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History of Medical Microbiology

 

Anton van Leeuwenhoek, is considered to be the one of the first to observe microorganisms using a microscope. In 1676, he (to observe) bacteria and other microorganisms, using a single-lens microscope of his own design.

In 1796, using an ancient Chinese technique for smallpox vaccination, Edward Jenner (to develop) a method using cowpox to successfully immunize a child against smallpox. The same principles (to use) for developing vaccines today.

Following on from this, in 1857 Louis Pasteur also (to design) vaccines against several diseases such as anthrax, fowl cholera and rabies as well as pasteurization for food preservation.

1867 Joseph Lister is considered to be the father of antiseptic surgery. By sterilizing the instruments with diluted carbolic acid and using it to clean wounds, post-operative infections (to reduce) making surgery safer for patients.

In the years between 1876-1884 Robert Koch provided much insight into infectious disease. He (to be) one of the first scientists to focus on the isolation of bacteria in pure culture. This (to give) rise to germ theory, a certain microorganism being responsible for a certain disease. He (to develop) a series of criteria around this that have become known as the Koch's postulates.

A major milestone in medical microbiology is the Gram stain. In 1884 Hans Christian Gram developed the method of staining bacteria, to make them more visible and differentiable under a microscope. This technique (to use) widely today.

In 1929 Alexander Fleming developed the most commonly used antibiotic substance both at the time and now: penicillin.

 

Exercise 16. Answer the questions:

 

1. What organisms does microbiology study?

2. What is microbiology concerned with?

3. What sub-disciplines does microbiology encompass?

4. How can the branches modern microbiology be classified?

5. What are the main three ways of the development of modern microbiology?

6. What does medical microbiology study?

7. What science is medical microbiology related to: pure or applied?

8. What specialist may perform the identification of pathogens and suggest treatment options?

9. What device may be used to examine microbiological cultures?

10. Who was the first to observe bacteria and other microorganisms, using a single-lens microscope of his own design in 1676?

 

Exercise 17. Give as much information as you can on the following items:

 

1. Microbiology

2. Modern microbiology

3. Modern microbiology

4. A medical microbiologist

5. History of Medical Microbiology

Exercise 18. Explain the terms:

 

Ø Microbiology

Ø microbiologist

 

Test:

1. … is the scientific study of microscopic organisms, either unicellular, multicellular or acellular.

 

 

A. Microbiology

B. Biology

C. Physiology

D. Biochemistry

E. Pathology

 

 

2. Microbiology … with the structure, function, and classification of these organisms.



 

A. concerned

B. is concerned

C. concerns

D. concern

E. to concern

 

 

3. Microbiology and … foundations were established in the later 19th century, with the work of Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch.

 

 

A. it’s

B. it is

C. his

D. its

E. it

 

 

4. … addition, means of channeling the activities of various microorganisms to benefit medicine, industry, and agriculture have been discovered.

 

A. on

B. with

C. under

D. from

E. in

 

 

5. Both general microbiology and its specialized branches are developing … vigorously.

 

 

A. generally

B. extremely

C. commonly

D. finally

E. usually

 

6. Second, the practical usefulness of microorganisms has increased sharply since …

A. the 1940’

B. the 1940’s

C. 1940’s

D. the 1940s.

E. 1940

 

7. There are … kinds of microorganisms that cause infectious disease.

 

A.two

B.three

C. four

D.five

E.six

 

8. A microbiologist examines cultures … a stereoscope.

 

A. on

B. from

C. through

D. before

E. under

 

9…. is considered to be the one of the first to observe microorganisms using a microscope.

 

 

A. Joseph Lister

B. Hans Christian Gram

C. Anton van Leeuwenhoek

D. Alexander Fleming

E. Robert Koch

 

10. In… Alexander Fleming developed the most commonly used antibiotic substance both at the time and now: penicillin.

 

 

A. 1929

B. 1928

C. 1927

D. 1926

E. 1925

 

 


Date: 2014-12-28; view: 947


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