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Money and income

Currency

BrE: note or banknote; AmE: bill

BrE: social security; AmE: welfare BrE: flat; AmE: apartment

The money used in a country - euros, dollars, yen, etc. - is its currency. Money in notes (banknotes) and coins is called cash. Most money, however, consists of bank deposits: money that people and organizations have in bank accounts. Most of this is on paper - existing in theory only - and only about ten per cent of it exists in the form of cash in the bank.

Personal finance

All the money a person receives or earns as payment is his or her income. This can include:

■ a salary: money paid monthly by an employer, or wages: money paid by the day or the hour, usually received weekly

■ overtime: money received for working extra hours

■ commission: money paid to salespeople and agents - a certain percentage of the income the employee generates

■ a bonus: extra money given for meeting a target or for good financial results

■ fees: money paid to professional people such as lawyers and architects

■ social security: money paid by the government to unemployed and sick people

■ a pension: money paid by a company or the government to a retired person.

Salaries and wages are often paid after deductions such as social security charges and pension contributions.

Amounts of money that people have to spend regularly are outgoings. These often include:

■ living expenses: money spent on everyday needs such as food, clothes and public transport

■ bills: requests for the payment of money owed for services such as electricity, gas and telephone connections

■ rent: the money paid for the use of a house or flat

■ a mortgage: repayments of money borrowed to buy a house or flat

■ health insurance: financial protection against medical expenses for sickness or accidental injuries

■ tax: money paid to finance government spending.

A financial plan, showing how much money a person or organization expects to earn and spend is called a budget.

Planned monthly budget for next year ()
 
Income   Outgoings  
Salary (after deductions) 3,250 Rent
Commission (average) Bills
    Living expenses 1,200
    Health insurance
    Tax
Total 3,850 Total 3,280
 

1 1 Complete the sentences with words from the box. Look at A and B opposite to help you.

commission bonus currency earn mortgage tax
overtime pension rent salary social security  

After I lost my job, I was living on............................................................................. for three months. This was difficult,

because the amount was much lower than the....... ................................................................................. I had before.



I used to work as a salesperson, but 1 wasn't very successful, so 1 didn't much..

If the company makes 10% more than last year, we'll all get a............................................................................... at the end of

the year.

It'll take me at least 25 years to repay the.............................................................................. on my house.

Many European countries now have the same................................................................................. , the euro.

My wages aren't very good, so I do a lot of

Nearly 40% of everything I earn goes to the government as

The owner has just increased the.............................................................................. on our flat by 15%.

9 r a When I retire, my.............................. will be 60% of my final salary.

1.2 Are the following statements true or false? Find reasons for your answers in A and B opposite.

1 Bank deposits are not classified as money.

2 People earning wages get paid more often than people earning a salary.

3 People working on commission always get paid the same amount.

4 When you stop working at the end of your career, you receive a pension.

5 Most people pay a rent and a mortgage.

Ov&r +0 lApU

Do you know what the average income is in your country, and in your job, or the one you are studying for? How important is salary in your choice of career?


Date: 2015-02-28; view: 2168


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