your stay in the USA. Your friend is interested in the details and asks you questions. Use the materials of the previous exercises.
b) you are an American student on your visit to some Ukrainian university. Your Ukrainian friends ask questions about the celebrations in the USA.
4. Guess what holidays (American, Ukrainian and British) are described in the following sentences. The answers are given below.
1. It is celebrated in the USA on the first on the first Monday in September. On this day workers make a public show with marches, meetings. It also marks the beginning of the school year.
2. This ceremony is held on the Sovereign’s official birthday in June. This is the most colourful of all London’s annual events with the Queen riding side-saddled on a highly trained horse. Specially noted should be the precision drill of the participating regiments.
3. This is a religious holiday on January 19, which completes the winter festivities cycle. The Eve of this holiday is called “Hungry Kutya”. The principal ceremony consists of solemn outdoor blessing of water.
4. The first (week)day after Christmas observed as a holiday in Britain. It comes from the tradition to give Christmas boxes to tradesmen and stuff on this day.
5. On this day, willow branches are blessed in church. People tap each other with the branches, repeating a wish: “Be as tall as the willow, as healthy as the water, as rich as the earth”.
6. The day (in 1776) when 13 colonies became the first 13 states of the country which has the flag with stripes of red and white.
7. The holiday has grown increasingly popular through the centuries. Although this day has become quite commercial, it still contains its important aspect: time spent thinking of and being with the one you love.
(Epiphany, Trooping the Colour, Labour Day, Valentine’s Day, Independence Day, Willow Sunday, Boxing Day)
1. Read the text and do the tasks given after it.
Halloween: Holiday of the Dead
Where does Halloween originate? When you think of the holiday, what images come to mind? Do you think of pumpkins carved into jack-o-lanterns? Do you picture costumed kids running from house to house yelling, “Trick or treat?” How about horror movies with a too-shaggy wolf man howling at the full moon, or a lumbering Frankenstein reaching for his next victim? Maybe ghosts and witches who haunt the night, and hunt for the unwary to take home to their lairs pops into your head?
These images represent stereotyped aspects of Halloween. There, during the weeks leading up to the holiday, pumpkins get carved into jack-o-lanterns, and kids agonize over the perfect costume that will bag the most goodies. Shopping malls do a booming trade with haunted houses as well. And as for the wolf man, Frankenstein, and all the other ghosts, witches, mummies, and vampires, Hollywood has played a large role in popularizing this fare with appearance of ‘Friday the 13th’, ‘Halloween’, and ‘Nightmare on Elm Street’.
On the day itself, children roam the neighborhoods in groups, go from door to door, and accumulate enough sweets to last until the Christmas candy canes and cookies! Teenagers egg homes, string rolls of toilet paper in trees, and play other nasty, albeit mostly harmless, tricks. Adults find their own fun at costume parties at bars and clubs.
Regardless of these associations, it’s a far older holiday than pop culture suggests. Although the word comes from “All Hallow’s Eve” in medieval England, the actual origins of Halloween lie thousands of years ago in Pagan Europe. There exists conflicting specifics on the ancient traditions of the holiday. Yet all agree that it began with a connection to the dead, and hence do the modern connotations originate. Halloween came at what was considered the end of summer and the harvest season, when snows and cold weather would shortly arrive. The land died, at least until spring, and with it there was the idea that the dead returned, too. Although some of the ghosts were relatives who had passed away within the year, others who roamed the land were far more malicious.
The people of ancient Europe believed it was the Lord of the Dead who called forth the evil spirits. As a form of protection, priests lit great bonfires to drive away the evil. Villagers gathered around the bonfires, burned crops and animals as sacrifices, and sometimes dressed in costumes of animal skins. Later everyone returned home with fire from the sacred bonfire, and relit the hearths of their homes. This afforded protection to the home and its inhabitants during the course of the next year, especially important during the bleak winter months.
a)Answer the following questions.
1. What are some of the stereotyped images mentioned in the article?
2. What do kids do in the weeks before the holiday?
3. What does the article mention about movies and Halloween?
4. According to the text, what do teenagers typically do on Halloween?
5. Where and when does the word “Halloween” originate?
6. Where and when does the holiday originate?
7. Who or what roamed the land on Halloween? Why?
8. Why did the priests light great bonfires on Halloween?
9. What did the ancient villagers do at the bonfires lit by the priests?
10. What did the ancient villagers later do with the bonfire?
b)Finish the sentences without using the words from the text.
Ø On the day itself, children roam the neighborhoods in groups, go from door to door ____________ .
Ø Although the word comes from “All Hallow’s Eve” in medieval England ____________ .
Ø Halloween came at what was considered the end of ____________ .
c)Talk about the following questions in pairs / groups. Remember to support your answers!
1. Do you believe in ghosts? How about other monsters, like vampires or mummies? Why / not?
2. Do you know anyone who has seen, or think he / she has seen, a ghost? If yes, please explain.
3. What would you do if you saw a ghost?
4. How much do you think TV and movies affect your opinions and beliefs? Please explain.
5. What are some of your favorite ghost and / or horror movies from Hollywood? Why do you like them?
d) Google Search: Type ‘ghosts’ into Google. Look at the websites, and read additional articles on this topic. Discuss or write an essay about your findings.
Topics for discussion and essays.
The holidays which are celebrated in different countries are basically the same.
Many women don’t actually like women’s holidays because they mean more work for them.
The knowledge of foreign country’s holidays helps to learn its language.
The difference and similarity between religious and national holidays.
Why is it important to pay honor to national victories?
Christmas all over the world – traditions, meals, peculiarities.
In your opinion, what are the five most essential items to pack on any holiday?
Compare package tours with do-it-yourself tours.
What holidays have disappeared in your country?
Do you ever feel blue during the holidays? What do you do about it?