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Anton van Leeuwenhoek, is considered to be the one of the first to observe microorganisms using a microscope. In 1676, he (to observe) bacteria and other microorganisms, using a single-lens microscope of his own design.

In 1796, using an ancient Chinese technique for smallpox vaccination, Edward Jenner (to develop) a method using cowpox to successfully immunize a child against smallpox. The same principles (to use) for developing vaccines today.

Following on from this, in 1857 Louis Pasteur also (to design) vaccines against several diseases such as anthrax, fowl cholera and rabies as well as pasteurization for food preservation.

1867 Joseph Lister is considered to be the father of antiseptic surgery. By sterilizing the instruments with diluted carbolic acid and using it to clean wounds, post-operative infections (to reduce) making surgery safer for patients.

In the years between 1876-1884 Robert Koch provided much insight into infectious disease. He (to be) one of the first scientists to focus on the isolation of bacteria in pure culture. This (to give) rise to germ theory, a certain microorganism being responsible for a certain disease. He (to develop) a series of criteria around this that have become known as the Koch's postulates.

A major milestone in medical microbiology is the Gram stain. In 1884 Hans Christian Gram developed the method of staining bacteria, to make them more visible and differentiable under a microscope. This technique (to use) widely today.

In 1929 Alexander Fleming developed the most commonly used antibiotic substance both at the time and now: penicillin.


Exercise 16. Answer the questions:


1. What organisms does microbiology study?

2. What is microbiology concerned with?

3. What sub-disciplines does microbiology encompass?

4. How can the branches modern microbiology be classified?

5. What are the main three ways of the development of modern microbiology?

6. What does medical microbiology study?

7. What science is medical microbiology related to: pure or applied?

8. What specialist may perform the identification of pathogens and suggest treatment options?

9. What device may be used to examine microbiological cultures?

10. Who was the first to observe bacteria and other microorganisms, using a single-lens microscope of his own design in 1676?


Exercise 17. Give as much information as you can on the following items:


1. Microbiology

2. Modern microbiology

3. Modern microbiology

4. A medical microbiologist

5. History of Medical Microbiology

Exercise 18. Explain the terms:


Ø Microbiology

Ø microbiologist



1. … is the scientific study of microscopic organisms, either unicellular, multicellular or acellular.



A. Microbiology

B. Biology

C. Physiology

D. Biochemistry

E. Pathology



2. Microbiology … with the structure, function, and classification of these organisms.


A. concerned

B. is concerned

C. concerns

D. concern

E. to concern



3. Microbiology and … foundations were established in the later 19th century, with the work of Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch.



A. it’s

B. it is

C. his

D. its

E. it



4. … addition, means of channeling the activities of various microorganisms to benefit medicine, industry, and agriculture have been discovered.


A. on

B. with

C. under

D. from

E. in



5. Both general microbiology and its specialized branches are developing … vigorously.



A. generally

B. extremely

C. commonly

D. finally

E. usually


6. Second, the practical usefulness of microorganisms has increased sharply since …

A. the 1940’

B. the 1940’s

C. 1940’s

D. the 1940s.

E. 1940


7. There are … kinds of microorganisms that cause infectious disease.




C. four




8. A microbiologist examines cultures … a stereoscope.


A. on

B. from

C. through

D. before

E. under


9…. is considered to be the one of the first to observe microorganisms using a microscope.



A. Joseph Lister

B. Hans Christian Gram

C. Anton van Leeuwenhoek

D. Alexander Fleming

E. Robert Koch


10. In… Alexander Fleming developed the most commonly used antibiotic substance both at the time and now: penicillin.



A. 1929

B. 1928

C. 1927

D. 1926

E. 1925





The international corporation or global company has its origin. Usually it is thr outgrown of the great trading companies of the 17th and 18th centuries. In 1811 a New York statute said corporations could be created by the filing of documents. After that it became a matter of bureaucratic operations to become a corporation. By 1850 it was a very common thing in the United States and was under general statute in European countries as well. Since-that time the corporate movement began. As the jet plane, satellite communications and computers began, it became possible for a company to control business in all the world.

The growth of international corporates operations is faster than the economic growth of the industrialized nations. There are some projects which predict that within a generation almost a half of the free words production will be internationalized.

This trend for internationalism presupposes some benefits such as new jobs, higher living standards and the closing of the gaps between people - economic, educational and technological. At the same serious questions can be asked. Is it the most efficient way to use world researches? Can the international corporation be the best force for a better world? Is it politically stronger than government? Can it take care of the self interest and competitiveness on behalf of the greatest good? And in what way |can the global company work toward easing the worlds crises - monetary, political, energy and food?




Comprehension Questions


1. What is the origin of the multinational company?

2. When did the corporate movement begin?

3. Why did it become possible for a company to control enterprises on the other side of the globe?

4. How quickly is internationalism growing?

5. What can internationalism bring?

6. What problems can arise with internationalism?

7. What are your own answers and explanations to these problems?


Vocabulary Practice


Exercise 1. Choose the necessary word and put it in the sentence.


1. All countries must prepare for possible

energy ... in the future and save fuel. l internationalized

2. If you want to form a corporation today

you must fulfil ... operations. 2 statute

3. When one deals with the currency of

another country, it is necessary to know

the current ... exchange rate. 3 bureaucratic

4. ... is one factor to influence the growth

of international business. 4 monetary

5. Some analysts state that most of the free

worlds production will be ...

internationalized within a generation. 5 crisis

6. In 1985 the ... said that cooperatives could be created. 6 satellite communication

7 International corporation is very often

an ... of old trading companies. 7 outgrowth



Date: 2014-12-28; view: 1047

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