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Unit 12: Hetmanate

This theme is dealt with in a lot of historical sources. The following citation is to illustrate this:

 

“In the coup, the Rada was replaced by a conservative government of Hetman Pavlo Skoropadsky, the Hetmanate, and the Ukrainian People's Republic by a "Ukrainian State" (Ukrayins’ka derzhava). Skoropadsky, a former officer of the Russian Empire, established a regime favoring large landowners and concentrating power at the top, although it was merely a puppet of Germany. The government had little support from Ukrainian activists, but unlike the socialist Rada, it was able to establish an effective administrative organization, established diplomatic ties with many countries, and concluded a peace treaty with Soviet Russia. In a few months, the Hetmanate also printed millions of Ukrainian language textbooks, established many Ukrainian schools, two universities, and the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences.

The Hetmanate government also supported the confiscation of previously-nationalized peasant lands by wealthy estate owners, often with the help of German troops. This led to unrest, the rise of a peasant partisan (guerrilla) movement, and a series of large-scale popular armed revolts. Negotiations were held to garner support from previous Rada members Petliura and Vynnychenko, but these activists worked to overthrow Skoropadsky. On July 30, a Russian Left Socialist-Revolutionary Boris Mikhailovich Donskoy with help of the local USRP succeeded in the terrorist act against von Eichhorn, blowing him up in the downtown Kiev at a broadlight.

Due to the impending loss of World War I by Germany and Austria-Hungary, Skoropadsky's sponsors, the Hetman formed a new cabinet of Russian Monarchists and committed to federation with a possible future non-Bolshevik Russia. In response, the Ukrainian socialists announced a new revolutionary government, the Directorate, on November 14, 1918. …”

The complete version of this text is at:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukrainian_People%27s_Republic

 

 

Assignments

 

1) Give Ukrainian equivalents to the following:

Former officer, puppet, landowners, diplomatic ties, peasant, troops, broadlight,

2) Give definitions to the following:

Regime, treaty, confiscation, peasant lands, terrorist act, federation, revolution

3) Answer the questions on the text:

1. What kind of government did Skoropadsky create?

2. The Ukrainian People’s Republic was renamed as “Ukrainian State”, wasn’t it?

3. Who was the government supported by?

4. How did the terrorist act against von Eichhorn end?

5. Why did Skoropadsky receive German troops into Ukrainian lands?

4) Speak on this issue adding extra information from other sources.

 

5) What do you know about this meeting?

Unit 13: Directorate

This theme is dealt with in a lot of historical sources. The following citation is to illustrate this:

 

“The Directorate gained massive popularity, and the support of some of Skoropadsky's military units including the Serdiuk Division. Their insurgent army encircled Kiev on November 21. After a three week long stalemate Skoropadsky abdicated in favor of the Council of Ministers who surrendered to the Revolutionary forces. On December 19, 1918, the Directorate took control of Kiev.



The Bolsheviks invaded Ukraine from Kursk in late December 1918 where the new Ukrainian Soviet government was reestablished earlier in November of the same year. On January 16, 1919 Ukraine officially declared a war on Russia while the Russian Soviet government continued to deny all claims of invasion. On January 22, 1919, the Directorate was officially united with the West Ukrainian People's Republic, although the latter entity de facto maintained its own army and government. In February 1919, the Bolsheviks captured Kiev.

Throughout 1919, Ukraine experienced chaos as the armies of the Ukrainian Republic, the Bolsheviks, the Whites, the foreign powers of the Entente, and Poland, as well as anarchist bands such as that of Nestor Makhno tried to prevail. The subsequent Kiev Offensive, staged by the Polish army and allied Ukrainian forces, was unable to change the situation, and in March 1921, the Peace of Riga sealed a shared control of the territory by Poland, the Russian SFSR, and the Ukrainian RSR.

As the result, the lands of Galicia (Halychyna), the western part of the traditional territory of Ukraine, as well as a large part of the Volhynian territory were incorporated into Poland, while the larger central parts of traditional Ukrainian territory, as well as eastern and southern areas became part of Soviet Ukraine.

After its military and political defeat, the Directorate continued to maintain control over some of its military forces. Preempting a planned invasion by its rival Archduke Wilhelm of Austria,[3] in October 1921 the Ukrainian National Republic's government-in-exile launched a series of guerrilla raids into central Ukraine that reached as far east as Kiev Oblast. On November 4, the Directorate's guerrillas captured Korosten and seized much military supplies. But on November 17, 1921, this force was surrounded by Bolshevik cavalry and destroyed. …”

The complete version of this text is at:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukrainian_People%27s_Republic

Assignments

 

 

1) Give Ukrainian equivalents to the following:

Popularity, stalemate, re-established, to deny, invasion, to experience, band, subsequent, to incorporate, rival, to defeat

2) Give definitions to the following:

Bolsheviks, claim, de facto, political defeat, guerrilla, guerrilla raid

3) Answer the questions on the text:

1. Where did the Bolsheviks invade Ukraine from?

2. When were both Ukrainian Republics officially united?

3. Who headed the Ukrainian anarchist band ?

4. Why were Galicia and Volhyn incorporated into Poland?

5. Who launched a series of guerrilla raids into central Ukraine?

4) Speak on this issue adding extra information from other sources.

 

5) Can you say something about these persons?


Date: 2015-02-28; view: 965


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